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INSTITUTE  OF  PACIFIC  RELATIONS 


HEARINGS 

BEFORE  THE 

SUBCOMMITTEE  TO  INVESTIGATE  THE  ADMINISTEATION 

OF  THE  INTEENAL  SECUKITY  ACT  AND  OTHER 

INTEENAL  SECURITY  LAWS 

OF  THE 

COMMITTEE  ON  THE  JUDICIAEY 
UNITED  STATES  SENATE 

EIGHTY-SECOND  CONGRESS 

SECOND  SESSION 

ON 

THE  INSTITUTE  OF  PACIFIC  RELATIONS 


PART  14 


MAY  2  AND  JUNE  20,  1952 


Printed  for  the  use  of  the  Committee  on  the  Judiciary 


i,. 


INSTITUTE  OF  PACIFIC  RELATIONS 


HEARINGS 

BEFORE  THE 

SUBCOMMITTEE  TO  INYESTICiATE  THE  ADMINISTRATION 

OF  THE  INTERNAL  SECURITY  ACT  AND  OTHER 

INTERNAL  SECURITY  LAWS 

OF  THE 

COMMITTEE  ON  THE  JUDICIARY 

UNITED  STATES  SENATE 

EIGHTY-SECOND  CONGEESS 

SECOND  SESSION 

ON 

THE  INSTITUTE  OF  PACIFIC  RELATIONS 


PART  14 


MAY  2,  JUNE  20,  1952 


Printed  for  the  use  of  the  Committee  on  the  Judiciary 


UNITED   STATES 
GOVERNMENT  PRINTING  OFFICE 
88343  WASHINGTON  :   1952 


COMMITTEE  ON  THE  JUDICIARY 

PAT  McCARRAN,  Nevada,  Chairman 

HARLEY  M.  KILGORE,  West  Virginia  ALEXANDER  WILEY,  Wisconsin 

JAMES  O.  EASTLAND,  Mississippi  WILLIAM  LANGBR,  North  Dakota 

WARREN  G.  MAGNUSON.  Washington  HOMER  FERGUSON,  Michigan 

HERBERT  R.  O'CONOR,  Maryland  WILLIAM  E.  JENNER,  Indiana 

ESTES  KEPAUVER,  Tennessee  ARTHUR  V.  WATKINS,  Utah 

WILLIS  SMITH,  North  Carolina  ROBERT  C.  HENDRICKSON,  New  Jersey 

J.  G.  SoDKWiNE,  Counsel 


Internal  Secturity  Subcommittee 

PAT  McCARRAN,  Nevada,  Chairman 

JAMES  O.  EASTLAND,  Mississippi  HOMER  FERGUSON,  Michigan 

HERBERT  R.  O'CONOR,  Maryland  WILLIAM  E.  JENNER,  Indiana 

WILLIS  SMITH,  North  Carolina  ARTHUR  V.  WATKINS,  Utah 


Subcommittee  Investigating  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations 

JAMES  O.  EASTLAND,  Mississippi,  Chairman 
PAT  McCARRAN,  Nevada  HOMER  FERGUSON,  Michigan 

Robert  Morkis,  Special  Counsel 
Benjamin  Mandel,  Director  of  Research 

II 


INSTITUTE  OF  PACIFIC  KELATIONS 


FRIDAY,   MAY   2,   1952 

United  States  Senate, 
Subcommittee  To  Investigate  the  Administration 

OF  THE  Internal  Security  Act  and  Other  Internal 
Security  Laws,  of  the  Committee  on  the  Judiciary, 

New  York,  N.  Y. 

The  subcommitte  met,  pursuant  to  call,  at  10  a.  m.,  Hon  Pat  Mc- 
Carran,  chairman,  presiding. 

Present :  Senator  McCarran. 

Also  present :  J.  G.  Sourwine,  committee  counsel ;  Robert  Morris, 
subcommittee  counsel;  and  Benjamin  Mandel,  director  of  research. 

The  Chairman.  The  committee  will  come  to  order. 

Mr.  Morris.  Both  Mr.  Carter  and  Mr.  Holland  have  been  sworn 
previously. 

The  Chairman.  Very  well ;  they  have  been  sworn. 

Mr.  Morris.  Mr.  Chairman,  yesterday  afternoon  I  spent  some  time 
with  Mr.  Lockwood  presenting  to  him  copies  of  letters  written  to 
him  and  written  by  him.  He  was  able  to  spend  the  afternoon  on  this, 
and  he  did  make  a  statement  authenticating  the  documents. 

Mr.  Mandel,  will  you  identify  these  for  the  record,  please? 

Mr.  Sourwine.  Do  you  have  a  list  of  those  documents  ? 

Mr.  Mandel.  I  have  a  list  which  was  drawn  up  under  my  direction. 

Mr.  Sourwine.  Is  that  a  true  list  of  that  batch  of  documents  ? 

Mr.  Mandel.  It  is. 

Mr.  Sourwine.  Can  you  offer  that  list  for  the  record  ? 

Mr.  Mandel.  I  can. 

Mr.  Morris.  Mr.  Mandel,  in  connection  with  this  list,  did  you  notice 
there  have  been  two  amendments  since  it  was  originally  compiled  ? 

Mr.  Mandel.  The  list  is  authentic  with  the  exclusion  of  those. 

Mr.  Morris.  Those  amendments  are  two  letters,  one  a  letter  from 
W.  W.  Lockwood  to  Col.  William  Mayer  dated  December  26,  1942, 
which  is  file  No.  131B.  The  other  is  a  letter  to  Philo  W.  Parker  and 
others  from  William  W.  Lockwood  dated  December  2,  1942,  No. 
131B.2.    They  were  both  added  by  Mr.  Lockwood  yesterday. 

The  Chairman.  The  witness  identifies  everything  except  those  two? 

Mr.  Morris.  No,  they  have  been  added  to  Mr.  Mandel's  list. 

The  Chairman.  Does  he  identify  those  ? 

Mr.  JNIoRRis.  Yes.    I  am  going  to  introduce  his  statement  on  that. 

The  Chairman.  He  identifies  them  as  what? 

Mr.  Morris.  JSIr.  Mandel  will  testify  that  all  of  the  documents  on 
this  list  as  amended  were  taken  from  the  files  of  the  Institute  of  Pa- 
cific Relations.    It  that  risht,  Mr.  Mandel ? 


Mr.  Mandel.  Yes,  sir. 


4907 


4908  INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 

The  Chairman,  Is  that  true? 
Mr.  Mandel.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Morris.  Yesterday  Mr.  Lockwood  stated  that  he  could  not  be 
liere  today,  and  he  gave  a  sworn  statement  to  me  which  reads : 

State  of  New  York, 

County  of  New  York,  sa  : 

I  have  examined  the  documents  described  in  the  list  attached  hereto  as 
exhibit  A.  While  many  of  the  documents  so  described  are  documents  of  which 
I  have  no  present  recollection,  I  am  satisfied  that  all  of  the  documents  listed  in 
exhibit  A  are  letters  or  memoranda  or  copies  of  letters  or  memoranda  sent  by  me 
or  received  by  me. 

^  ,  [s]     William  A.  Lockwood. 

Dated  :  May  1,  1952. 
Present : 

[s]     Robert  Morris 
Robert  Morris 
[s]     Stuart  Marks 
•Stuart  Marks 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Were  you  there,  and  that  was  your  client's  list? 

Mr.  Marks.  Yes ;  that  is  true. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  May  the  list  and  the  affidavit  together  with  the 
documents  which  are  named  in  that  list  ba  offered  for  the  rex^ord  at 
this  time  ? 

Tlie  Chairman.  They  may  be  inserted  in  the  record  at  this  time. 

(The  documents  referred  to  were  marked  "Exhibits  Nos.  765  to  771, 
inclusive;  773  to  782,  inclusive,  and  784  to  799  C"  and  a])i:.ear  on 
pp.  4958  through  4983.) 

The  Chairman.  Who  is  this  gentleman  ? 

Mr.  Morris.  This  is  Mr.  Marks  of  Davis,  Polk,  Wardwell,  Sunder- 
land &  Kiendl.    He  is  counsel  for  Mr.  Holland  and  Mr.  Carter. 

May  the  documents  be  numbered  consecutively  ? 

The  Chairman.  They  may  be  numbered  consecutively  in  order  of 
previous  exhibits. 

Mr.  Morris.  When  Mr.  Lockwood  appeared.  Senator,  he  author- 
ized me  to  make  the  statement  that  the  list  is  accurate. 

The  Chairman.  Very  well. 

Mr.  Morris.  Mr.  Mandel,  I  offer  you  a  group  of  documents  together 
with  a  list  appended  thereto.  Will  you  tell  us  wliat  are  those  docu- 
ments and  what  is  that  list? 

Mr.  ]\Iandel.  The  documents  I  hold  are  taken  from  the  files  of  the 
Institute  of  Pacific  Relations  or  submitted  by  officers  of  the  Institute 
of  Pacific  Relations,  of  wdiich  documents  I  made  an  itemized  list. 

Mr.  SouRAviNE.  The  list  is  that  list  you  made  ? 

Mr.  Mandel.  The  list  is  the  list  I  hold  in  my  hand. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Is  that  a  true  and  correct  list  of  the  documents 
that  you  have  in  that  batch  ? 

Mr.  Mandel.  It  is. 

The  Chairman.  The  list  is  one  thing.  The  documents  are  another. 
The  list  was  made  by  you  ? 

Mr.  Mandel.  The  list  was  made  under  my  direction  from  the 
documents. 

The  Chairman.  All  right.  Are  you  offering  the  list,  so-called,  or 
are  you  offering  the  documents  ?  I  take  it  that  you  are  offering  the 
documents. 

Mr.  Morris.  We  are  going  to  offer  the  documents. 

Mr.  Souravine.  The  list  is  in  fact  an  inventory  of  those  documents. 

Mr.  Mandel.  That  is  correct. 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFICi  RELATIONS  4909 

Mr.  Sot  RwiNE.  Mr.  Chairman,  we  are  proffering  the  list  also  as 
evidence  of  what  this  batch  of  documents  contains. 

The  Chairman.  That  is  all  right.  That  is  merely  a  list  that  was 
made  by  Mr,  Mandel  or  under  his  direction,  but  the  documents  are 
taken  from  the  files  of  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations? 

Mr.  Morris.  Are  all  of  those  documents  taken  from  the  files  of  the 
Institute  of  Pacific  Relations  ? 

Mr.  Mandel.  All  except  one,  which  was  prepared  by  Mr.  Holland 
at  our  request. 

Mr.  Morris.  What  is  that? 

Mr.  Mandel.  That  is  a  list  of  the  staff  members  of  the  Institute  of 
Pacific  Relations. 

The  Chairman.  As  of  what  date  ? 

Mr.  Mandel.  Various  dates.     There  is  one  list  from  1936  to  1943. 

Mr.  Morris.  Mr.  Chairman,  may  we  not  consider  this  at  this  time  ? 
That  does  not  belong  in  there. 

The  Chairman.  I  think  that  is  correct.  I  think  that  is  the  best 
way  to  handle  that. 

Mr.  Mandel.  The  others  are  all  documents  from  the  files  of  the 
Institute  of  Pacific  Relations. 

TESTIMONY  OF  WILLIAM  L.  HOLLAND,  NEW  YORK,  N.  Y.,  AND 
EDWARD  C.  CARTER,  NEW  YORK,  N.  Y.,  ACCOMPANIED  BY 
STUART  MARKS,  ATTORNEY  AT  LAW 

Mr.  Morris.  Mr.  Holland,  have  you  had  an  opportunity  to  look  at 
the  documents  that  we  have  now  offered  for  the  record? 

Mr.  Holland.  Yes,  I  have  been  through  that  whole  list. 

Mr.  Morris.  Have  you  in  connection  with  that  group  of  documents 
looked  at  the  list  that  has  been  compiled  by  Mr.  Mandel  ? 

Mr.  Holland.  Yes.  The  list  seems  to  be  complete  with  the  excep- 
tion of  the  document  you  have  just  removed.  I  found  corresponding 
documents  to  each  item  in  the  list.  I  am  prepared  to  identity  all  of 
the  documents  with  the  exceptions  which  I  will  name  in  a  moment 
as  letters  or  memoranda  written  by  me  or  received  by  me  in  the 
course  of  my  work  with  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations. 

Mr.  Morris.  What  are  the  exceptions  ? 

Mr.  Holland.  Three  exceptions  that  I  wish  to  note  are:  One,  a 
letter  which  appears  to  be  from  me  to  a  man  called  Harondar,  an 
official  of  the  Soviet  council.  He  was  an  official  of  the  Soviet  council 
of  the  IPR. 

Mr.  Morris.  ^Vhere  does  that  appear  on  the  list? 

Mr.  Holl.\nd.  That  is  item  No.  4,  I  believe,  and  the  point  is  that 
it  only  appears  to  be  the  last  page  of  a  letter  and  a  copy.  It  is  un- 
signed and  is  not  a  carbon.  While  it  seems  to  me  like  a  perfectly 
normal  letter,  I  have  no  means  of  identifying  what  the  beginning  of 
the  letter  was  nor  do  I  happen  to  remember  writing  this  particular 
paragraph. 

Mr.  Morris.  Mr.  Chairman,  apparently  by  mistake  we  have  only 
the  second  page  of  this  letter,  and  I  move  that  this  be  stricken  from 
the  list. 

The  Chairman.  Just  do  not  offer  it. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  I  believe  since  this  is  on  the  list  and  since  Mr. 
Holland  has  testified  about  it,  it  should  not  be  stricken  from  the  list. 


4910  INSTITUTE   QF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 

As  the  chairman  suggested,  it  should  be  exchided  from  the  offer. 

The  Chairman.  Just  remove  it  from  the  offer  at  this  time.  You 
may  be  able  to  identify  it  at  a  later  time. 

Mr.  Holland.  The  second  exception,  which  is  I  think  about  item 
No.  15,  your  exhibit  No.  819,  is  an  unsigned  memorandum  with  the 
initials  "W.  L.  H.  and  K.  M.  from  E.  C.  C,"  giving  background  infor- 
mation on  the  Muslim  League  in  India.  This,  too,  is  a  letter  which 
I  have  no  recollection  of  and  is  unsigned.  It  appears  to  me  to  be  a 
perfectly  normal  kind  of  memorandum  and  one  which  I  might  well 
have  seen,  but  it  just  so  happens  that  I  cannot  myself  identify  it. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Carter's  initials  are  on  there;  are  they  not? 

Mr.  Morris.  That  is  right. 

The  Chairman.  Does  he  identify  or  recall  it? 

Mr.  Morris.  It  has  now  been  offered  to  Mr.  Carter. 

Mr.  Carter.  It  has  every  external  appearance  of  being  a  photo- 
stat of  an  interoffice  memorandum  of  mine  to  Mr.  Holland  and  Miss 
Mitchell.  I  do  not  remember  it,  but  it  seems  to  be  authentic,  and  I 
do  not  identify  who  the  author  is,  what  the  source  of  the  enclosure  is. 

The  Chairman.  How  do  your  initials  appear  on  it;  from  or  to  you? 

Mr.  Carter.  The  initials  "W.  L.  H.  and  K.  M.  from  E.  C.  C."  My 
signature  is  not  on  it.  There  is  a  mark  here,  "Carter,"  which  is  not 
in  my  handwriting,  but  I  think  it  is  one  of  the  routine  information 
memorandums  and  while  I  do  not  remember  it  specifically,  I  should  see 
no  reason  why  it  should  not  be  used  in  the  record. 

Mr.  Morris.  Mr.  Holland,  you  say  you  have  a  third  exception? 

Mr.  Holland.  I  have  a  third  one.  This  is  I  think  about  five  more 
items  down  the  list,  your  file  No.  823.  This  is  the  one  item  already 
mentioned,  a  free  distribution  list  for  a  memorandum  called  Korean 
Industry  and  Transport  by  A.  J.  G.,  presumably  A.  J.  Grajdanzev. 
I  have  no  recollection  of  this  list,  and  it  would  appear  to  be  some- 
thing prepared  by  someone  on  my  staff,  but  I  do  recall  the  memo- 
randum, and  it  is  perfectly  likely  that  it  was  distributed  in  fact  to 
the  list  indicated  there. 

The  Chairman.  You  make  no  objection  to  its  being  attached? 

Mr.  Holland.  No,  sir.  The  remaining  exception  is  the  fifth  from 
the  last,  your  file  No.  862.  This  is  an  original  letter  from  a  Chinese 
by  the  name  of  Tseng  to  S.  B.  Thomas,  and  I  am  prepared  to  say 
that  this  appears  to  me  to  be  an  authentic  copy  of  a  letter  sent  to  a 
junior  member  of  my  staff  who  had  apparently  requested  some  docu- 
ments from  a  Chinese  book  agency  in  Peking. 

Mr.  Morris.  Mr.  Holland,  you  will  notice  that  there  is  on  the  letter 
from  Mr.  Tseng  a  pencil  notation,  "rewrite  for  Bill  to  sign,"  and  the 
Bill  presumably  is  you. 

Mr.  Holland.  Yes.  The  following  is  a  letter  from  me  which  I 
acknowledge  and  identify. 

Mr.  Morris.  So  even  though  one-half  of  the  correspondence  is 
addressed  to  S.  B.  Thomas,  the  answer  to  that  was  prepared  by  you? 

Mr.  Holland.  That  is  true.  Finally,  Mr.  Chairman,  the  list  which 
you  just  excluded  is  one  which  I  sent  to  the  committee  some  weeks 
ago. 

Mr.  Morris.  Let  me  finish  this  other  thing  first. 

Mr.  Chairman,  in  view  of  Mr.  Mandel's  testimony  and  Mr.  Holland's 
testimony  in  connection  with  these  documents,  may  they  all  be  re- 
ceived in  the  record  ? 


INSTITUTE   OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  4911 

The  Chairman.  They  may  all  be  received  into  the  record. 
(The  documents  referred  to  were  marked  "Exhibit  Nos.  800,  802, 
804  to  866,"  and  appear  on  pp.  4984  through  5031.) 

The  Chairman.  You  are  going  to  have  to  be  very  careful  about 
identifying  these  documents  because  you  are  putting  them  in  in 
clusters,  and  each  one  of  them  should  have  a  serial  nmnber. 

Mr.  Morris.  They  do,  Mr.  Chairman. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  That  is  why  I  am  asking  that  the  list  in  each  case 
go  in.  The  documents  themselves  have  been  physically  examined  in- 
dividually by  the  witnessses  who  are  testifying  with  respect  to  the 
list,  which  is  an  accurate  list  of  the  documents,  and  the  testimony 
of  Mr,  Mandel  and  of  Mr.  Holland,  who  said  he  had  checked  it, 
is  simply  to  save  the  time  of  the  committee  and  to  shorten  this  hear- 
ing. If  the  list  goes  in  and  also  the  documents,  I  believe  we  will  have 
a  clear  record  on  it. 

The  Chairman.  I  understand  the  testimony,  first,  as  to  Mr.  Mandel, 
saying  that  these  are  copies  of  instruments  found  in  the  files  of  the 
Institute  of  Pacific  Relations.  Secondly,  Mr.  Holland  identifies 
each  and  every  one  of  these  as  being  instruments  that  were  in  the 
files  of  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations.    Am  I  correct  in  that? 

Mr.  Holland.  Subject  to  the  qualifications  which  I  have  just  in- 
dicated. 

The  Chairman.  Subject  to  the  qualifications  that  you  made. 

Mr.  Holland.  Finally,  Mr.  Chairman,  just  so  that  there  will  be 
correspondence  between  the  typed  list  and  the  documents,  I  notice  two 
or  three  typographical,  minor  errors.  On  your  file  No.  807  it  should 
read  "to  W.  L.  H.  from  E.  C.  C."  At  present  you  have  it  reversed.  On 
your  file  No.  818  it  should  read  "to  W.  L.  Holland  from  William  T. 
Stone"  and  not  William  T.  Johnstone  as  you  have  it  in  your  list. 

On  your  item  837,  apparently  a  slip  in  the  carbon  copy — it  may  not 
appear  on  the  original — it  should  read  "to  William  L.  Holland  from 
Schuyler  Wallace."    My  copy  has  only  S-c-h-u-y-1. 

Finally  on  item  839,  missing  date  figure,  "to  Scliuyler  Wallace  from 
W.  L.  Holland,"  the  correct  date  should  be  April  12,  1944.  I  think 
it  is  the  carbon  that  reads  March  12,  1944.  Otherwise  that  list  seems 
to  be  correct. 

The  Chairman.  As  to  those  corrections  suggested  by  Mr.  Holland, 
it  might  be  well  for  you  to  make  the  corrections  on  the  files  of  the 
Institute  of  Pacific  Relations.  In  other  words,  evidently  an  error 
has  crept  in  as  to  these  small  items.  That  should  be  corrected.  It  is 
not  an  exception  taken  by  the  witness.  It  is  just  a  suggested  check, 
and  his  suggestion  should  be  followed  up  to  see  that  he  is  correct  and 
the  instrument  corrected  accordingly. 

Mr.  Morris.  Mr.  Chairman,  the  list  describing  the  documents  which 
we  have  been  discussing  will  be  corrected  in  view  of  the  recommenda- 
tions made  by  Mr.  Holland. 

The  Chairman.  All  right. 

Mr.  Morris.  Mr.  Holland,  I  offer  you  four  documents,  and  ask  you 
what  they  are, 

Mr.  Holland.  These  documents  are  lists  of  the  staff  members  of 
both  the  Pacific  Council  and  the  American  Council  of  the  Institute  of 
Pacific  Relations  for  various  periods,  namely,  1936  to  1943;  1937  to 
1943,  1944  to  1951,  and  1944  to  1951. 


4912  INSTITUTE    or    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 

Mr.  Morris.  I  think  I  have  a  fiftli  one,  Mr.  Holland. 

Mr.  HorxAND.  And  a  fifth  entitled  "IPR  Staff  Members,"  sub- 
mitted by  W.  L,  Holland,  date  October  10,  1951.  All  of  these  docu- 
ments, Mr.  Chairman,  were  prepared  under  my  direction  at  the  request 
of  the  subcommittee  some  weeks  ago,  the  latest  date  here  being  October 
10,  1951,  and  to  the  best  of  my  belief  and  according  to  our  personnel 
records,  they  present  the  true  facts  regarding  the  lists  of  employees 
and  dates  of  employment  of  the  persons  who  worked  for  the  Institute 
of  Pacific  Relations,  the  staff  members. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Did  you  have  access  to  your  personnel  records  in 
connection  with  the  preparation  of  those  lists? 

Mr.  H0L1.AND.  I  had  access  to  them.  I  did  not  myself  scrutinize 
every  personnel  card.  The  list  was  prepared  under  my  direction  by 
Miss  Ruth  Carter,  and  I  have  every  reason  to  believe  that  it  is  a  cor- 
rect and  complete  list. 

Mr.  Morris.  Mr,  Chairman,  will  we  insert  this  in  the  running  re- 
cord, or  should  we  put  this  in  the  appendix  ? 

The  Chairman.  Where  do  you  want  it?  What  do  you  offer  them 
for  ?     Do  you  offer  them  for  the  record  ? 

Mr.  Morris.  I  offer  them  for  the  record. 

The  Chairman.  I  think  so.     They  will  be  inserted  in  the  record. 

(The  documents  referred  to  were  marked  Exhibit  No.  801  and 
appear  on  p.  4987.) 

The  Chairman.  All  that  shows  is  who  were  the  officers  of  the  In- 
stitute of  Pacific  Relations  in  the  respective  years  mentioned? 

Mr.  Morris.  Yes. 

The  Chairman.  Let  the  record  show  that  the  stenographer  in  the 
outer  room  closed  the  door  so  that  the  telephoning  might  go  on  in  the 
outer  room  without  disturbing  the  hearing  and  that  the  Chair  an- 
nounced that  this  was  an  open  hearing  and  anyone  who  came  into  the 
outer  room  who  wished  to  come  in  here  might  come  in.  This  is  an 
open  hearing. 

Mr.  Morris.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  am  offering  to  Mr.  Mandel  two 
groups  of  documents. 

Mr.  Mandel,  are  those  two  groups  of  documents  made  up  of  letters 
and  papers  taken  from  the  files  of  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations  ? 

Mr.  Mandel.  These  are  documents  from  or  to  Mr.  E.  C.  Carter  taken 
from  the  files  of  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations.  They  are  either 
the  original  documents  or  photostats  thereof. 

The  Chairman.  The  instruments  are  true  and  correct  photostats  of 
documents  found  in  the  files  of  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations? 

Mr.  Mandel.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Morris.  And  every  one  of  the  dociunents  and  papers  in  those 
two  groups  is  so  classified  ? 

Mr.  Mandel.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Morris.  Namely,  taken  from  the  files  of  the  Institute  of  Pacific 
Relations.    Mr.  Mandel,  what  are  those  two  lists  ? 

Mr.  Mandel.  From  these  documents  I  have  authorized  a  list  to  be 
prepared  itemizing  each  document  and  describing  them. 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.  You  mean  you  have  there  a  list  which  constitu*"es 
an  inventory  of  the  documents  which  you  have  just  identified  and 
which  you  hold? 

Mr.  Mandel.  That  is  correct. 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS  4913 

Mr.  Morris.  There  are  two  lists,  Mr.  Chairman;  one  with  each 
group. 

Mr.  Carter,  have  yon  had  an  opportunity  to  look  at  the  documents 
so  identified  by  Mr.  Mandel  and  described  in  the  list  accompanying 
those  documents  ? 

Mr.  Carter.  Yes,  I  have  had  the  opportunity  of  hurriedly  going 
through  them. 

Mr.  Morris.  Do  they  appear  to  you  to  be  authentic  documents? 

Mr.  Carter.  I  do  not  challenge  the  authenticity  of  any.  There  are 
some  that  I  don't  particularly  recollect,  but  those  I  will  point  out  when 
I  go  through  the  list. 

Mr.  Marks.  You  do  not  mean  "recollection."  You  mean  you  do 
not  identify  because  you  do  not  have  personal  knowledge  of  them. 

Mr.  Carter.  Yes. 

Mr.  Marks.  But  you  do  not  challenge  the  authenticity. 

Mr.  Carter.  That  is  right. 

Mr.  Morris.  Do  you  want  to  make  any  particular  comment  as  to 
any  document  on  either  of  those  two  lists? 

The  Chairman.  As  I  understand,  those  minutes  were  made  of  con- 
ferences. If  Mr.  Carter  after  having  examined  those  minutes  says  that 
they  appear  to  him  to  be  true  and  correct,  that  is  about  as  far  as  he 
can  go  unless  he  made  them  himself. 

Mr.  Marks.  That  is  perfectly  true. 

Mr.  Morris.  Do  you  want  to  make  any  comment  on  any  of  the 
documents  in  these  two  groups? 

Mr.  Carter.  One  such  case  is  item  978,  a  discussion  on  collective 
security. 

Mr.  Morris.  "^^Hiat  is  the  nature  of  that  document,  Mr.  Carter? 

Mr,  Carter,  It  was  a  discussion  on  collective  security  in  700  Jack- 
son Place,  Washington,  I  did  not  prepare  the  minutes,  I  don't 
know  who  they  were  j)repared  by,  but  I  remember  the  meeting,  and 
they  look  like  a  reasonably  accurate  job. 

Mr,  Sourwine,  "\^niere  is  700  Jackson  Place  ?  Is  that  the  corner  of 
Jackson  Place  and  Pennsylvania  Avenue  alongside  of  the  Blair 
House  ? 

Mr,  Carter.  That  is  where  the  Carnegie  Endowment  Library  has 
been  for  many  years. 

This  is  to  Edward  C,  Carter  from  MC,  undated. 

Mr,  Morris.  That  is  right  under  the  exhibit  No.  980  ? 

Mr.  Carter.  Yes.  I  cannot  think  who  MC  is,  I  don't  identify 
the  handwriting  either,  and  it  is  in  collection  with  a  letter  to  Mr. 
Dollard.  This  is  a  mimeographed  study  of  Attitudes  of  American 
Soldiers  in  the  Berlin  District  Toward  Our  Allies.  It  is  not  mine, 
and  it  was  originally  marked  as  restricted,  but  the  classification  has 
been  canceled,  so  it  was  an  open  document. 

The  Chairman.  What  point  do  you  make  in  regard  to  it  ? 

Mr,  Marks.  Nothing  at  all,  except  I  do  not  exactly  know  whether 
we  are  authenticating  this  document  as  put  out  by  the  research  library 
of  the  information-education  division.  We  acknowledge  it  was  in 
the  files  of  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations  if  that  is  what  you 
want. 

Mr,  Sourwine.  You  said  the  classification  is  canceled.  You  mean 
it  shows  on  its  face  by  proper  authority  there  has  been  an  official 
cancellation  of  the  security  classification? 


4914  INSTITUTE   OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 

Mr.  Marks.  Yes.  Our  only  point  is  if  you  want  us  to  say  what 
it  IS,  we  will  say  it  was  taken  from  the  files.     We  did  not  prepare  it. 

Mr.  Sour  WINE.  Was  it  received  by  you  as  indicated  ? 
Mr.  Marks.  Oh,  yes.  We  have  no  objection  to  that. 
The  Chairman.  What  is  next? 

Mr.  Carter.  There  is  a  handwritten  note  of  mine  here,  and  it  is 
marked  underneath  "Dear  Kate"  in  brackets  "Enclosure,  July  19 
note."     It  should  be  July  17  notes.     It  is  perfectly  routine. 

Mr.  Marks.  One  other  point  on  that.  We  don't  understand  why 
it  says  "Enclosure."  The  list  says  "enclosure."  We  do  not  under- 
stand why,  but  it  does  not  make  much  difference,  I  guess.  The  list 
says.  Senator,  "(Enc.  July  19  notes)"  and  the  list  should  be  July  17. 
We  do  not  understand  what  the  enclosure  reference  is,  but  I  do  not 
think  it  is  very  significant. 

Mr.  Carter.  With  your  permission  I  will  let  Mr.  Marks  do  this. 

The  Chairman.  That  is  all  right. 

Mr.  Marks.  Item  984.  This  is  a  report  of  conference  of  March 
9.  Mr.  Carter  acknowledges  that  it  is  a  fairly  accurate  statement 
of  what  went  on,  although  he  did  not  himself  prepare  the  report. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Just  at  that  point,  you  say  he  acknowledges  that  it 
Is  fairly  accurate.  Does  he  take  exception  to  it  on  any  point  with 
regard  to  accuracy  ? 

Mr.  Marks.  On  those  I  do  not  think  we  ought  to  be  bound  because 
we  had  to  read  those  at  a  terrible  clip.  If  we  have  to  stop  now  to 
examine  this  page  by  page,  it  will  keep  us  here  indefinitely.  We 
would  like  to  reserve  comment  and  check  on  these  things.  Mr.  Carter 
spent  just  a  few  minutes  to  go  through  this  thing  and  to  construe 
it  to  see  whether  each  thing  is  a  fair  statement  would  require  a  lot 
more  time,  and  I  don't  think  he  at  this  time  can  state  more  than  I 
have  already  stated.     I  want  to  suit  your  purpose. 

The  Chairman.  The  question  is:  Is  the  instrument  found  where 
it  was  found  ?  It  is  admitted  that  it  was  found  in  the  files  of  the 
Institute  of  Pacific  Relations? 

Mr.  Marks.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  What  it  sets  out  is  not  a  matter  for  your  construc- 
tion nor  for  anyone  else's  just  now.  It  is  a  matter  for  the  committee's 
construction. 

Mr.  Marks.  Fine.     That  is  perfectly  acceptable  to  us. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Mr.  Chairman,  if  "the  Chair  will  permit,  since  I 
understand  that  Mr.  Carter  is  adopting  Mr.  Marks'  statements  as  his 
testimony,  is  that  right,  sir? 

Mr.  Carter.  That  is  correct. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  With  regard  to  this  particular  document  it  might 
save  time  in  the  future  if  I  ask  Mr.  Carter  a  question  now. 

Mr.  Carter,  you  have  had  an  opportunity  to  examine  that  briefly; 
is  that  correct? 

Mr.  Carter.  Very  sketchily. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  From  the  examination  which  you  have  made  of 
it,  does  it  appear  to  you  to  be  a  report  which  was  prepared  under  your 
direction  or  at  your  behest  ? 

Mr.  Carter.  I  was  present  at  the  meeting.  It  does  not  show  who 
recorded  it.  The  handwritten  bits  of  editorial  alterations  are  not 
in  my  handwriting,  and  I  could  not  swear  who  the  author  or  editor 


INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  4915 

was.     It  may  have  been  Mr,  W,  W.  Lockwood.    Let  me  see  whether 
he  was  there.     Yes ;  he  was  present. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  What  I  am  trying  to  get  at  is :  Was  that  prepared 
by  someone  who  did  so  as  a  part  of  his  duties  as  an  official  or  employee 
oiethelPR? 

Mr.  Carter.  Not  necessarily,  because  in  the  list  of  attendees  there 
is  typed  "W.  W.  Lockwood,  Princeton,"  and  then  inserted  in  hand- 
writing after  Lockwood's  name,  "ACIS."  That  would  be  the  Amer- 
ican Committee  for  International  Studies.  That  might  indicate  that 
he  was  there  in  his  capacity  as  an  executive  of  the  American  Commit- 
tee of  International  Studies,  which  has  no  connection  with  the  IPR. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Do  you  have  any  knowledge  as  to  how  this  found 
its  way  into  the  files  of  the  IPR  ? 

Mr.  Carter.  I  have  no  knowledge. 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.  Do  you  have  any  knowledge  as  to  whether  this  was 
prepared  for  the  files  of  the  IPR  ? 

Mr.  Carter.  I  have  no  knowledge  one  way  or  the  other  on  that. 

Mr.  Marks.  The  next  item  is  988.  Tliis  is  a  memorandum  of  the 
meeting  of  the  Arctic  Institute,  April  9,  which  was  taken  from  the 
files  of  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations,  but  not  prepared  by  Mr. 
Carter. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Mr.  Carter,  do  you  know  by  whom  it  was  prepared? 

Mr.  Carter.  I  don't  remember.  With  reference  to  this  meeting  of 
the  Arctic  Institute,  I  note  that  there  were  present  FD  and  HM.  FD 
is  Faith  Donaldson  and  HM  is  Harriet  Moore.  Either  one  of  them 
might  have  prepared  the  record  of  the  meeting.  I  don't  know  which. 
There  is  nothing  written,  straight  typing,  and  I  have  no  idea  which 
one  of  them  prepared  it  or  whether  they  prepared  it  jointly  and  sub- 
mitted it  to  me. 

Mr.  SouR"\^^NE.  One  of  those  alternatives? 

Mr.  Carter.  One  of  those  alternatives. 

Mr.  Marks.  The  next  item  is  993.  This  is  a  memorandum  of  an 
interview  with  Mortimer  Graves,  December  7,  1933,  at  which  Mr. 
Carter  and  Mr.  Joseph  Barnes  were  present.  I  think  Mr.  Carter  will 
state  that  either  he  or  Mr.  Barnes  prepared  this  memorandum.  He 
doesn't  remember  which. 

Mr.  Carter.  That  is  correct. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  I  would  like  to  ask  a  question  about  that.  Is  Mr. 
Barnes'  style  so  similar  to  your  own  that  you  cannot  tell  them  apart 
when  you  look  back  over  them  ? 

Mr.  Carter.  This  is  statistical.     It  was  in  1933. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  I  think  in  fairness  to  you  that  should  be  explained 
here.  It  is  not  a  document  that  is  likely  enough  to  make  it  identi- 
fiable; is  that  the  point? 

Mr.  Carter.  It  is  very  short.  It  is  statistical,  and  there  are  no 
flourishes  of  authorship  or  rhetoric  in  it. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  The  point  was  if  it  had  been  prepared  by  you  we 
know  you  would  be  prepared  to  say  it  was  absolutely  true  and  correct ; 
is  that  right  ? 

Mr.  Carter.  It  makes  sense  to  me. 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.  On  that  basis  since  you  cannot  tell  whether  it  is 
yours  or  Mr.  Barnes,  I  assume  you  are  still  able  to  say  that  it  is  true 
and  correct. 


4916  INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 

Mr.  Carter.  It  strikes  me  thorouo:hly  as  a  correct  compilation. 

Mr.  Marks.  The  next  item  is  1005,  a  meeting  of  the  presidium  of 
the  Soviet  branch  of  the  IPR.  Mr.  Carter  will  state  that  the  report 
was  prepared  either  by  Harriet  Moore  or  Kate  Mitchell.  Do  you 
know  which? 

Mr.  Carter.  I  have  no  idea. 

Mr.  Sourwine.  Did  Kate  Mitchell  take  shorthand? 

Mr.  Carter.  Yes. 

Mr.  SotTRwiNE.  Harriet  Moore  did  not? 

Mr.  Carter.  Not  with  the  same  precision.  I  don't  remember 
whether  Harriet  Moore  actually  used  shorthand  or  her  own  shorthand 
system. 

Mr.  Sourwine.  And  Faith  Donaldson  had  no  shorthand  system  at 
all  ? 

Mr.  Carter.  Yes.  She,  if  I  remember  correctly,  had  sort  of  a 
debutante  shorthand. 

Mr.  Sourwine.  I  thought  you  had  testified  here  once — it  is  an  un- 
important point — that  Faith  Donaldson  did  not  write  in  shorthand. 

Mr.  Carter.  I  remember  describing  her  as  a  champion  skier.  I 
don't  remember  referring  to  her  shorthand  capacity. 

Mr.  Sourwine.  Was  she  a  typist? 

Mr.  Carter.  Oh,  yes. 

Mr.  Marks.  The  next  item  is  1008.  This  is  a  photostat  of  what 
purports  to  be  a  letter  from  E.  V.  Harondar  to  Kathleen  Barnes, 
June  20,  1935,  which  Mr.  Carter  will  say  was  taken  from  the  files  of 
the  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations,  but  it  was  not  a  letter  received  by 
him  nor  written  by  him. 

Mr.  Sourwine.  Do  you  have  any  recollection  as  to  whether  you 
ever  saw  that  letter  before  the  committee  presented  it  to  you  for 
identification  ? 

Mr.  Carter.  I  don't  remember  having  seen  it  before.  I  may  have 
or  I  may  not.    I  don't  recall  it  now. 

Mr.  Marks.  Item  1009  is  a  letter  from  Mr.  Carter  to  Mr.  Motylev. 
The  list  shows  the  date  "3/4/35."    It  should  be  "5/4/35." 

Mr.  Sourwine.  Speaking  of  Mr.  Motylev,  we  have  a  number  of 
documents  in  the  file  including  some  of  these  summaries  wherein  his 
name  is  spelled  M-o-t-i-l-e-v;  is  that  not  correct?  It  is  the  same  per- 
son, is  it  not? 

Mr.  Carter.  That  is  correct. 

Mr.  Marks.  The  next  item  is  1010.  This  is  a  carbon  copy  of  a  docu- 
ment entitled  "Extracts  From  Letter  From  Harriet  Moore  to  E.  C. 
Carter"  of  March  20,  1935.    Can  you  tell  who  prepared  this  ? 

Mr.  Carter.  I  cannot  discover  who  typed  or  prepared  this  copy, 
who  selected  the  extracts.  There  is  no  initial  or  other  identifying 
mark.  It  would  all  depend  on  who  made  the  extracts  as  to  what  its 
significance  is,  I  .should  assume. 

Mr.  Sourwine.  Do  you  remember  having  seen  the  document  before 
or  a  copy  of  it? 

Mr.  Cari^r.  I  can't  at  this  moment  say  that  I  do  recollect  it. 

Mr.  Sourwine.  It  is  from  the  files  of  the  IPR? 

Mr.  Carter.  So  Mr.  Mandel  shows  me. 

Mr.  Sourwine.  I  mean  do  you  have  any  knowledge  on  that  point? 

Mr.  Carter.  Not  other  than  Mr.  Mandel's  certification. 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS  4917 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.  Of  course,  that  is  not  a  matter  of  your  knowledge. 

Mr.  Carter.  No. 

Mr.  Marks.  Item  1011  appears  to  be  a  duplicate  of  1009. 

Item  1013,  "Moscow  meeting  in  Motylev's,"  the  date  should  be 
"3/31/86. ■'  That  is  the  ('ate  shown  by  the  document.  It  should  be 
that  instead  of  "3/21/36'  thown  by  the  list.  The  document  itself 
purports  to  be  a  report  of  what  happened  at  the  meeting. 

Mr.  Carter.  Tliis  conc^-ns  the  administrative  problems  of  the  in- 
stitute and,  among  others,  there  were  present  Harriet  Moore,  Char- 
lotte Tyler,  and  Faith  Donaldson  as  secretaries,  but  wiiich  one  of 
tliem,  whether  all  three  collaborated  in  writing  out  this  one  page,  I 
don't  know. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Their  assignments  were  such  that  any  or  all  of  them 
might  have  worked  on  it  ? 

Mr.  CAR1T.R.  Yes. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE,  Mr.  Chairman,  may  we  go  off  the  record? 

The  Chairman.  Off  the  record. 

(Discussion  off  the  record.) 

The  Chairman.  On  the  record. 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.  Mr.  Chairman,  with  regard  to  the  remainder  of  the 
documents  on  this  list  I  believe  an  acceptable  formula  has  been  worked 
out  which  will  cover  the  identification  so  far  as  Mr.  Carter  is  able 
to  make.     Is  that  correct,  Mr.  Marks  ? 

Mr.  Marks.  That  is  correct,  Mr.  Sourwine.  May  I  state  the  na- 
ture of  this  arrangement  ? 

Mr.  Sourwine.  Please. 

Mr.  Marks.  Mr.  Carter  states  that  all  of  the  documents  listed 

Mr.  Sourwine.  From  this  point  on. 

Mr.  Marks.  From  this  point  on  of  the  two  lists  referred  to 

The  Chairman.  And  "from  this  point  on''  means  what?  What  is 
the  point  ? 

Mr.  Sourwine.  From  the  point  following  the  last  document  identi- 
fied in  this  record  and  discussed. 

The  Chairman.  Referring  to  the  numbers  in  the  list  that  you  pre- 
pared ? 

Mr.  Marks.  Yes ;  that  is  right.  There  are  two  lists  which  I  think 
Mr.  Mandel  has  already  referred  to,  the  last  two  lists  that  Mr.  Mandel 
i-eferred  to.  These  are  lists  setting  forth  documents  which  have  just 
been  presented  to  Mr.  Carter  for  identification. 

The  Chairman.  And  were  taken  from  the  files  of  the  Institute  of 
Pacific  Relations  according  to  the  testimony  of  Mr.  Mandel  ? 

Mr.  Marks.  That  is  right. 

The  Chairman,  And  have  been  numbered  serially  under  the  di- 
rection of  Mr.  Mandel  ? 

Mr.  Marks.  Up  to  the  point  of  1019,  and  after  that  there  are  no 
inimbers,  and  we  understand  they  will  be  numbered  serially  from  there 
on. 

Mr.  Morris.  That  is  correct. 

Mr.  Marks.  From  this  point  on  Mr.  Carter  states  that  the  docu- 
ments wdiich  i^urport  to  be  letters  or  memoranda  to  him,  or  copies  of 
such  letters  and  memoranda,  or  letters  or  memoranda  from  him  or 
copies  of  those,  are  genuine.  On  the  list  there  are  a  number  of  other 
documents  which  are  prepared  by  other  persons  and  which  do  not  in- 


4918  INSTITUTE   OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 

dicate  whether  or  not  they  were  sent  to  Mr.  Carter  or  sent  by  him  to 
anybody. 

As  to  these,  Mr.  Carter  has  no  personal  recollection  of  whether  or 
not  they  do  come  from  the  IPR  files,  but  he  has  no  reason  to  raise 
any  question  about  it. 

The  Chairman.  All  right. 

Mr.  Marks.  That  is  sufficient. 

The  Chairman.  All  right. 

Mr.  Morris,  Mr.  Chairman,  may  they  therefore  be  admitted  into 
the  record  ? 

The  Chairman.  They  may  be  admitted  under  that  agreement, 

(The  documents  were  marked  "Exhibits  Nos.  977  to  1007,  1009,  in- 
clusive; 1011  to  1031,  1032  to  1068,  inclusive;  1070, 1071,  1073  to  1080, 
inclusive;  1082  to  1090,  inclusive;  1092,  to  1095,  1097  to  1112,  1114  to 
1122,  inclusive,  and  appear  on  pp.  5083  through  5197.) 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  This  order  includes  the  two  lists  which  have  been 
referred  to  and  the  documents  which  have  been  included  on  those  lists  ? 

The  Chairman.  Yes.  The  lists  are  merely  identification  by  serial 
numbers  ? 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Marks.  That  is  right. 

Mr.  SouRAViNE.  Has  Mr.  Carter  had  an  opportunity  to  examine 
the  documents  which  we  are  now  discussing? 

Mr.  Marks,  Mr,  Carter  has  had  a  chance  to  examine  the  documents 
now  under  discussion  and  identifies  them  all  with  certain  exceptions 
which  I  shall  now  enumerate. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  And  applies  them  as  either  documents  that  were 
received  by  him  or  which  he  wrote  ? 

Mr,  Marks,  That  is  right. 

This  list  does  not  bear  exhibit  numbers,  and  I  am  going  to  give  the 
item  number  as  I  count  down. 

Mr,  SouRwiNE,  Give  the  item  number  and  the  title, 

Mr,  Marks,  All  right.  This  is  the  fourteenth  item  on  the  first 
page  of  this  three-page  list.  It  is  to  WLH  from  ECC.  The  date  is 
given  as  Marcli  20,  1940.  I  think  it  should  be  March  30,  1940,  The 
file  number  is  191.87. 

The  next  is  to  Philip  C.  Jessup  from  Edward  C.  Carter,  with  the 
file  number  of  the  committee  191.37.  The  date  is  given  as  December 
19,  1943.  I  think  it  should  be  December  19,  1942,  subject  to  your 
check. 

The  next  one  purports  to  be  an  original  of  part  of  a  note  to  "Dear 
Dr.  White."'  It  does  not  bear  any  date  or  any  signature.  It  is  on  the 
second  page  of  this  list  under  your  No.  172.1.  I  don't  know  what 
Mr.  Carter  wants  to  say  about  it. 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.  Mr.  Carter,  up  to  this  point  do  you  adopt  Mr. 
Marks'  statements  as  your  testimony? 

Mr.  Carter.  I  do. 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.  With  regard  to  the  document  which  has  just  been 
handed  to  you  by  Mr.  Marks  what  do  you  want  to  say  about  it  ? 

The  Chairman.  Dr.  White  is  the  name  ? 

Mr.  Marks.  It  is  addressed  to  "Dear  Dr.  White,"  no  address. 

Mr.  Carter.  I  have  no  recollection  of  either  side  of  this  page. 

Mr.  Morris.  It  is  not  your  handwriting  ? 


INSTITUTE   OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  4919 

Mr.  Carter.  No. 

Mr.  Morris.  I  move  it  be  stricken  from  the  list  of  documents. 

The  Chairman.  It  will  just  not  be  inserted. 

JNIr.  SouRwiNE.  It  remains  on  the  list,  but  you  withdraw  the  oifer 
of  the  document  ? 

Mr.  Morris.  I  do. 

Mr.  Marks.  The  next  item  is  a  memo  handwritten  which  appears 
on  your  list  immediately  below  the  item,  the  offer  of  which  has  been 
withdrawn.    I  hand  it  to  Mr.  Carter. 

Mr.  Sour  WINE.  Do  you  know  what  that  is,  Mr.  Carter? 

Mr.  Carter.  It's  in  pencil.  I  don't  identify  the  handwriting. 
There  is  a  note  regarding  treatment  of  a  book  written  for  the  IPR 
at  one  time.  There  is  nothing  I  object  to.  I  simply  don't  know  who 
the  author  was. 

Mr.  SouRw^iNE.  Do  you  have  any  reason  to  believe  it  did  not  come 
from  the  IPR  files  ? 

Mr.  Carter.  No. 

Mr.  Marks.  The  next  item  is  to  W.  L.  Holland  from  C.  F.  Remer, 
dated  March  17, 1942,  your  No.  119.121. 

Mr.  Holland.  I  have  read  this  letter  and  identify  it  as  having  been 
received  by  me.  There  is  also  the  original  of  this  same  letter — this  is 
a  carbon  copy — in  the  collection  which  I  have  previously  identified. 

Mr.  Marks.  The  final  item  is  a  mimeographed  copy  of  what  per- 
haps is  a  telegram  from  Edward  C.  Carter  to  Lauchlin  Currie,  bearing 
the  date,  mimeographed,  September  17,  1941.  This  appears  under 
your  file  No.  119.13.   It  is  listed  on  the  third  page  of  the  list. 

Mr.  Morris.  That  is  a  copy  we  made  of  the  original.  We  should 
have  the  original  rather  than  the  stenciled  copy.  We  will  withdraw 
the  offer. 

Mr.  Marks.  Those  are  all  the  remarks  and  exceptions  that  we  have 
to  make  to  that  list. 

Mr.  Sourwine.  Wliich  you  previously  generally  identified  ? 

Mr.  Marks.  Yes. 

Mr.  Sourwine.  Do, you  adopt  as  your  testimony  all  the  statements 
of  Mr.  Marks  in  connection  with  these  lists  ? 

Mr.  Carter.  I  do. 

Mr.  Sourwine.  May  these  be  inserted  in  the  record  ? 

The  Chairman.  They  may  be  inserted  in  the  record  with  the  same 
numbers. 

(The  documents  referred  to  were  marked  "Exhibits  Nos.  1136,  1145, 
1203.  and  1231,"  and  appear  on  pp.  5204,  5210,  5245,  5259,  i-espec- 
tively.) 

Mr.  Sourwine.  So  that  the  record  may  be  clear  with  regard  to  this 
document,  this  is  the  document  which  was  previously  mentioned  as 
the  "Dear  Dr.  White"  letter  or  document,  the  offer  of  which  was 
withdrawn.  This  is  a  document,  which  on  the  one  side,  which  I  shall 
designate  as  face,  is  marked  with  an  F  in  ink  and  has  a  typed  para- 
graph, "Dear  Dr.  White:  I  understand  from  Irving  S.  Friedman," 
and  so  forth,  ending  with  the  words  "until  the  end  of  the  current 
month." 

On  the  other  side  in  pencil,  handwritten,  is,  "Dear  Malik :  I  under- 
stand that  Mr.  Friedman,"  and  so  forth,  closing  with  the  words  "at  any 
time  convenient  to  you.  Sincerely  yours,"  and  it  is  unsigned.  Mr. 
darter,  you  state  that  you  do  not  recognize  that  handwriting  ? 


4920  INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 

Mr.  Carter.  I  do  not  recognize  the  handwriting.  I  would  like  to 
comment  for  the  record  that  Malik  was  the  Indian  official  in  New 
York.    It  is  not  the  Soviet. 

Mr.  SoTJRWiNE.  And  you  do  not  recollect  it  ? 

Mr.  Holland.  No. 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.  How  do  you  know  which  Malik  is  referred  to  ? 

Mr.  Carter.  Isn't  there  some  reference  here  to  Friedman  ?  Fried- 
man was  an  employee  of  the  Indian  Government  in  New  York  working 
under  Malik. 

Mr.  Sour  wine.  How  do  you  spell  it? 

Mr.  Carter.  M-a-1-i-k. 

Mr.  Sourwine.  Wliat  you  are  saying  really  is  because  you  know  of 
Friedman's  connection  you  assume  that  was  Malik  the  Indian  rather 
than  the  Russian? 

Mr.  Carter.  That  is  right. 

Mr.  Sourwine.  Are  you  renewing  your  offer  on  that  now  ? 

Mr.  Morris.  I  now  offer  it. 

The  Chairman.  Very  well;  it  will  be  inserted  in  its  proper  place 
in  the  record. 

(The  document  referred  to  was  marked  "Exhibit  No.  1202,"  and 
appears  on  p.  5245.) 

Mr.  Morris.  Mr.  Chairman,  we  have  a  third  envelope  which  Mr. 
Carter  was  not  able  to  finish  reading  last  night,  and  I  wonder  what 
we  can  do  with  respect  to  having  those  received. 

Mr.  Sourwine.  I  have  a  suggestion,  if  the  Chair  please. 

The  Chairman.  All  right. 

Mr.  Sourwine.  If  the  Chair  please,  I  propose  to  ask  Mr.  Mandel  to 
identify  these  papers  as  coming  from  the  files  of  the  IPR  and  to 
identify  the  list. 

The  Chairman.  Let  Mr.  Mandel  identify  them. 

Mr.  Sourwine.  Mr.  Mandel,  I  hand  you  a  number  of  documents  or 
what  purports  to  be  a  list  or  inventory  of  documents.  Will  you  please 
identify  them? 

Mr.  Mandel.  I  have  here  an  inventory  of  documents  taken  from 
the  files  of  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations.  The  sheet  begins  with 
a  document  to  ECC  and  ends  with  one  to  A.  Hiss.  The  documents 
all  come  from  the  files  of  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations. 

Mr.  Sourwine.  Is  that  list  a  correct  inventory  of  those  documents 
and  prepared  under  your  direction? 

Mr.  Mandel.  It  is ;  yes. 

Mr.  Sourwine.  Mr.  Chairman,  I-  ask  the  permission  of  the  Chair  to 
hand  this  list  and  the  documents  in  question  to  Mr.  Carter  and  to  ask 
that  at  his  early  convenience  he  go  through  these  and  examine  them 
and  then  furnish  the  committee  with  a  statement  in  affidavit  form 
with  regard  to  them  along  the  lines  of  the  statemens  he  has  previously 
made. 

The  Chairman.  All  right.  Do  you  want  them  inserted  in  the  record 
now,  to  be  followed  by  what  you  request? 

Mr.  Sourwine.  I  would  request,  sir,  that  tlie  documents  be  put 
in  the  record  at  this  point,  but  that  the  affidavit  which  Mr.  Carter 
furnishes  also  go  in  at  this  point  in  the  record  when  he  furnishes 
it. 

The  Chairman.  All  right;  is  that  satisfactory? 

Mr.  Marks.  Yes,  it  is.  Senator 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS  4921 

(The  documents  referred  to  were  marked  "Exhibits  Nos.  1269  to 
1291,  inclusive;  1293  to  1312,  inclusive;  and  1314,"  and  appear  on 
pp.  5272  throu*rh  5303.) 

Mr.  SouRWiNE,  I  liand  3^ou  additional  groups  of  documents  and  ask 
you  if  you  will  identify  t?hose. 

Mr.  Mandel.  I  have  here  an  inventory  of  documents  from  the  files 
of  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations  beginning  with  one  marked 
"Atomic  Energy  and  U.  S.  Int.  Policy,"  and  ending  with  one  ad- 
dressed to  "Secretary,  Lithuanian  Legation,"  which  is  an  inventory 
of  documents  from  the  files  of  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations,  and 
a  second  batch  which  is  headed  "A  Second  Batch,"  of  which  the  inven- 
tory begins  with  a  document  to  E.  C.  Carter  and  ends  with  one  to 
E.  C.  Carter.  This  is  an  inventory  of  documents  from  the  files  of  the 
Institute  of  Pacific  Relations. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Mr.  Mandel,  in  each  case  does  the  list  represent  an 
inventory  of  the  actual  documents  to  which  it  is  attached? 

Mr.  Mandel.  It  does. 

Mr.  Sourwine.  The  inventory  was  prepared  under  your  supervi- 
sion ? 

Mr.  ]\f  andel.  Yes,  sir. 

Mr.  Sourwine.  And  the  documents  themselves  are  all  from  the 
files  of  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations? 

Mr.  Mandel.  They  are. 

The  Chairman.  Are  they,  or  are  they  photostatic  copies? 

Mr.  Mandel.  They  include  originals,  carbons,  as  taken  from  the 
files,  and  photostats. 

The  Chairman.  Photostats  of  instruments  in  the  files ;  is  that  right? 

Mr.  Mandel.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  The  photostats  were  made  under  your  direction  ? 

Mr.  Mandel.  They  were. 

Mr.  Morris.  Mr.  Chairman,  the  reasons  for  the  recurrence  of  the 
photostats  are  many.  In  most  cases  the  reason  for  it  is  that  we  have 
gone  through  the  files  of  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations  on  Fifty- 
fourth  Street  and  taken  out  certain  documents  there.  We  returned 
the  original  documents  to  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations,  but  had 
them  photostated  before  returning  them.  That  is  the  reason  for  the 
photostating. 

The  Chairman.  The  photostats  were  not  themselves  taken  from  the 
files  ?  The  instrument  was  taken  from  the  files  and  photostated,  and 
the  photostats  are  here;  is  that  right? 

Mr.  Morris.  In  almost  every  case.  I  think  in  some  cases  there  were 
photostats  in  the  IPR  files. 

Mr.  Sourwine.  Mr,  Chairman,  I  ask  in  regard  to  these  two  groups 
of  documents  and  the  list  attached  thereto  that  Mr.  Mandel  has  most 
recently  identified  they  be  offered  to  Mr.  Carter  with  the  same  stipu- 
lation as  the  earlier  one. 

The  Chairman.  They  will  be  inserted  in  the  record  and  offered  to 
Mr.  Carter  with  the  same  stii^ulation  as  to  his  making  an  affidavit. 

(The  documents  referred  to  w-ere  mai"ked  "Exhibit  Nos.  889  to  903, 
inclusive ;  905  to  954,  inclusive ;  956  to  964,  inclusive,  and  appear  on 
pp.  5031  through  5083.) 

Mr.  Sourwine.  I  hold  in  my  hand  a  file  of  material  which  was  of- 
fered for  the  recoi-d  during  Mr.  Bogolepov's  testimony.    The  Chair 

88348-52-pt.  14 2 


4922  INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 

ruled  that  it  would  be  accepted  and  inserted  in  the  record,  but  there 
was  the  proviso  that  it  be  offered  to  Mr.  Carter  for  identification.  I 
would  like  to  ask  has  this  ever  been  offered  to  Mr.  Carter  and  has  Mr. 
Carter  had  an  opportunity  to  examine  it? 

Mr.  Marks.  No,  he  has  not.    He  just  p;ot  it. 

]\Ir.  SouRWiNE.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  ask  that  these  documents,  which  I 
shall  briefly  identify,  the  first  headed  ''Confidential,  not  for  distribu- 
tion outside  the  office,"  under  date  of  August  10,  1934 

The  Chairman.  Where  do  they  come  from  ? 

Mr.  Morris.  They  have  been  identified  by  Mr.  Mandel  at  an  open 
session  of  the  hearing  as  having  been  taken  from  the  files  of  the  Insti- 
tute of  Pacific  Relations,  and  they  were  admitted  by  you  provisionally 
on  their  being  recognized  by  Mr.  Carter. 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.  I  simply  thought,  Mr.  Chairman,  that  since  the 
record  at  this  point  does  not  specifically  identify  what  we  are  handing 
Mr.  Carter  there  should  be  this  identification :  Under  date  of  August 
10,  1934,  headed  "Memorandum  of  Personnel  on  Soviet  Studies." 
The  next  item  is  called  "Confidential,  not  for  distribution  outside  the 
office,  Report  on  Soviet  Relations  with  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Rela- 
tions." The  next  is  to  Frederick  V.  Field  from  Edward  C.  Carter 
under  date  of  January  16,  1935.  The  next  is  headed  "Meeting,  April 
9,  Institute  of  Oceanography ;  ECC ;  OL ;  HM,  Harondar." 

The  next  is  headed  "Report  of  the  V  isit  of  the  Secretary  General  to 
Moscow,  December  20-31,  1934."  The  next  is  a  letter  or  what  appears 
to  be  a  letter,  under  date  of  April,  1934.  It  is  headed  "Communist 
Academy,  Volkhonka,  14  Moscow,  U.  S.  S.  R."  The  next  is  a  letter, 
and  the  date  is  Hotel  Richemond,  Geneva,  September  12,  1934,  and  it 
begins  "Dear  Owen," 

Then  there  is  a  letter  to  Senator  McCarran  under  date  of  March  24 
from  Carlisle  Humelsine  and  the  attachment  thereto. 

The  Chairman.  Mr.  Carter  would  have  nothing  to  do  with  that 
last. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  The  attachment,  sir,  is  the  one  wliich  raises  the 
question  as  to  whether  Mr.  Carter  can  add  anything  by  way  of 
identification. 

The  Chairman.  These  are  to  be  made  available  to  Mr.  Carter  for 
his  comment  and  his  affidavit  ? 

Mr.  Souewine.  Along  the  same  lines  with  regard  to  any  identity  he 
should  make,  and  he  should  have  the  privilege  if  he  cares  to  include 
in  that  affidavit  any  voluntary  statement  or  comment  about  it. 

The  Chairman.  All  right. 

(The  documents  referred  to  were  previously  marked  "Exhibit  No. 
58"  and  appear  on  p.  262,  pt.  I.  For  the  other  documents,  see  exhib- 
its 749,  758,  759,  760,  761,  763,  respectively. ) 

Mr.  Marks.  With  reference  to  comment,  it  is  obvious  from  the  rec- 
ord that  we  have  not  made  any  comments  on  the  contents  of  these. 

Mr.  SoTTRWiNE.  That  is  correct.  It  is  not  completely  correct  because 
in  the  instance  of  Malik  he  had  a  comment  to  make. 

Mr.  Marks.  You  are  right  there.  % 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  With  regard  to  any  others  he  has  not  made  a  com- 
ment. He  is  not  bound,  but  if  he  wants  to  make  comment  as  to  these 
submitted  for  study,  he  is  to  have  the  right  to  include  in  that  affidavit 
any  comment  he  desires  to  make. 


INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  4923 

Mr.  Marks.  We  would  like  to  reserve  whatever  rights  we  have  to 
comment  on  the  others. 

Mr.  Morris.  Mr.  Holland  or  Mr.  Carter,  are  you  going  to  offer  any 
documents  to  be  inserted  into  the  record  at  this  time  ? 

Mr.  Carter.  If  I  may  have  your  permission,  Mr.  Chairman,  on 
April  23 1  mailed  you  in  Washington,  A  Personal  View  of  the  Institute 
of  Pacific  Relations,  by  Edward  C.  Carter,  and  in  my  letter  to  you 
I  promised  to  send  a  second  statement  on  clarification  and  correction. 
This  I  now  hand  you  with  a  covering  letter,  and  here  is  a  copy  of 
my  letter  to  Senator  McCarran  for  Mr.  Morris. 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.  With  regard  to  these  documents,  Mr.  Carter,  have 
they  been  prepared  by  you  ? 

Mr.  Carter.  They  have. 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.  Are  you  offering  them  as  part  of  your  testimony, 
that  is,  that  the  material  in  here  is  true  to  the  best  of  your  knowledge 
and  belief  where  it  is  stated  to  be  on  knowledge  and  belief,  and  if  not 
so  stated  it  is  true  ? 

Mr.  Carter.  That  is  my  position. 

Mr.  Marks.  Just  one  moment,  Mr.  Sourwine;  I  am  not  sure  that 
Mr.  Carter  understood  the  import  of  that. 

Mr.  Sourwine.  I  do  not  mean  to  take  advantage  of  him  in  any  V7^j. 

Mr.  Marks.  I  understand  that,  but  I  think  as  to  everything  he  states 
it  is  true  to  the  best  of  his  knowledge  and  belief.  He  is  not  using  a 
pleading  style  and  stating  upon  information  and  belief  thus  and  so, 
but  he  is  doing  his  best  to  represent  the  facts.    Is  that  all  right? 

Mr.  Sourwine.  Mr.  Carter  has  handed  here  a  document  of  over  50 
pages,  nearly  60  pages,  including  the  appendix,  headed  "Amplification, 
correction,  and  clarification  of  testimony."  Obviously  if  Mr.  Carter 
is  going  to  amplify,  correct,  and  clarify  his  testimony,  he  has  to  do  it 
under  oath. 

Mr.  Marks.  I  am  sure  that  Mr.  Carter  will  say  that  this  shall  have 
the  same  status  as  if  these  things  were  read  orally  or  stated  orally  at 
any  committee  hearing. 

The  Chairman.  Under  oath? 

Mr.  Marks.  Under  oath ;  yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  Does  he  make  an  affidavit  to  this  ? 

Mr.  SouRWTNE.  No,  sir,  that  is  another  point.  There  is  no  jurat  on 
this.  Whatever  the  form  is  immaterial,  but  the  record  should  show 
that  Mr.  Carter  fully  adopts  this  statement,  the  main  text  of  49  pages 
and  the  appendix  of  7  pages,  as  a  sworn  statement  presented  before 
this  committee. 

Mr.  Carter.  I  do. 

Mr.  Sourwine.  The  committee  staff  of  course  has  had  no  opportun- 
ity to  see  this  until  this  moment  and  has  of  course  had  no  oppor- 
tunity to  cross  examine  jSIr.  Carter  with  regard  to  it.  I  cannot  state 
what  the  staff  might  desire  in  that  regard. 

]\Ir.  Carter.  Might  I  ask,  ]\Ir.  Sourwine,  Mr.  Chairman,  whether 
my  first  statement  was  received  ? 

Mr.  Sourwine.  The  statement  has  been  received,  but  has  not  been 
offered  in  the  record.  You  are  referring  to  "A  Personal  View  of  the 
Institute  of  Pacific  Relations."  I  think  it  should  be  under  the  same 
stipulation,  that  you  were  offering  it  as  your  sworn  testimony. 

Mr.  Carter.  I  would  be  agreeable  to  making  the  stipulation  now  so 
that  it  is  all  formally  in  your  hands. 


4924  INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.  Mr,  Chairman,  Mr.  Carter  is  stating,  as  I  understand 
it,  that  he  offers  as  his  sworn  testimony  at  this  hearing  his  statement 
entitled  "A  Personal  View  of  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations,"  which 
he  transmitted  to  the  chairman  in  his  letter  of  April  24. 

The  Chairman.  Yes.  I  think  the  regular  way  and  most  orderely 
way  would  be  to  have  Mr.  Carter  present  when  the  committee  con- 
siders that  and  let  him  then  swear  to  it.  I  think  you  are  doing  this 
by  a  long-distance  operation  here.  I  do  not  particularly  like  it,  but 
we  can  determine  that  when  we  get  to  it.  We  can  call  Mr.  Carter 
and  have  him  go  over  his  two  statements,  the  one  he  sent  before  and 
this  one,  and  make  any  comment  on  them  and  then  be  examined  on 
them  if  you  want  to  and  let  it  go  in  the  record.  I  think  that  is  the 
clearer  and  more  satisfactory  wa}'.  I  do  not  like  to  insert  his  first 
statement  in  the  record  now  with  a  kind  of  an  offhand  saying  that  he 
swears  to  it. 

I  think  it  would  be  best  to  have  him  present  and  swear  to  it  at  the 
proper  time. 

Mr,  SouRwiNE.  Is  that  the  Chair's  ruling  also  with  regard  to  this 
document  which  has  just  been  handed  in? 

The  Chairman,  Yes, 

]^r.  Morris,  Mr,  Chairman,  may  I  amend  Mr,  Sourwine's  list  of 
documents  included  in  the  material  introduced  during  Mr,  Bogole- 
pov's  testimony,  I  have  been  informed  by  Mr,  Mandel — it  is  a  letter 
from  Carlisle  Humelsine  and  so  described  in  Mr.  Sourwine's  testi- 
mony— that  it  should  not  have  been  included  in  that  list, 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  You  mean  that  material  submitted  by  Mr.  Humel- 
sine is  not  such  that  Mr.  Carter  would  be  able  to  shed  any  light  on  ? 

Mr.  Morris.  That  is  correct,  and  it  may  be  excluded  from  the  doc- 
uments. 

Mr.  Mandel,  that  got  erroneously  in  this  file  [indicating]  when  it 
should  be  in  this  [indicating]  ? 

Mr.  ]VL\NDEL.  That  is  right. 

Mr.  Carter.  I  accept  it. 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.  Mr.  Chairman,  Mr.  Morris  has  a  few  other  docu- 
ments to  be  offered  for  the  record, 

]\Ir,  Morris,  Mr,  Chairman,  we  have  received  an  answer  from  Car- 
lisle Humelsine  dated  April  11,  1952,  in  reply  to  your  letter  of  April 
2  to  the  Honorable  Dean  Acheson  of  that  date.  May  that  go  into 
the  record? 

The  Chairman,  That  may  go  in  the  record, 

(The  document  referred  to  was  marked  ''Exhibit  No,  1315-A,  B,  C, 
D,  E,  F,  G,  H"  and  is  as  follows :) 

Exhibit  No,  1315-A 

Apbil  2,  1952. 
Hon.  Dean  Acheson, 
Secretary  of  State, 

Washington,  D.  C. 
My  Dear  Mr.  Secretary  :  We  have  examined  carefully  the  letter  of  March  19, 
1952.  fi-om  Mr.  Carlisle  Humelsine  in  reference  to  a  conference  which  took  place 
at  the  State  Department  October  12,  1942,  between  Mr.  Sumner  Welles,  Mr.  Earl 
Browder,  Mr.  Rol)ert  Minor,  and  Mr.  Laughlin  Currie.  In  this  connection,  we 
should  like  to  have  the  full  State  Department  records  on  this  conference  pre- 
cisely as  they  appeared. 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS  4925 

We  should  also  like  to  know  the  steps  by  which  this  conference  was  arranged, 
-who  was  responsible,  and  the  correspondence  that  was  exchanged  in  connection 
therewith. 

Sincerely, 

Pat  McCarran,  Chairman. 


Exhibit  No.  1315-B 

Deputy  Under  Secretary  of  State, 

Washington,  April  11,  1952. 
The  Honorable  Pat  McCarean, 
United  States  Senate. 

My  Dear  Senator  McCarran  :  I  refer  to  your  letter  to  the  Secretary  of  April 
2  in  which  you  reque.st  Department  of  State  records  on  the  conference  "which 
took  place  at  the  State  Department,  October  12,  1942,  between  Mr.  Sumner  Welles, 
Mr.  Earl  Browder,  Mr.  Robert  Minor,  and  Mr.  Lauchlin  Currie."  You  also  re- 
quest information  regarding  "the  steps  by  which  this  conference  was  arranged, 
who  was  responsible,  and  the  correspondence  that  was  exchanged  in  connection 
therewith." 

As  I  stated  in  my  letter  to  you  of  March  10,  the  Department's  investigation 
into  the  history  of  this  meeting  reveals  little  more  than  the  fact  that  Mr.  Welles 
did  meet  with  Mr.  Browder  on  October  12,  1942,  at  which  time  Mr.  Welles  handed 
Mr.  Browder  a  memorandum  concerning  U.  S.  policy  in  the  Far  East.  Although 
the  Department  cannot  locate  a  verified  copy  of  this  memorandum,  ovir  files  do 
contain  several  letters  in  response  to  request  for  copies  of  this  memoranduni  in 
which  was  stated  that  "a  verbatim  text  of  the  memorandum,  as  given  by  Mr. 
Browder  to  the  press,  appeared  in  the  October  18  [16],  1942,  issue  of  The  Worker." 
I  enclose  two  such  replies. 

A  thorough  search  of  the  Department's  files  does  not  reveal  whether  either 
Robert  Minor  or  Lauchlin  Currie,  or  both,  attended  the  Welles-Browder  confer- 
ence on  October  12,  1942 ;  any  invitations  to  Mr.  Browder  or  to  anyone  else  to 
attend  this  meeting;  any  correspondence  in  regard  to  calling  the  meeting;  any 
memorandum  of  conversation  or  record  of  the  meeting :  or  any  record  of  who 
drafted  the  memorandum  handed  by  Mr.  Welles  to  Mr.  Browder. 

Since  these  may  be  of  interest  to  you,  I  am  also  enclosing  copies  of  the  follow- 
ing letters  which  bear  on  the  Welles-Browder  meeting :  (1)  letter  from  Assistant 
Secretary  of  State  Dean  Rusk  to  Mr.  Sumner  Welles,  dated  September  26,  1951 ; 
(2)  reply  from  Mr.  Welles,  dated  October  10,  1951;  (3)  letter  from  Mr.  Rusk  to 
Dr.  Stanley  K.  Hornbeck,  dated  May  19,  1950;  and  (4)  reply  from  Dr.  Horn- 
beck,  dated  June  7,  1950. 

I  regret  that  the  Department  is  unable  to  provide  further  information  in  regard 
to  the  conference  to  which  this  letter  refers. 
Sincerely  yours, 

Carlisle  H.  Hxjmelsine, 


Exhibit  No.  1315-C 

Department  of  State, 
Washington,  D.  C,  Novemiber   13,  19/t2. 
Mr.  Arnold  B.  Hartley, 

Radio  Station  WGE8,  Western  at  Madison,  Chicago,  III. 

My  Dear  Mr.  Hartley  :  Mr.  Welles  has  asked  me  to  acknowledge  the  receipt 
of  your  letter  of  November  6,  1942,  in  which  you  request  a  copy  of  the  text  of 
a  statement  issued  by  him  in  regard  to  the  questions  of  national  unity  in  China 
and  other  United  Nations. 

It  is  thought  that  you  may  refer  to  a  memorandum  which  Mr.  Welles  gave  on 
October  12  to  Mr.  Earl  Browder  in  regard  to  this  Government's  policy  with 
respect  to  China.  This  memorandum,  which  was  referred  to  in  the  press,  includ- 
ing the  New  York  Times  and  the  New  York  Herald  Tribune  of  October  16,  has 
not  been  puMished  by  the  Department.  However,  a  verbatim  text  of  the  memo 
randum,  as  given  by'lNIr.  Browder  to  the  press,  appeared  in  the  October  18,  1942. 
issue  of  The  Worker. 

Sincerely  yours, 

George  Atcheson,  Jr., 

Acting  Chief,  Division  of  Far  Eastern  Affairs. 


4926  INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 

Exhibit  No.  1315-D 

Department  of  State, 
Washington,  D.  C,  October  29, 1942. 
Mr.  Morris  U.  Schappes, 

School  for  Democracy,  13  Astor  Place,  New  York,  N.  Y. 

My  Dear  Mr.  Schappes  :  Mr.  Welles  has  asked  me  to  acknowledge  the  receipt 
of  your  letter  of  October  26,  1942,  in  which  you  request  a  copy  of  the  text  of  a 
memorandum  which  he  gave  on  October  12  to  Mr.  Earl  Browder  in  regard  to  this 
(xovernment's  policy  with  respect  to  China. 

The  above-mentioned  memorandum  has  not  been  published  by  the  Department. 
However,  a  verbatim  text  of  the  memorandum,  as  given  by  Mr.  Browder  to  the 
press,  appeared  in  the  October  18,  1942,  issue  of  The  Worker. 
Sincerely  yours, 

George  Atcheson,  Jr., 
Assistant  Chief,  Division  of  Far  Eastern  Affairs. 


Exhibit  No.  1315-E 

Department  of  State. 
Washington,  D.  C,  September  26,  1951. 
Hon.  Sumnek  Welles, 

Oxon  Hill,  Md. 

My  Dear  Mr.  Welles  :  The  Department  has  under  consideration  a  request 
from  Senator  McCarran  of  Nevada  for  information  concerning  a  meeting  which 
purportedly  took  place  between  Mr.  Earl  Browder,  Mr.  Robert  Minor,  Mr. 
Lauchlin  Currie,  and  you  at  the  State  Department,  October  12,  1942,  to  discuss 
American  policy  toward  China.  Mr.  Browder  testified  before  a  Senate  committee 
headed  by  Senator  Tydings  in  May  1950  that  you  handed  him  a  written  state- 
ment of  the  United  States  Government's  views  on  the  Far  East  at  the  conclusion 
of  this  meeting. 

Although  a  very  careful  search  has  been  made  of  the  Department's  files,  we 
have  not  been  able  to  locate  the  statement  described  by  Mr.  Browder  or  any 
record  of  your  conversation  with  him.  The  files  do  reveal,  however,  that  Mr. 
Browder  released  to  the  press  and  the  Daily  Worker  published  October  16,  1942, 
the  text  of  a  memorandum  allegedly  handed  to  him  by  you. 

It  is  realized  that  it  is  difficult  to  recall  details  of  events  which  transpired 
many  years  ago,  but  it  would  be  greatly  appreciated  if  you  could  furnish  the 
Department  such  details  concerning  this  matter  as  you  might  have  available. 
In  this  connection  it  might  be  helpful  to  you  to  read  the  enclosed  statements  by 
Mr.  Browder  taken  from  the  Daily  Worker. 

I  am  most  reluctant  to  bother  you  with  this  request,  but  the  absence  of  sufii- 
cient  information  in  the  Department's  files  has  led  us  to  seek  your  assistance. 
Sincerely  yours. 

Dean  RuBk, 
Assistant  Secretary  for  Far  Eastern  Affairs. 

Enclosures :  Daily  Worker,  October  4,  1942,  and  October  16.  1942. 


Exhibit  No.  1315-F 

Oxon  Hill  Manor, 
Oxon  Hill,  Md.,  October  10,  1951. 
Hon.  Dean  Rusk, 

Assistant  Secretary  of  State,  Department  of  State,  Washington,  D.  C. 
My  Dear  Mr.  Rusk  :  I  have  been  away  from  home  for  some  time  and  your  letter 
of  September  26,  1951,  has  consequently  only  now  been  brought  to  my  attention, 
I  regi-et  the  delay  in  replying  to  your  inquiry. 

In  view  of  the  many  years  that  have  passed  since  the  interview  of  which  you 
refer  in  your  letter,  it  is  unfortunately  very  diflacult  for  me  to  recollect  in  any 
detail  what  took  place  during  the  course  of  the  interview.  Of  one  thing,  however, 
I  am  certain,  and  that  is  that  any  memorandum  that  may  have  been  handed  to 
Mr.  Browder  at  that  time  was  not  prepared  by  myself,  but  by  the  Far  Eastern 
Division  under  the  supervision  of  either  Dr.  Hornbeek  or  Mr.  Max  Hamilton. 
There  is  no  copy  of  any  such  memorandum  in  my  own  files. 


INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  4927 

I  also  think  I  am  correct  in  my  recollection  that  some  official  of  the  Far  Eastern 
Division  was  present  at  the  interview  and  subsequently  prepared  at  my  request 
a  memorandum  of  the  conversation  that  took  place. 

It  occurs  to  me  that  it  might  be  helpful  to  you  to  consult  either  Dr.  Hornbeck 
or  Mr.  Hamilton  since  their  recollection  of  what  took  place  at  the  interview 
and  of  any  documentation  that  might  have  been  prepared  with  regard  to  the 
interview  might  be  more  accurate  than  mine. 

I  am  very  sorry  not  to  be  able  to  be  more  helpful  to  you,  but  neither  my  memory 
nor  my  own  files  throw  much  light  on  the  matter. 

Believe  me, 

Yours  very  sincerely, 

(Signed)     Sumneb  Welles. 


Exhibit  No.  1315-G 

Mat  19,  1950. 
The  Honorable  Stanley  K.  Hornbeck, 

2139  Wyoming  Avenue  NW.,  Washington,  D.  C. 

Mt  Dear  Dr.  Hornbeck  :  During  his  recent  testimony  before  the  Senate  For- 
eign Relations  Subcommittee  under  the  chairmanship  of  Senator  Tydings,  "Mr. 
Earl  Browder  stated  that  in  October  1942  he  called  on  Mr.  Sumner  Welles,  then 
Under  Secretary  of  State,  to  discuss  American  policy  toward  China  and  that 
Mr.  Welles  handed  to  him  a  written  statement  of  the  United  States  Govern- 
ment's views  on  this  subject.  He  further  stated  that,  while  the  Department 
considered  that  this  statement  did  not  represent  any  change  in  United  States 
policy  toward  China,  he  did  consider  it  a  change  in  policy  and  thus  an  important 
document.  In  subsequent  debate  in  the  Senate,  Senator  Knowland  referred  to 
this  portion  of  Mr.  Browder's  testimony  and  expressed  the  view  that  this  was 
an  extremely  important  document  since  it  apparently  marked  "the  turning  point 
of  American  policy  in  China."'  Senator  Knowland  has  not  requested  the  De- 
partment to  furnish  him  a  copy  of  the  statement,  together  with  any  other  perti- 
nent documents  leading  up  to  the  issuance  of  the  statement. 

Alhough  a  very  careful  search  has  been  made  of  the  Department's  files,  we 
have  not  yet  been  able  to  locate  the  statement  described  by  Mr.  Browder  or  any 
record  of  Mr.  Welles's  conversation  with  him.  The  files  do  reveal,  however,  that 
Mr.  Browder  released  to  the  press  and  The  Worker  published  on  October  IS, 
1942,  the  text  of  a  memorandmn  said  to  have  been  handed  to  him  by  Mr.  Welles. 
The  files  also  contain  memoranda  indicating  that  the  matter  of  Mr.  Browder's 
call  and  the  statement  given  him  by  Mr.  Welles  were  brought  to  your  attention. 

It  is  realized  that  it  is  difiicnlt  to  recall  the  details  of  events  which  trans- 
pired many  years  ago,  but  it  would  be  greatly  appreciated  if  you  would  furnish 
the  Department  such  details  regarding  this  matter  as  you  can  reconstruct  from 
memory.  In  this  connection,  it  might  be  helpful  to  you  to  read  the  enclosed  copy 
of  a  dispatch  from  the  Neiv  Yo7k  Herald  Trihune  of  October  16,  1942,  which  gives 
Mr.  Browder's  version  of  his  call  on  Mr.  Welles. 

I  am  reluctant  to  bother  you  with  this  request,  but  the  absence  of  sufficient 
information  in  the  Department's  files  make  it  necessary  for  us  to  seek  your 
assistance  in  this  regard.  Similar  inquiries  are  being  made  of  other  officers  of 
the  Department  then  in  the  Division  of  Far  Eastern  Affairs  who  might  have 
some  knowledge  of  the  matter. 
Sincerely  yours. 

Dean  Rttsk,  Assistant  Secretary. 

Enclosures : 

1.  Excerpt  from  The  Worker,  October  18,  1942. 

2.  Excerpt  from  the  .Vew  York  Herald.  Tribune,  October  16,  1942. 


Exhibit  No.  1315-H 

2139  Wyoming  Avenue, 
Washington  8,  D.  C,  June  7, 1950. 

The  Honorable  Dean  Rttsk, 

Assistant  Secretary  of  State. 
Dear  Mr.  Rttsk.  In  reply  to  your  letter  of  May  19  regarding  statement  re- 
cently made  by  Mr.  Earl  Browder  and  a  memorandum  released  to  the  press 


4928  INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 

by  Mr.  Rrowder  and  published  by  The  Worker  on  October  18,  1942,  and  with 
reference  especially  to  your  request  that  I  furnish  the  Department  such  details 
resanlinj;  this  matter  as  I  can  reconstruct  from  memory. 

You  will  doubtless  have  been  informed  by  !\Ir.  Sprouse  that,  after  the  receipt 
of  your  letter  under  reference,  I  some  days  ago  spoke  with  him  on  the  telephone 
and  informed  him  that,  although  I  clearly  recall  having  known  at  the  time 
that  Mr.  Welles  talked  with  Mr.  Browder  and  that  Mr.  Browder  thereafter 
issued  a  statement  and  released  therewith  the  text  of  a  memorandum  which 
he  said  had  been  handed  him  by  Mr.  Welles,  there  was  little  that  I  could  add 
from  memory  to  what  is  set  forth  in  your  letter  and  the  enclosure  thereto.  At 
the  same  time  I  offered  to  come  to  the  Department  at  any  time  for  he  purpose 
of  discussing  the  matter  or  seeing  what  the  files  disclose,  or  both. 

That  Mr.  Welles  gave  Mr.  lirowder  a  memorandum  there  can  be  no  doubt. 
The  account  given  in  that  text  of  the  matters  to  which  it  relates  is,  I  believe, 
substantially  accurate.  How  or  by  whom  that  text  was  drafted  I  am  not  able 
to  say.  There  are  passages  in  it  which  might  have  been  drafted  by  me  or  by 
any  one  of  several  officers  on  duty  and  concerned  with  China  and  relations 
with  China  as  of  October  1942,  and  there  are  passages  which  might  have  been 
accepted  or  approved  by  me  but  which  would  not,  I  believe,  have  originated  with 
m§.  I  recall  that  Mr.  Welles  communicated  with  nie  regarding  Mr.  Browder's  call, 
and  I  do  not  recall  at  what  stage  or  stages.  I  believe  that  he  asked  in  advance 
for  a  memorandum  for  his  (Mr.  Welles')  information  and  guidance,  and,  al- 
thoutrh  I  do  not  recall  the  circumstances  of  the  drafting,  I  believe  such  a; 
memorandum  was  prepared  with  participation  on  my  part  and  for  those  pur- 
poses. I  recall  being  informed  after  the  call  that  Mr.  Welles  had  given  Mr. 
Browder  a  memorandum :  and  I  recall  having  felt  that  the  text  of  the  mem- 
orandum thus  given  was  not  entirely  such  as  I  would  have  drafted  or  recom- 
mended for  that  purpose. 

More  important,  in  my  opinion,  that  the  question  of  the  origin  of  the  mem- 
orandum under  reference  is  the  question  whether  there  took  place  in  1942  a 
"change"  in  American  policy  regarding  China  and  whether  this  memorandum 
or  the  facts  of  the  situation  to  which  it  related  marked  a  "turning  point." 

What  Mr.  Browder  may  have  had  in  mind  when  he  expressed  himself  in  1950 
to  the  effect,  as  stated  in  your  letter,  that  "he  did  consider  it  a  change  of  policy," 
we  need  not  for  present  purposes  attempt  to  conjecture. 

Looking  at  the  text  of  the  memorandum  as  copied  from  The  Worker  of  October 
18,  1942,  I  can  say  :  In  that  memorandum,  dealing  with  and  refuting  as.sertions 
and  charges  which  had  been  made  by  Mr.  Browder,  there  was  given  an  obejctive 
account  of  developments  in  and  regarding  China  and  an  honest  review  of  what 
had  been  and  was  the  official  position  of  the  United  States  with  regard  to  the 
question  of  "civil  strife"  in  China.  A  review  of  the  whole  history  of  American 
policy  in  relations  to  China  will  show  that  although  the  United  States  had  con- 
sistently deprecated  not  only  aggression  by  other  countries  against  China  but 
civil  strife — with  or  without  foment  or  support  by  other  countries — within  China, 
the  United  States  had  long  been  committed  to  the  princijile  of  ncminterveution 
in  the  internal  affairs  of  other  countries.  It  will  show  also  that  for  many  years 
before  1942,  and  in  that  year,  and  for  some  time  thereafter  the  Government  of 
the  United  States,  in  the  formulating  of  official  policy  regarding  China,  both  kept 
in  mind  and  respected  that  commitment  and  that  i)rinciple.  There  was  official 
noting  of  civil  strife  in  China  ;  there  was  official  giving  of  advice  that  civil  strife 
be  avoided  ;  there  was  official  collaboration  with  the  Government  of  China  toward 
strengthening  China's  effort  in  the  war;  but  there  was  with  regard  to  the  civil 
conflict  within  China  no  official  taking  of  a  position  either  "against"  or  for  any 
party  or  faction.  There  were  on  the  part  of  some  American  nationals  some 
manifestations  in  some  contexts  of  a  tendency  to  ignore  or  misinterpret  or  dis- 
regard official  policy,  but  the  thoughts  and  the  acts  of  such  nationals  in  tho.se  re- 
spects were  their  own,  not  those  of  their  (Jovernment,  and  were,  incidentally,  in 
most  cases  favorable  to,  certainly  not  "against,"  the  Communists.  On  the  basis 
of  what  I  then  knew  and  of  what  I  have  from  subsecpient  study  learned,  I  find 
no  warrant  for  an  oi)inion  or  a  conjecture  that  there  took  place  in  1942  a  change 
in  the  official  attitude  and  policy  of  the  United  States  regarding  China. 

Both  "turning  point"  and  "change  of  policy"  came  later. 

A  case  could  be  made  for  a  contention  that  the  "turning  ])oint"  came  at  the 
time  of  the  Teheran  Conference  (November-December,  194.'i)  ;  a  better  case, 
that  it  came  toward  the  end  of  the  next  year,  1944;  but  .search  for  a  clearly  di.s- 
cernable  and  describably  "change  of  policy"  leads  into  and  through  the  year'l945. 

It  will  be  recalled  that  there  took  place  in  1944 — and  not  until  then— the  first 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS  4929 

of  a  series  of  reorganizations  of  the  Department  of  State ;  that  during  that  year 
there  were  substantial  shiftinss  of  personnel  within  and  outward  from  the  De- 
partment, inehidins:,  in  December,  the  retirement  of  Secretary  of  State  Cordell 
Hull ;  and  that  thei-e  took  place  in  1945  the  Yalta  Conference,  the  death  of  Presi- 
dent Roosevelt,  the  San  Francisco  Conference,  the  capitulation  of  Germany,  the 
capitulation  of  Japan,  the  Potsdam  Conference,  the  conclusion  (with  American 
encouragement)  of  an  Agreement  between  the  Soviet  Union  and  China,  the  first 
meeting  of  the  Council  of  Foreign  Ministers,  and,  in  December,  announcement 
by  President  Truman  of  a  "United  States  Policy  toward  China"  which  was  then 
and  thereafter  declared  to  be  a  "new"  policy. 

It  was  then,  in  the  year  194r» — and  nt)t  before  then — that  the  Government  of  the 
United  States,  first  having  taken  action  inconsistent  with  tradition  and  commit- 
ment in  regard  to  China,  embarked  upon  what  became  a  course  of  intervention  in 
regard  to  the  civil  conflict,  the  conflict  between  the  National  Government  and 
the  Communists,  in  China.  It  was  then  that  words  and  action  of  the  Govern- 
ment of  the  United  States  began  to  be  expressive  of  an  "against"  and  a  "for" 
attitude ;  then  and  thereafter  that  the  Government  of  the  United  States  brought 
to  bear  pressures,  pressures  upon  the  National  Government,  pressures  which  were 
not  "against"  the  Communists  but  were  on  their  behalf,  pressures  not  to  the 
disadvantage  of  the  Communists,  but,  in  effect,  to  the  disadvantage  of  the  Na- 
tional Government. 

To  the  circumstances  of  the  "change,"  to  the  content  and  purport  of  the  policy 
devised  in  1945,  proclaimed  on  December  15  of  that  year,  and  given  expression  in 
word  and  in  deed  since  then,  and  to  the  gross  and  the  net  consequences  thereof, 
there  is  no  need  for  attention  in  the  present  context.  There  is  however,  in  my 
opinion,  great  need  that  in  the  context  of  present  American  involvement  as  a 
leading  participant,  in  a  third  global  conflict,  wherein  "Communist"  totalitarian- 
ism is  making  war  both  "cold"  and  "hot",  on  all  States,  Governments,  peoples, 
institutions,  organization  and  persons  disinclined  to  accept  domination  by  it, 
there  is  urgent  need  that  the  Government  of  the  United  States  give  solicitous 
attention  to  the  question :  Must  the  United  States  follow  to  the  bitter,  tragic  and 
discrediting  end  the  downward  path,  in  relations  with  China,  on  which  its  feet 
were  set  in  the  fateful  year  of  military  victories  and  diplomatic  vagaries  and 
vitiations,  1945? 

I  should  welcome  an  opportunity  to  talk  with  you  on  the  implications  of  query. 
Yours  cordially  and  sincerely, 

[s]   Stanley  K.  Hornbeck 
Stanley  K.  Hornbeck. 

Mr.  Morris.  This  is  a  copy  of  a  letter,  Mr.  Chairman,  you  sent  to 
the  Secretary  of  State  dated  May  1,  1952,  wherein  you  renew  your 
demand  for  the  handwritten  notes  of  Alger  Hiss  taken  at  the  Yalta 
Conference  in  1945.     May  that  go  into  the  record  ? 

The  Chairman.  Was  there  an  answer  to  that  ? 

Mr.  Morris.  No. 

The  Chairman.  That  may  go  in  the  record. 

(The  document  referred  to  was  marked  "Exhibit  No.  1316"  and  is 

as  follows:) 

Exhibit  No.  1316 

May  1,  1952. 
The  Secretary  of  State, 

The  State  Department,  Washington,  D.  C. 

My  Dear  Mr.  Secretary  :  On  February  21,  1952,  I  wrote  to  you  asking  that 
the  handwritten  notes  of  Alger  Hiss  taken  at  the  Yalta  Conference  in  1945  be 
made  available  to  the  Internal  Security  Subcommittee. 

In  my  letter  of  February  21st  it  was  pointed  out  that  a  witness  before  the 
Subcommittee,  Dr.  Edna  Fluegel,  an  employee  of  the  State  Department  from 
1&42  to  1948,  testified  that,  in  the  course  of  her  official  duties  in  the  Department, 
she  dealt  with  and  handled  the  penciled  notes  of  Mr.  Hiss. 

This  letter  is  written  to  determine  what  action  has  been  taken  on  my  request 
of  February  21, 1952,  to  you. 
Sincerely, 

Pat  McCarran,  Chairman. 


4930  INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 

Mr.  SoTJRWiNE.  The  oricrinal  request  is  already  in  the  record. 

Mr.  Morris.  Yes ;  and  this  is  the  renewal. 

These  will  be  made  available,  Mr.  Holland,  if  you  want  to  see  them. 

The  next  will  be  a  copy  of  a  letter  by  you,  Senator  McCarran,  ad- 
dressed to  Rear  Adm.  Robert  L.  Dennison,  dated  May  1,  1952,  in  con- 
nection with  a  request  that  the  Forrestal  diaries  and  papers  be  made 
available  to  this  committee.     May  that  go  into  the  record? 

The  Chairman.  That  may  go  in  the  record. 

(The  document  referred  to  was  marked  "Exhibit  No.  131T"  and  is 
as  follows:) 

Exhibit  No.  1317 

May  1, 1952. 
Rear  Admiral  Robert  L.  Dennison, 
The  White  House, 

Washington,  D.  C. 

Dear  Admiral  Dennison  :  My  attention  lias  been  called  to  the  story  appearing 
in  the  New  York  Times  today  concerning  the  intention  of  the  White  House  not 
to  make  available  to  the  Senate  Internal  Security  Subcommittee  the  diaries  and 
papers  of  the  late  James  Forrestal. 

As  you  know,  on  Decemlier  3,  1951,  a  subpena  was  served  on  the  New  York 
Herald  Tribune  directing  tliat  it  make  available  the  papers  and  diaries  of  Mr. 
Forrestal.  It  is  my  understanding  these  are  the  property  of  the  New  York 
Herald  Tribune.  The  Subcommittee  has  been  assured  by  the  New  York  Herald 
Tribune  that  as  far  as  it  is  concerned  it  has  done  everything  possible  to  comply 
with  the  demands  of  the  subpena.  The  staff  of  the  Subcommittee  contacted 
you  about  this  matter  because  it  was  understood  you  were  holding  these  papers 
for  the  owners. 

The  New  York  Times  story  referred  to  above,  which  credits  a  White  House 
source,  treats  this  matter  as  though  the  documents  in  question  were  Executive 
papers  and  wholly  subject  to  Presidential  control. 

If  for  any  reason  you  have  decided  to  refuse  to  make  these  subpenaed  papers 
and  diaries  available  to  the  Subcommittee,  it  is  requested  you  directly  inform 
me,  as  Subcommittee  Chairman,  of  the  position  you  choose  to  take. 

Kindest  personal  regards  and  best  wishes. 
Sincerely, 

Pat  McCarran,  Chairman. 

Mr.  Morris.  We  have  a  letter  from  Mr.  Edwin  O.  Reischauer  dated 
September  26, 1951,  which  he  requested  to  go  into  the  record.  This  was 
discussed  before.  We  held  it  up  on  the  grounds  that  we  had  hoped 
possibly  that  we  might  have  a  sworn  statement  by  Mr.  Reischauer,  but, 
in  view  of  the  fact  that  we  are  a  little  pressed,  will  you  accept  this 
letter? 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.  Mr.  Chairman,  it  is  the  opinion  of  counsel  that  this 
letter  is  distinguishable  and  should  be  distinguished  from  an  offer  of 
proof  which  is  not  made  in  affidavit  form,  since  this  letter  is  a  recital 
which  does  not  appear  to  be  at  variance  with  the  facts ;  is  that  correct, 
Mr.  Morris  ? 

Mr.  Morris.  That  is  right,  Mr.  Chairman. 

The  Chairman.  All  right;  it  will  go  in  the  record. 

(The  document  referred  to  was  marked  "Exhibit  No.  1318"  and  is 
as  follows)  : 


INSTITUTE   OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  4931 


Exhibit  No.  1318 

Harvard  University, 
Department  of  Far  Eastern  Languages, 
Boylston  Hall,  Cambridge  S8,  Mass.,  September  26, 1951. 
The  Honorable  Pat  McCarran, 

Senate  Judiciary  Committee,  United  States  Senate, 

Washington,  D.  0. 

Db:ar  Senator  McCarban  :  I  understand  that  my  name  was  cited  before  your 
committee  yesterday  as  one  of  a  group  who  had  taken  a  pro-Chinese  Communist 
stand  at  a  three-day  meeting  called  by  the  Department  of  State  in  October  1949. 
I  am  certain  that  any  examination  of  the  record  of  those  meetings  or  of  my  various 
writings  before  or  after  that  time  will  reveal  nothing  which  could  be  called  pro- 
Chinese  Communist  or  in  favor  of  communism  in  any  form.  As  I  recollect  the 
meetings,  my  chief  role  was  to  present,  at  the  request  of  the  State  Department, 
a  statement  on  the  situation  in  Japan.  I  took  this  opportunity  to  urge  the  con- 
clusion of  a  peace  treaty  with  Japan  as  soon  as  feasible,  in  part  on  the  grounds 
that  this  was  an  important  step  in  our  efforts  to  halt  the  spread  of  Communism 
there.  This  opinion  subsequently  became  a  generally  accepted  view  in  the  U.  S. 
Government,  and  the  peace  treaty  which  Mr.  Dulles  and  Mr.  Acheson  so  ably 
brought  to  successful  completion  was  in  part  based  on  such  a  point  of  view. 

I  am  sending  you  this  statement  so  that  the  records  of  your  committee  will  not 
contain  false  testimony  uncorrected  and  so  that  the  committee  may  be  warned 
of  the  unreliability  of  some  of  its  witnesses,  such  as  Professor  Kenneth  W. 
Colgrove,  who  is  quoted  as  being  responsible  for  the  statement  in  question. 
Yours  sincerely, 

[s]     Edwin  O.  Reischauer, 
[t]     Edwin  O.  Reischauer, 
Professor  of  Far  Eastern  Languages. 


September  28,  1951. 
Prof.  Edwin  O.  Reischauer, 

Harvard  University,  Department  of  Far  Eastern  Languages, 
Boylston  Hall,  Cambridge,  Mass. 

Dear  Professor  Reischauer  :  I  have  your  letter  of  September  26,  1951,  which 
will  be  inserted  in  the  public  record  of  our  proceedings. 
Sincerely, 

Pat  ]\IcCarran,  Chairman. 

Mr.  Morris.  This  is  a  reply  the  staff  has  received  in  connection  with 
a  compilation.  Perhaps  this  was  done  by  Mr,  Mandel.  Will  you 
identify  that? 

Mr.  Mandel.  This  is  a  reply  from  the  Library  of  Congress. 

The  Chairman.  Wliat  is  the  date? 

Mr.  Mandel.  It  is  dated  March  12,  1952.  We  had  asked  for  in- 
formation regarding  the  activities  and  career  of  Madame  Sun  Yat-sen. 
The  letter  is  signed  by  Ernest  Griffith,  director  of  the  Legislative 
Reference  Service.     It  is  a  reply  to  a  request  from  me. 

Mr.  Morris.  Will  that  go  in  the  record  ? 

The  Chairman.  That  will  go  in  the  record. 

(The  document  referred  to  was  marked  "Exhibit  No.  1319,"  and 
is  as  follows :) 

Exhibit  No.  1319 

Legislative  Reference  Service 

The  Library  of  Congress, 
Washington,  D.  C,  March  12, 1952. 
Senate  Internal  Security  Subcommittee, 
United  States  Senate,  Washington,  D.  0. 
(Attention:  Miss  Walker.) 
Gentlemen  :  With  respect  to  your  request  concerning  Madame  S«n  Tat-sen's 
cooperation  with  the  Communists,  we  submit  the  following  information.     It  Is 


4932  INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 

based  largely  on  the  articles  on  Madame  Sun  in  Current  Biography,  1944;  the 
Neiv  York  Times  Magazine,  August  11,  1946 ;  A'ejo  York  Herald  Tribune,  March 
7,  1950. 

Madame  Sun  was  active  in  the  Chinese  revolutionary  movement  during  the 
period  of  the  "first  united  front"  in  China  (1924-27)  when  the  Communists 
and  Nationalists  cooperated  under  the  initial  leadership  of  her  husband,  Dr. 
Sun  Yat-sen. 

Madame  Sun  left  China  in  1927  after  the  split  in  the  revolutionary  movement. 
Living  abroad,  first  in  Moscow  and  then  in  Berlin,  Madame  Sun  was  critical 
of  the  National  Government  under  the  leadership  of  Chiang  Kai-shek.  She  re- 
turned to  China  in  May  1929,  to  attend  to  the  removal  and  reintei'ment  of  the 
remains  of  her  husband. 

After  the  Japanese  invasion  of  China  in  1931,  Madame  Sun  urged  a  united 
effort  against  the  Japanese.  In  1938,  she  accepted  a  seat  on  the  Central  Execu- 
tive Committee  of  the  Kuomintaug.  She  had  been  elected  to  the  post  in  absentia 
in  1929,  but  refused  until  this  time  to  lend  her  pi-estige  to  the  party.  However, 
she  continued  to  criticize  what  slie  termed  the  "reactionary  minority  within  the 
leadership"  of  the  Kuomintang  "which  has  forgotten  the  teachings  of  Sun 
Yat-sen." 

When  the  Chinese  Communists  took  Shanghai  in  May  1949,  Madame  Sun  re- 
mained in  the  city.  In  the  early  fall  of  1949  she  became  a  "non-Comnmnist" 
member  and  vice  chairman  of  the  "People's  Political  Consultative  Council"  in 
the  newly  formed  "People's  Republic  of  China." 

Since  that  time  Madame  Sun's  name  has  appeared  as  author  of  several  ar- 
ticles attacking  the  motives  and  policies  of  the  United  States.     Such  attacks 
have  contained   references  to  the  "peaceful"   intentions  of  the  "Great  Soviet 
Union"  led  by  the  "mighty  Stalin"  and  similar  terminology. 
Sincerely  yours, 

[s]     Ernest  S.  Griffith 

[t]     Ernest  S.  Griffith.  Director. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Mr.  Chairman,  if  I  might  revert  to  the  offer  of  the 
letter  by  yoit  to  Admiral  Dennison,  through  error  for  which  counsel 
is  responsible,  the  document  is  not  here  physically  at  this  hearing. 
There  is  in  the  files  of  the  committee  in  Washington  a  letter  addressed 
to  Mr.  Morris  from  Charles  Murphy,  administrative  assistant  to  the 
President,  with  regard  to  the  Forrestal  diaries.  I  ask  the  Chair  to 
order  that  that  letter  may  be  inserted  in  the  record. 

The  Chairman.  Yes;  I  know  of  that  letter,  and  it  may  be  inserted 
in  the  record.     It  has  to  do  with  my  request  for  the  Forrestal  diaries. 

(The  document  referred  to  was  marked  "Exhibit  No.  1320,"  and 
filed  for  the  record.) 

Exhibit  No.  1320 

The  White  House, 
Washington,  April  28, 1952. 
Mr.  Robert  Morris. 

Counsel,  Subcommittee  on  Internal  Security,  Committee  on  the  Judiciary, 
United  States  Senate.  Washington,  D.  C. 

Dear  Mr.  Morris:  It  is  understood  that  you  have  been  in  touch  with  Admiral 
Robert  L.  Dennison,  the  President's  Naval  Aide,  concerning  the  possibility  of 
having  made  available  to  the  Subcommittee  on  Internal  Security  certain  papers  of 
the  late  James  V.  Forrestal,  which  are  now  in  the  custody  of  the  White  House. 
I  have  been  requested  by  the  President  to  advise  you  that  in  his  judgment  the 
disclosure  of  these  papers  would  not  be  in  the  public  interest. 
Sincerely  yours, 

[s]     Charles  S.  Murphy 
[t]     Charles  S.  Murphy. 
Special  Counsel  to  the  President. 

The  Chairman.  It  is  a  reply  made  by  Mr.  Charles  Murphy  of  the 
President's  staff. 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS  4933 

Mr.  SouKwiNE.  If  the  Chairman  please,  it  is  in  a  sense  not  a  reply 
because  the  committee  had  made  no  request  of  Mr.  Murphy  or  of  the 
President. 

The  Chairman.  I  understand,  but  he  is  makin<;  the  reply,  is  he  not  ? 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  It  is  a  letter  stating  that  the  President  has  directed 
him  to  inform  the  committee  the  President  does  not  feel  the  committee 
should  have  the  Forrestal  diaries. 

Mr.  Morris.  Mr.  Mandel,  I  offer  you  a  group  of  letters  and  a  list. 
I  ask  if  you  will  identify  the  letters  and  the  list. 

The  Chairman.  Take  the  list  first. 

Mr.  Mandel.  This  is  a  list  prepared  under  my  direction  of  lettei*s, 
memoranda,  and  documents  from  or  to  Mr.  E.  C.  Carter  as  taken  from 
the  files  of  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations. 

Mr.  Sgfrwine.  Is  that  list  an  inventory  of  the  documents  and 
papers  whicli  have  also  been  handed  to  you  at  this  time  ? 

Mr.  Mandel.  It  is  in  fact  an  inventory  of  these  documents. 

The  Chairman.  You  better  tie  them  into  the  record  a  little  bit  by 
some  identification.  There  are  so  many  that  we  are  handling  here 
rather  loosely.     I  think  you  better  identify  them. 

Mr.  Mandel.  This  list  begins  with  A.  Von  Trott  and  ends  with 
E.  C.  Carter. 

The  Chairman.  Are  there  numbers  of  serials? 

Mr.  Mandel.  The  documents  are  numbered  and  dated. 

The  Chairman.  And  the  list  sets  forth  the  numbers  and  the  dates? 

Mr.  Mandel.  Yes,  sir. 

Ml'.  Sourwine.  Were  the  documents  themselves  taken  from  the 
files  of  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations^ 

Mr.  Mandel.  They  were. 

Mr.  Sourwine.  Have  these  documents  been  shown  to  Mr.  Carter? 

Mr.  Marks.  Yes,  they  have,  Mr.  Sourwine. 

The  Chairman.  They  may  be  inserted  in  the  record. 

(The  documents  referred  to  were  marked  Exhibits  Nos.  1123  to 
1139,  inclusive;  1141  to  1182,  inclusive;  1184  to  1223,  inclusive;  1125 
to  1229,  inclusive:  1231  to  1240,  inclusive;  1242  to  1254,  inclusive; 
1256  to  1260,  inclusive,  and  appear  on  pp.  5198  through  5272.) 

Mr.  Morris.  Mr.  Chairman,  Mr.  Alfred  Kohlberg  was  the  object 
of  certain  statements  made  by  a  witness  before  this  committee,  Mr. 
Owen  Lattimore,  and  he  has  Avritten  in  demanding  the  right  to  be 
heard.  The  committee  has  rejected  a  statement  that  he  gave  to  the 
committee  on  the  theory  that  it  was  not  a  sworn  statement. 

At  the  suggestion  of  the  committee  he  has  now  made  this  a  sworn 
statement.  May  that  be  received  into  the  record  at  this  time?  He 
has  presented  it  in  the  form  of  an  affidavit. 

The  Chairman.  Is  it  the  same  in  substance  that  he  made  before 
he  took  an  oath  to  it? 

Mr.  Morris.  Previously  he  was  introducing  certain  letters  and  cer- 
tain material  which  the  committee  felt  were  self-serving  and  they 
were  rejected.  In  lieu  of  that  Mr.  Kohlberg  has  submitted  this 
affidavit. 

Mr.  Sourwine.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  believe  it  would  be  clarifying  if 
the  Chair  also  ordered  printed  in  the  record  at  this  point  the  corres- 
pondence in  the  committee  file  between  Mr.  Kohlberg  and  the  com- 
mittee on  this  subject.     That  would  explain  it. 


4934  INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 

The  Chairman.  That  will  be  the  order,  and  this  will  be  inserted 
in  the  record  together  with  the  correspondence  of  the  past. 

(The  documents  referred  to  were  marked  exhibit  No.  1321-A,  B,  C, 
and  is  as  follows:) 

Exhibit  No.  1321-A 

March  28,  1952. 
Senator  Pat  McCarran, 

Chairman,  Committee  on  the  Judiciary, 

United  States  Senate,  Washington,  D.  C. 
My  Dear  Senator  :  As  proposed  in  your  letter  I  enclose  affidavit  for  inclu- 
sion in  the  record  of  your  Hearings. 
Briefly  it  states : 

1.  References  to  me  by  witnesses  before  you  Committee  as  the  China  Lobby, 
etc. 

2.  My  background  and  interest  in  the  Far  East. 

3.  Letters  from  Air  Marshal  Bishop  and  Assistant  Secretary  of  Navy  Gates 
attesting  my  interest  in  opposing  totalitarianism. 

4.  Service  in  Civil  Air  Patrol. 

5.  Wartime  trip  to  China  and  discovery  of  apparent  treasonable  activities. 

6.  Study  of  IPR  and  publication  of  findings  November  9, 1944. 

7.  Answer  by  four  trustees. 

8.  My  answer  of  December  28,  1944. 

9.  Special  meeting  of  IPR — my  letter  to  members  and  defeat  of  my  resolution 
for  investigation. 

10.  Formation  of  American  China  Policy  Association  in  1946  and  letter  of 
Congresswoman  Clare  Booth  Luce,  October  11.  1945,  revealing  attitude  of 
Directors. 

11.  My  appearance  before  Senate  Committees  and  acquaintance  with  members 
of  Foreign  Relations  Committee  of  Senate. 

12.  My  connection  with  Senator  McCarthy. 

13.  Admiral  Nimitz,  General  Marshall,  and  IPR. 

14.  Letter  to  IPR  Trustees,  March  13,  1952. 

15.  Letter  to  Dr.  Roscoe  Pound. 
IG.  Closing  statement. 

Very  sincerely  yours, 

[s]  Alfred  Kohlberg 
[t]  AxFREo  Kohlberg, 
1  West  37th  Street,  New  York,  18,  N.  Y. 


Exhibit  No.  1321-B 

April  9,  1952. 
Mr.  Alfred  Kohlberg, 
1  West  37th  Street, 

Neiv  York  18,  N.  Y. 
Dear  Mr.  Kohlberg  :  I  have  your  affidavit  of  March  28,  1952,  which  contains 
extraneous  clippings  and  supplementary  letters. 

For  inclusion  in  the  record  of  the  Internal  Security  Subcommittee  what  you 
submit  should  be  all  in  affidavit  form. 
Kindest  regards, 
Sincerely, 

Pat  McCarran,  Chairman. 


Exhibit  No.  1321-C 

(Mr.  Alfred  Kohlberg's  affidavit  of  April  16,  1952 :) 

State  of  New  York, 

Count!/  of  New  York,  ss: 

Alfred  Kohlberg,  being  duly  sworn,  deposes  and  says : 

That  I  reside  in  New  York,  my  office  address  being  1  West  37th  Street,  New 
York  18,  N.  Y. 

That  Professor  Owen  Lattimore  referred  to  me  three  times  in  his  statement 
read  to  the  subcommittee  of  the  Judiciary  Committee  of  the  United  States  Senate, 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS  4935 

generally  referred  to  as  the  McCarran  Committee.  That  in  addition  Professor 
Lattimore  referred  to  me  several  times  in  his  verbal  testimony ;  that  I  vpas  like- 
wise referred  to  numerous  times  by  other  witnesses  before  tlie  McCarran  Com- 
mittee ;  alos  by  Professor  Lattimore  and  other  witnesses  before  the  Tydings 
Committee  in  March,  April,  May  and  June  1950;  also  by  Senators  Morse  and 
McMahon  during  the  Joint  Committee  hearings  on  the  dismissal  of  General  Mac- 
Arthur  ;  and  on  the  floor  of  the  Senate  by  Senators  Lehman,  Connally  and  others. 

That  beginning  in  April  and  May  1950,  after  Professor  Lattimore's  statements 
to  the  Tydings  Committee,  articles  and  editorials  appeared  in  the  Washington 
Post,  St.  Louiy  Dispatch,  New  York  Post,  New  York  Compass,  New  York  Daily 
Worker,  New  York  Times,  The  Nation  (a  weekly),  the  New  Republic  (a  weekly). 
That  I  was  mentioned  17  times  in  Owen  Lattimore's  book  '"Ordeal  by  Slander." 

That  the  testimony  and  articles  stated  that  I  was  the  "China  Lobby,"  that  I 
was  the  "man  behind  McCarthy ;"  that  "McCarthy's  charges  were  nothing  but  a 
rehash  of  the  irresponsible  charges  of  Kohlberg;"  that  I  was  probably  secretly 
in  the  pay  of  the  Nationalist  Government  of  Chiang  Kai-shek ;  that  I  had  connec- 
tions with  a  so-called  Christian-front,  with  fascists,  with  anti-semites ;  and  an 
editorial  in  the  Washington  Post  entitled  "Kohlberg's  Klan"  suggested  further 
disreputable  connections. 

That  I  have  written  evidence  that  in  April  1950  one,  Robert  W.  Barnett,  form- 
erly Secretary  of  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations,  and  in  1950  Chief  of  the 
Economic  Section  of  the  Far  Eastern  Division  of  the  State  Department,  advised 
certain  reporters  of  the  above  alleged  facts  about  me  and  further  advised  them 
that  more  details  could  be  obtained  from  an  organization  in  New  York  called  The 
Friends  of  Democracy,  headed  by  Rev.  Leon  Birkhead ;  and  that  Friends  of 
Democracy  had  prepared  a  three  page  statement  entitled  "The  Case  Against 
Alfred  Kohlberg." 

That  the  facts  concerning  my  interest  and  activities  in  opposing  Communism, 
and  opposing  the  Chinese  Communists,  are  as  follows: 

I  have  been  engaged  in  the  import  textile  business  for  more  than  35  years, 
having  offices  and  agents  at  various  times  in  China,  Japan,  Iran,  France, 
Switzerland,  and  the  United  Kingdom.  At  no  time  have  I  ever  done  any  busi- 
ness with  or  had  any  financial  transactions  of  any  character  with  the  Govern- 
ment of  the  United  States  or  any  foreign  Government,  or  any  subsidiary  thereof 
(with  two  exceptions),  except  for  the  payment  of  customs  dues  and  taxes.  When 
I  refer  to  any  business  or  financial  transactions,  I  include  myself  personally  and 
any  and  all  corporations  with  which  I  have  been  actively  connected.  The  ex- 
ceptions referred  to  above  were  (1)  a  period  of  2  or  3  years  during  which  one 
of  my  corporations  acted  as  agent  for  the  Amtorg  Trading  Corp.  for  Russian 
linens  in  the  late  20's  or  early  30's ;  and  (2)  the  purchase  of  some  surplus  navy 
jackets,  after  V-J  Day,  from  the  United  States  Government. 

During  these  more  than  35  years  in  foreign  trade,  I  came  to  understand  the 
wisdom  of  the  now-abandoned  Monroe  Doctrine  and  the  Open  Door  Policy.  The 
Monroe  Doctrine  was  designed  to  prevent  the  possibility  of  the  building  up 
of  a  European  empire  on  this  continent,  with  its  resulting  constant  threat  to 
our  security.  The  Open  Door  Policy  was  designed  to  prevent  any  military 
empire  from  adding  to  its  power  the  resources  and  manpower  of  the  Chinese 
Empire,  with  a  resulting  threat  to  our  security  in  the  Pacific. 

Therefore  when  Japan  began  her  all-out  war  on  China  in  1937,  I  contributed 
to  relief  work  and  addressed  some  open  letters  to  Congress  on  America's  inter- 
est, as  I  saw  it.  At  the  beginning  of  that  war  I  learned  that  the  Soviet  Union 
extended  aid  in  military  supplies  and  a  Rus'-ian-manned  airforce  to  the  Republic 
of  China.  Being  in  China  in  the  summer  of  1938,  I  learned  that  the  Soviets  had 
ceased  their  aid  and  that  Russia  had  reached  agreement  with  Germany  and 
Japan.  This  agreement,  which  was  finally  made  public  as  the  Hitler-Stalin 
Pact  of  Aug.  23,  1939,  I  reported  in  an  interview  in  the  New  York  Times  of 
Nov.  25,  1938.  During  the  course  of  said  interview  I  stated,  and  the  New  York 
Times  reported,  that  Russia,  Germany,  and  Japan  had  arrived  at  an  agreement 
by  which  Russia  "either  joined  the  German-Japanese  alliance,  or,  if  she  did  not 
go  so  far,  made  peace  with  Japan  and  Germany.  The  arrangement  called  for 
cooperation  with  Russia  by  Japan  and  Germany  rather  than  antagonism,  and 
provided  for  withdrawal  of  Russian  support  to  Chinese  forces." 

After  the  war  started  in  Europe  the  following  year,  and  after  the  replace- 
ment of  Neville  Chamberlain  by  Winston  Churchill  convinced  me  that  Britain 
would  really  fight  the  Hitler-Stalin-Japanese  alliance,  being  a  licensed  airplane 
pilot.  I  w'ent  to  Canada  in  May  1940  to  volunteer,  but  was  rejected  because 
of  age. 


4936  INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 

The  following  month,  after  the  fall  of  France,  I  wrote  to  Wing  Commander 
Homer  Smith  of  the  Royal  Canadian  Air  Force,  offering  to  volunteer,  with  my 
airplane,  to  fly  a  suicide  mission  into  any  German  objective  selected  by  them. 
On  July  2,  1940,  Air  Marshal  W.  A.  Bishop  wrote  me  "Wing  Commander  Smith 
has  shown  me  your  letter  and  I  wanted  to  take  this  opportunity  of  telling  you 
how  much  we  appreciate  your  offer  of  service,  and  the  offer  of  your  machine. 
At  the  moment,  however,  the  age  limit  makes  it  impossible  for  us  to  accept  your 
services,  but  should  this  at  a  later  date  change,  I  will  get  in  touch  with  you." 

Thereafter  I  volunteered  to  fly  a  similar  suicide  mission  for  the  Australians, 
the  British,  and  the  Chinese ;  but  was  refused. 

Finally,  after  Pearl  Harbor  on  December  9,  1941,  I  wrote  Artemus  Gates, 
Assistant  Secretary  of  the  Navy  for  Air,  stating  in  part : 

"In  May  1940  I  volunteered  for  the  R.C.A.F.  at  Ottawa  but  was  turned  down 
on  account  of  age.  In  July  1940  I  volunteered  to  fly  any  old  trainer  loaded  with 
explosives  into  a  troop  transport,  warship  or  any  other  objective.  This  offer  was 
refused.  In  April  1941  I  repeated  this  offer.  This  last  offer  is  still  being  con- 
sidered, but  the  Air  Attache  of  the  British  Embassy  in  Washington  still  has  no 
final  decision  from  London,  but  is  not  hopeful  of  a  favorable  answer,  as  the  regu- 
lations provide  for  no  such  service." 

"I  now  make  this  offer  to  you  ♦  *  *  Can  you  use  me?  Rank  and  pay  are 
no  object,  but  I  would  like  two  weeks  to  wind  up  my  affairs.  This  letter,  of 
course,  is  strictly  confldential." 

On  Jan.  8,  1942,  Mr.  Gates  wrote : 

"I  have  your  offer  very  much  in  mind,  in  fact,  I  have  not  been  able  to  forget  it 
since  you  wrote  me  early  in  December,  but  to  date  I  just  don't  know  where  such 
100  percent  unselfish  services  can  be  used.  Perhaps  the  opportunity  will  develop 
but  I  think  our  battle  on  the  Pacific  is  going  to  be  a  long  war. 

"Incidentally,  a  number  of  officers  in  the  Bureau  of  Aeronautics  have  been 
acquainted  with  your  sacrifice." 

P^ailing  to  obtain  such  a  commission,  I  finally  served  with  the  Civil  Air  Patrol 
in  the  antisubmarine  patrol  in  the  Gulf  of  Mexico  in  the  latter  part  of  1942,  and 
hold  Certificate  of  Honorable  Service  of  the  Department  of  the  Air  Force. 

I  refer  to  this  service  and  attempted  service  as  an  answer  to  charges  and  im- 
plied charges,  referred  to  above,  that  I  was  a  Fascist  or  sympathetic  to  fascist- 
minded  groups,  with  none  of  whom  have  I  ever  had  any  association  whatsoever. 

Meantime  I  had  become  a  Director  and  in  1941  Chairman  of  the  Executive 
Committee  of  the  Board  of  Directors  of  the  American  Bureau  for  Medical 
Aid  to  China.  In  the  Spring  of  1943  ABMAC  and  United  China  Relief,  of 
which  it  had  become  a  part,  received  unfavorable  reports  from  their  staff 
men  in  Chungking  about  graft  and  incompetency  in  the  Chinese  Army  medical 
services,  which  we  were  aiding.  Mr.  E.  C.  Carter,  of  the  IPR,  had  become  head 
of  the  United  China  Relief  Committee  that  allocated  funds  to  the  various 
agencies  in  China,  and  had  recommended  for  appointment  most  of  the  employees 
of  United  China  Relief. 

I  flew  to  China  in  June  1943  at  my  own  expense  to  invetigate.  Shortly  before 
leaving  for  China,  Mr.  Lauchlin  Currie  jjhoned  New  York  and  asked  me  to 
see  him  before  going,  in  his  offices  in  the  State  Department.  He  told  me  at 
considerable  length  of  reports  being  received  from  China,  of  incompetence, 
corruption  and  the  inability  and  lack  of  will  on  the  part  of  the  Chinese  to  fight. 
He  told  me  I  could  check  with  Americans  in  Chungking,  and  that  he  would 
be  pleased  to  hear  my  impressions  on  returning.  On  arrival  in  China  Dwight 
Edwards,  head  of  UCR  there.  Dr.  George  Bachman,  head  of  ABMAC,  and  various 
other  Americans  including  some  in  our  Embassy  confirmed  the  reports  of  cor- 
ruption and  incompetence. 

As  none  of  them  had  been  in  the  field,  I  asked  their  sources,  which  they 
protested  were  confidential.  I  therefore  felt  it  necessary  to  check  in  the  field, 
which  I  did  against  their  advice.  After  traveling  through  five  provinces  by 
truck,  ambulance,  rail,  air  and  horse-back,  including  8  days  in  the  0th  War 
Area,  I  found  the  itemized  charges  either  completely  untrue  or  greatly  exag- 
gerated. 

On  returning  to  America  I  complained  to  Dr.  Stanley  Hornbeck,  Polit'cal 
Adviser  to  the  Secretary  of  State  on  the  Far  East,  and  Joseph  Ballantine, 
Director  Far  Eastern  Division  of  the  State  Department,  in  a  lengthy  interview. 
1  protested  that  the  untruths  were  making  Chinese-American  cooperation  dif- 
ficult, if  not  impossible,  witli  resultant  benefit  to  the  Japanese  enemy  and  un- 
necessary loss  of  both  Chinese  and  American  lives. 


INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  4937 

They  professed  to  be  unable  to  do  anything  about  it ;  Dr.  Hornbeck  saying : 
"When  I  see  the  people  that  this  Department  is  sending  to  China,  I  shake  in 
my  shoes." 

It  was  not  until  early  1944  that  I  began  to  realize  that  the  lies  about  the 
Chinese  Government  and  Army  were  Communist  propaganda ;  and  that  the 
main  source  for  spreading  them  in  this  country  was  the  Institute  of  Pacific 
Relations.  Although  I  had  previously  been  a  member  of  the  Finance  Committee 
of  the  IPR  and  helped  raise  funds  for  them,  and  had  previously  recognized 
that  some  of  the  employees  were  pro-Communist,  I  had  not  suspected  the 
scope  of  the  infiltration.  As  I  had  foolishly  thrown  away  all  back  copies  of 
their  publications,  unread,  I  went  to  their  offices  to  rebuy  such  back  copies. 
They  told  me  that  they  were  out  of  print. 

I  therefore  went  to  the  public  library  and  from  about  April  to  October  1944, 
read  all  articles  they  had  published  on  the  Chinese  military  and/or  political 
situation  from  1937  to  that  date.  I  then  read  the  articles  in  the  New  Masses, 
an  official  Communist  weekly,  and  The  Communist,  an  official  Communist  month- 
ly, on  the  same  topics,  for  the  same  years. 

From  these  I  prepared  an  88  page  study  (frequently  referred  to  in  the  Mc- 
Carran  hearings)  and  sent  it  with  a  covering  letter  to  Mr.  E.  C.  Carter  and  to 
each  of  the  Trustees  of  the  IPR  and  such  members  and  other  persons  interested 
in  the  Far  East  as  were  known  to,  or  suggested  to  me.  (Later  the  IPR  in  their 
so-called  analysis  which  Mr.  Dennett  testified  was  prepared  by  Mrs.  Maxwell 
S.  Stewart,  and  not  by  the  Trustees,  and  in  other  testimony,  charged  that  my 
study  contained  extracts  from  only  2  percent  of  their  articles  published  between 
1937  and  1944.  This  may  or  may  not  be  literally  true,  but  is  irrelevant  as  I 
studied  and  extracted  only  their  articles  on  the  military  and/or  political  situation 
in  China.  To  the  best  of  my  memory  my  extracts  covered  all  or  practically  all  of 
their  articles  in  those  two  fields.  I  did  not  attempt  to  analyze  their  articles  on 
other  countries  than  China  (even  including  the  U.  S.  and  Canada),  nor  on  other 
topics  such  as  economics,  industry,  transportation,  finance,  agriculture,  folklore, 
family  life,  shipping,  missionary  activities,  fisheries,  etc.,  etc.) 

In  my  covering  letter  to  Mr.  Carter,  dated  Nov.  9,  1944,  I  said  in  part : 

"Last  June  I  received  from  United  China  Relief  a  copy  of  a  booklet  issued 
by  your  IPR  entitled  'War-Time  China'  (IPR  Pamphet  No.  10).  In  a  recent 
advertisement,  Rosamund  Lee,  your  Publications  Secretary,  referring  to  this 
pamphlet  states.  'What  is  the  true  situation  between  the  Chinese  Communists 
and  the  Kuomintang  as  explained  by  Maxwell  S.  Stewart  in  War-Time  China.' 

"Frankly,  I  was  shocked  at  this  pamphlet.  From  start  to  finish,  it  seemed 
to  me  a  deliberate  smear  of  China,  the  Chinese  and  the  Chinese  Government.  I 
was  especially  shocked  by  the  following:  'They  (the  American,  British  and 
Soviet  Governments)  have,  however,  limited  their  economic  and  military  as- 
sistance because  of  fear  that  any  supplies  they  send  might  be  used  in  civil  strife 
rather  than  against  the  Japanese.' 

"The  statement  seems  completely  at  variance  with  the  many  statements  made 
by  our  President  to  the  effect  that  all  possible  aid  is  being  given  to  China  and 
will  continue  to  be  given  to  China. 

"Three  or  four  years  ago,  you  may  recall,  I  resigned  after  a  dozen  years  mem- 
bership in  IPR.  You  asked  me  the  reason  for  my  resignation  and  I  told  you 
frankly  that  I  thought  you  had  too  many  Communists  on  your  staff.  You  asked 
me  if  I  thought  you  were  a  Communist,  to  which  I,  of  course,  replied  'No.'  You 
then  told  me  that  you  did  not  question  your  staff  as  to  their  political  beliefs : 
whether  they  were  Democrats,  Republicans,  Socialists,  Communists,  or  what 
not;  that  you  investigated  their  qualifications  and  judged  them  by  their  work. 
This  seemed  to  me  at  the  time  a  very  businesslike  attitude  and  I  withdrew  my 
resignation. 

"After  reading  the  above  referred-to  booklet,  I  decided  to  look  into  the  IPR 
publications  further.  As  a  result  of  this  reading,  I  now  attach  hereto  a  lot  of 
clippings  from  your  publications,  along  with  clippings  from  'The  Communist' 
(Official  organ  of  the  Communist  Party  in  the  U.  S.  A.)  and  'New  Masses' 
(another  Communist  organ),  also  a  few  other  clippings  that  seem  to  bear  on  the 
same  issues.  If  you  will  go  throiigh  these,  I  think  you  will  find  that  your 
employees  have  been  putting  over  on  you  a  not-too-well-camouflaged  Communist 
line.  Your  staff  publications  follow  the  'New  Masses'  line  exactly  but  not  quite 
so  frankly  and  the  'New  Masses'  articles  are  much  better  documented.  In 
selecting  these,  I  have  had  to  clip  and  clip  to  keep  to  reasonable  length,  but  I 
believe  that  what  is  left  of  each  article  fairly  represents  the  article  as  a  whole, 
as  far  as  same  touches  on  the  subjects  coverprl 

88348— 52— pt.  14 3 


4938  INSTITUTE   OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 

"This  study  poses  the  question :  What  are  the  Soviet  Union's  aims  in  the  Far 
East?  Is  there  a  sinister  purpose  behind  this  Communist  inspired  campaign 
to  discredit  China?    Only  Marshall  Stalin  can  answer  this  question. 

"But  another  question  has  been  bothering  me  as  I  made  this  study.  This 
question  is:  Is  it  treason?  Does  the  publication  of  untruthful  statements  give 
'aid  and  comfort'  to  our  enemy,  Japan,  in  its  attempt  to  break  Chinese  unity  under 
Chiang  Kai-shek?    This  question  I  propound  to  your  Board  of  Trustees. 

"Look  over  these  clippings  and  see  if  you  do  not  think  it  is  time  for  a  house- 
cleaning  in  the  IPR.  The  economic  articles  (not  quoted)  sounded  to  me  very 
much  like  undergraduate  studies,  compiled  from  studies  of  Chinese  economists 
and  lacking  any  practical  business  background. 

"If  you  agree  that  a  house  cleaning  in  the  IPR  is  long  overdue,  I  will  be  happy 
to  help.    My  suggestions  would  be : 

"1.  Fire  all  the  Reds,  because  the  truth  is  not  in  them. 
"2.  Adopt  a  policy  of  presenting  facts  rather  than  opinions.    Identify  the 
sources  of  your  information. 

"3.  Name  a  responsible  body  to  determine  policy. 
"This  last  point  is  suggested  to  me  by  what  I  missed  in  going  through  your 
last  7  years'  publications.    I  found  : 

1.  No  criticism  of  Japan  in  those  7  years,  except  of  her  rural  land  system  • 

2.  No  single  criticism  of  Communist  China  ;  and  ' 

3.  No  single  criticism  of  the  Soviet  Union  ;  whereas  I  found  : 

4.  Severe  criticism  of  the  Chinese  Government,  alternating  with  praise 
closely  following  the  alternations  of  the  Soviet  Union's  foreign  policy  and  of 
the  Communist  press. 

"A  responsible  committee  controlling  and  vouching  for  your  policy  would  be 
very  reassuring  to  the  members  of,  and  contributors  to  your  Institute." 

This  letter  was  answered,  not  by  Mr.  Carter,  but  by  Messrs.  Robert  G  Sproul 
Chairman  ;  Robert  D.  Calkins,  Dean,  Columbia  Universitv  ;  G.  Ellsworth  Huggins' 
Treasurer,  and  Philip  C.  Jessup.     In  their  answer  they  said : 

"At  its  December  11  meeting  the  Executive  Committee  of  the  American  Council 
reviewed  Mr.  Kohlberg's  charges  and  demands.  It  desires  to  report  the  following : 
_  "The  Executive  Committee  and  the  responsible  officers  of  the  American  Coun- 
cil find  no  reason  to  consider  seriously  the  charge  of  bias.  The  character  of  the 
personnel  associated  with  the  Institute,  the  long  history  of  its  research  activities 
and  the  demonstrated  value  of  its  research  testify  to  the  fact  that  it  has 
properly  fulfilled  its  function  to  conduct  impartial  research  on  important  issues 
even  though  they  are  controversial.  The  Committee  believes  a  full  presenta- 
tion and  discussion  of  such  issues  is  desirable,  even  in  wartime. 

"The  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations  has,  and  always  has  had,  a  responsible 
body  to  determine  policy.  The  Pacific  Council,  with  which  Mr.  Carter  is 
associated,  is  directed  by  representatives  from  the  National  Councils  and  that 
body,  made  up  of  these  representatives,  determines  its  policies. 

"The  general  policy  of  the  American  Council,  which  is  one  of  the  ten  con- 
stituent bodies  in  the  Institute,  is  determined  by  the  Board  of  Trustees  The 
Executive  Committee  acts  on  behalf  of  the  Board  of  Trustees,  when  the  Board 
is  not  in  session. 

"The  research  conducted  by  the  American  Council  is  under  the  direction  of 
Its  Research  Advisory  Committee,  to  which  research  planning  and  policy  have 
been  delegated  by  the  Executive  Committee.  This  Committee  formulates  and 
approves  research  programs,  and  it  approves  the  research  personnel  who  are 
engaged  for  their  competence  to  undertake  the  special  assignments  required  in 
the  research  program.  Having  hired  competent  research  workers,  it  is  not  the 
policy  of  the  Committee  or  of  the  American  Council  to  censor  this  findings,  but 
to  publish  them  as  the  research  results  of  the  authors  themselves." 

This  answer  of  the  4  trustees,  I  answered  Dec.  28,  1944.  My  answer  follows 
(in  part)  : 

''The  issue  presented  to  Mr.  Carter  by  my  letter  of  Nov.  9  is  : 

"Have  the  publications  of  the  I.  P.  R.  (both  American  Council  and  Pacific 
Council)  closely  followed  the  Communist  line  in  alternate  praise  and  abuse  of 
the  Chinese  Government?    i.  e. 

Prior  to  the  Hitler-Stalin  past  of  Aug.  23,  1939 __  Praise 

Then  until  June  22, 1941  (Hitler  invasion  of  Russia) Abuse 

Then  until  Summer  of  1943 Praise. 

Since  Summer  of  1943 1  Abuse. 

"The  issue  presented  to  your  Board  by  my  letter  of  Nov.  9  is :  Are  these  publi- 
cations treasonable,  inasmuch  as  they  are  calculated  to  give  'aid  and  comfort'  to 


INSTITUTE   OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  4939 

our  enemy,  Japan,  in  its  attempts  by  propaganda  to  break  the  faith  of  the 
Chinese  people  in  the  Government  of  Chiang  Kai-shek? 

"Neither  of  these  issues  is  touched  on  in  your  letter  of  Dec.  19.  Wliether  they 
were  discussed  at  your  meeting  of  Dec.  11  is  not  stated. 

"Your  letter  states  that,  having  selected  competent  employees,  you  let  them 
publish  what  they  wish,  without  censorship.  Do  you  consider  yourselves  re- 
sponsible bodies  and  if  so,  do  you,  or  do  you  not,  assume  responsibility  for  those 
publications  by  your  staff? 

"As  a  member,  may  I  ask  your  Research  Advisory  Committee  for  the  quali- 
fications as  'experts'  of  the  following  staff  members  who  write  your  articles  on 
whether,  including  dates  of  their  visits  to  China,  cities  and  provinces  visited,  and 
whether  you  feel  their  impartiality  is  attested  to,  or  questioned  by,  their  accept- 
ance as  authorities  by,  and  contributors  to,  the  American  Communist  press: 
Maxwell  S.  Stewart 
T.  A.  Bisson 
L.  K.  Rosinger 
Y.  Y.  Hsu 

"As  a  member,  I  would  be  interested  to  know  who  elected  or  appointed  to 
your  Board  and  to  your  Executive  Committee,  Mr.  Frederick  V.  Field,  Gen- 
eralissimo of  the  White  House  pickets  until  their  liquidation,  Sunday,  June  22^ 
1941,  and  now  featured  writer  on  China  for  the  'Daily  Worker,'  'The  Commu- 
nist,' and  'New  Masses',  I  would  also  be  interested  to  know  what  makes  him; 
an  'expert'  on  China. 

"In  my  letter  of  November  9,  I  called  attention  to  the  fact  that  in  reading^ 
your  publications  for  the  past  7  years,  I  found  no  criticism  of  Japan,  Communist 
China,  or  the  Soviet  Union,  but  alternating  praise  and  abuse  of  the  Chinese 
Government. 

"Since  that  time  I  have  received  scores  of  letters,  many  from  outstanding: 
American  authorities  on  the  Far  East.  None  was  critical,  some  were  non- 
committal, the  majority  were  commendatory  of  my  study.  A  number  were  from 
ex-members  of  your  Institute  who  resigned  because  they  felt  the  Institute  had 
become  the  not-too-well-camouflaged  agent  of  a  foreign  power  whose  way  of 
life  and  world-wide  tifth  column  infiltration  are  antagonistic  to  the  interest  of 
these  United  States. 

"From  that  correspondence  I  attach  a  letter  written  to  you  Oct.  8,  1942,  by 
Mr.  Miller  Freeman,  Seattle  publisher.  Mr.  Freeman  tells  me  his  letter  was- 
neither  answered  nor  acknowledged.  Maybe  he,  too,  should  have  cleared  it 
privately  with  Mr.  Carter. 

"Before  closing,  one  more  quotation — this  from  signed  statement  of  Upton. 
Close : 

"'A  few  days  prior  to  the  Pearl  Harbor  disaster,  Mr.  Trammell'  (head  of 
NBC)  'himself  received  a  letter  from  E.  C.  Carter,  head  of  the  Institute  of 
Pacific  Relations,  demanding  that  I  be  dropped  from  the  air  because  I  was 
"anti-Japanese".' 

"One  of  the  questions  most  commonly  asked  is :  "What  are  IPR's  motives 
for  their  current  attacks  on  China.'  Possibly  your  Boards  would  like  to  make 
a  statement  on  this,  explaining  why  all  your  articles  on  the  current  complicated 
situation  are  written  by  staff  members,  none  of  whom  has  been  in  China  for 
years,  while  contrary  statements  by  such  liberals  as  Pearl  Buck  and  Lin  Yutang 
are  ignored,  and  articles  from  your  own  Chinese  Council  are  rejected.  May  I 
also  ask  Mr.  Carter  whether  he  personally  presented  your  public  criticisms  to 
Chiang  Kai-shek,  Ho  Ying-chin,  Chen  Li-fu  and  Sun-fo  in  Chungking  last  year 
and  what  were  their  answers?" 

I  then  asked  for  permission  to  circulate  my  fellow  members.  This  was 
granted  by  letter  from  Mr.  Raymond  Dennett.  But  when  I  sent  a  secretary 
by  appointment  to  copy  the  names,  they  withdrew  permission.  I  filed  suit  for 
the  membership  list,  which  after  various  court  vicissitudes  was  settled  by  agree- 
ment by  the  IPR  to  address  on  their  machine  under  my  inspection  any  one  mail- 
ing I  might  choose  to  send  their  members. 

In  said  mailing,  dated  March  18,  1947,  I  included  a  printed  resolution  appoint- 
ing an  impartial  committee  of  investigation  and  a  proxy  to  vote  for  same.  Also 
one  article  from  the  New  Leader  and  one  from  Plain  Talk,  both  about  the  IPR 
and  wrote  my  fellow  members  of  the  IPR  in  part  as  follows : 

"By  order  of  the  supreme  court  of  the  State  of  New  York,  this  letter  is  being 
mailed  to  you  by  the  American  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations,  Inc. 

"Early  in  July  1943  I  was  told  by  several  Americans  in  Chungking  that  'the 
Chinese  Government  was  hoarding  tanks  and  guns  given  them  under  lend-lease 


4940  ESrSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 

to  use  against  the  Japs.'  Late  in  August,  having  spent  six  weeks  traveling 
through  Szechuen,  Kweichow,  Kwangsi,  Hunan  and  Yunnan,  I  called  on  Brig. 
Gen.  Arms,  U.  S.  Army,  Commander  of  the  Infantry  Training  School  in  Kun- 
ming. Among  other  items  I  asked  why  we  permitted  such  hoarding.  He  laughed 
and  said  he'd  heard  some  good  ones,  but  this  took  the  cake.  He  said  that 
nip  to  that  date  all  the  arms  and  ammunition  that  had  come  in  had  gone  to 
liim  and  to  the  artillery  training  school;  that  they  were  not  fully  equipped  as 
yet  and,  until  they  were,  nothing  would  be  flown  in  (the  air  route  over  the 
iump  to  Kunming  being  the  only  route  in)  for  any  other  force  except  the  air 
force  whose  minimum  requirements  were  the  first  priority.  He  explained  that 
nothing  but  air-force  supplies  had  come  in  since  May,  due  to  the  monsoons. 
After  the  monsoons  ended,  he  expected  the  resumption  of  his  equipping;  and 
after  that  was  completed,  he  explained,  General  Stilwell  was  to  get  full  equip- 
ment for  two  of  his  divisions,  and  then,  after  that,  50%  was  to  go  to  Stilwell  and 
50%  to  the  Chinese  Army- — sometime  in  1944.  At  that  moment,  he  said,  not 
one  tank  or  gun  or  rifle  or  bazooka  or  cartridge  had  been  turned  over  to  the  Chi- 
nese Army  under  lend-lease — hence  none  could  be  hoarded. 

"On  returning  to  the  United  States,  I  spoke  of  this  and  other  reports  with 
;some  heat  and  was  told  by  friends  that  the  IPR  was  the  chief  culprit  in  the 
spreading  of  lies  about  China,  and  that  the  motivation  back  of  it  was  Commu- 
nism. I  had  been  a  member  of  the  IPR  since  1928,  but  like  most  businessmen 
and  (as  I  later  learned)  like  most  of  their  Board  of  Trustees,  I  seldom  read 
the  literature  they  sent  me,  and  like  most  people  knew  nothing  about  Com- 
munism. 

"To  check  on  these  charges,  I  read  through  the  Fae  Eastern  StmvEY  and  our 
quarterly  Faciftc  Affairs  from  1937  to  that  date  (summer  of  1944).  In  my 
reading  I  read  every  article  on  the  political  and  military  situation  in  China 
and  skipped  nearly  everything  else.  Then,  to  learn  the  Communist  line,  I  read 
all  the  articles  on  the  political  and  military  situation  in  China  in  the  Netw 
Masses  (weekly)  and  The  Communist  (monthly),  both  being  Communist  Party 
ofiicial  publications. 

"In  the  course  of  this  reading  I  learned  that  the  IPR  and  the  Communist 
publications  had  switched  their  attitude  or  'line'  on  the  situation  in  China 
several  times  between  1937  and  1944;  both  IPR  and  Communists  making  the 
same  switches  at  the  same  time.  Further  I  noticed  that  to  some  extent  they 
interchanged  writers  and  both  quoted  the  same  authorities ;  that  they  were  both 
lyrical  in  their  reviews  of  the  same  books ;  but  that,  of  the  three,  the  New 
Masses  (possibly  because  it  was  franker  and  more  open  in  taking  sides)  had  the 
best  documented  articles.  In  fact,  if  the  IPR  had  disregarded  whatever  in- 
formation sources  it  had  (if  any)  and  relied  only  on  the  New  Masses,  it  would 
have  omitted  little  that  it  published  on  the  Chinese  military  and  political 
scene. 

"After  completing  my  study,  I  published  extracts  from  the  IPR  and  the  Com- 
munist press  in  an  88-page  booklet  and  sent  it  with  a  letter  to  Mr.  E.  C.  Carter 
and  each  of  our  Trustees  and  to  personal  acquaintances  interested  in  China. 
(You   may  have   a   copy  of  this   and   later   correspondence  for  the   asking.) 

"At  that  time  I  thought  that  Mr.  Carter,  who  was  then  President  of  Russian 
War  Relief,  was  so  busy  that  he  had  let  some  Reds  on  the  staff  run  off  with  the 
Institute.  I  called  on  him  and  the  Trustees  to  fire  these  Reds  and  exercise  a  real 
control  over  their  publications.  (That  was  November  1944.)  The  answer  of  the 
Executive  Committee  was  to  issue  a  letter  stating  that  they  did  not  think  my 
charges  'merited  serious  consideration.'  (Two  of  them  told  me  later  that  they 
had  not  read  the  study.)  They  then  turned  the  charges  and  study  over  to  the 
staff  (against  whom  the  charges  were  filed)  to  be  studied  and  answered.  By 
April  1945  the  stafC  had  prepared  a  52-page  answer  of  which  I  only  learned  in 
1946  and  of  which  even  the  Chairman  of  the  Trustees  couldn't  get  a  copy  to  give 
me.     I  finally  obtained  a  copy  by  court  order  in  October  1946. 

"Since  1944  I  have  learned  much  more  about  the  IPR ;  its  apparently  completely 
Communist  or  pro-Communist  staff ;  that  all  articles  on  Far  Eastern  politics  are 
written  by  Communists  or  pro-Communists  (some  articles  on  economic,  scientific, 
geographic  questions  are  not)  ;  and  that  it  has  ties  through  interlocking  direc- 
torates or  staff  with  various  Communist  or  pro-Communist  organizations. 

"Through  its  influence  in  the  stafiing  of  the  State  Department,  Army  and  Navy 
Intelligence,  and  Far  Eastern  Divisions ;  of  UNRRA.  of  OWI,  and  even  General 
MacArthur's  staff,  our  Institute  has  put  considerable  niimbers  of  Communists 
and  pro-Communists  where  they  could  and  have  done  the  most  possible  harm 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS  4941 

and  spread  the  most  confusion.  How  far  they  have  succeeded  is  strikingly  illus- 
trated by  comparing  the  present  confusion  in  our  attitude  to  China  with  the 
statement  handed  to  Ambassador  Nomura  on  November  26,  1941,  which  laid  down 
the  terms  on  which  we  would  restore  peaceful  relations  with  Japan  (ruptured 
by  the  blockade  declared  July  25,  1941).    Hull's  essential  demand  was : 

"  '4.  The  Government  of  the  United  States  and  the  Government  of  Japan  will 
not  support — militarily,  politically,  economically — any  Government  or  regime  in 
China  other  than  the  National  Government  of  the  Republic  of  China  with  capital 
temporarily  at  Chungking.' 

"To  attempt  to  prove  my  statements  is  impossible  in  this  letter.  They  are 
proven  in  part  by  the  study  and  correspondence  referred  to  above,  which  will 
be  sent  you  on  request. 

"My  attempts  to  arouse  Mr.  Carter  and  our  Trustees  to  investigation  and 
action  have  failed.  Several  Trustees,  including  several  of  the  Executive  Com- 
mittee have  resigned,  claiming  that  they  were  worried  by  the  charges  of  com- 
munism, but  had  no  time  to  look  into  them  so  thought  they'd  better  get  out.  Our 
Board  of  Trustees  (47)  scattered  all  over  the  country  never  meets.  The  Execu- 
tive Committee  (10)  is  chairmanned  by  a  Calif ornian  who  never  attends.  The 
connections  of  the  others  are  as  per  attached  sheet.  Most  of  our  Trustees  are, 
of  course,  not  Communists  and  furthermore  don't  take  Communists  very  seri- 
ously. Their  attitude  is  very  similar  to  that  of  a  witness  before  the  Senate 
Atomic  Committee,  as  reported  in  the  New  York  Sun  February  22,  1947,  as 
follows : 

"  'Cameron  said  that  he  roomed  with  Hart  and  knew  that  his  roommate  held 
Marxist  views,  was  sympathetic  to  Russia,  and  read  the  Daily  Worker,  Communist 
paper,  but  did  not  know  that  he  was  a  Communist.' 

"If  our  Institute  is  to  be  saved  for  the  useful  work  it  can  and  should  do  in 
soundly  and  objectively  posting  American  scholars,  teachers,  and  writers  on 
the  Far  East,  we,  the  members,  will  have  to  do  the  job.  The  first  step  is  to  appoint 
a  Board  of  Investigators  to  listen  to  my  charges  and  dig  out  the  facts.  Some  of 
the  gentlemen  named  in  the  enclosed  proxy  are  known  to  me,  some  are  not,  but 
all  bear  reputations  as  good  Americans  informed  on  the  Far  East.  I  have  not 
asked  them  if  they  will  serve  and  cannot  do  so  until  I  hold  sufficient  proxies.  I 
have  no  doubt  that  enough  will  accept  to  make  up  a  satisfactory  board. 

"In  order  to  keep  this  letter  within  reasonable  length,  I  have  omitted  going 
into  the  following : 

"1.  Many  of  the  staff  and  writers  have  no  real  claim  to  scholarship  in 
the  fields  they  cover. 

"2.  Much  of  the  material  published  is  plagiarized  for  the  above  reasons. 
"3.  Our  staff  and  officers  were  instrumental  in  forming  the  violently  pro- 
Communist  'Committee  for  a  Far  Eastern  Democratic  Policy.' 

"4.  Our  staff  and  officers  were  instrumental  in  maintaining  the  pro-Com- 
munist 'Japanese  American  Committee  for  Democracy.' 

"5.  Our  staff  and  officers  conducted  a  pressure  mail  campaign  to  force 
NBC  to  continue  the  wartime  'Pacific  Story'— a  Communist-angled  dramatic 
half  hour. 

"6.  Our  staff  and  officers  have  sponsored  and  published  books  and  articles 
by  such  known  Communists  as  Abraham  Chapman,  Jos.  S.  Allen,  Harriet  L. 
Moore,  Philip  Jaffe,  Anna  Louise  Strong,  Frederick  V.  Field. 

"7.  Members  of  our  Board  of  Trustees  and  our  staff  managed  to  get 
control  of  the  Far  Eastern  Division  of  the  State  Department,  UNRRA 
and  OWI,  where  they  loaded  all  three  with  pro-Communists.  Two  of  them, 
Owen  Lattimore  and  John  Carter  Vincent,  accompanied  Henry  Wallace  to 
China  in  1944  and  talked  that  adolescent  into  reporting  to  Roosevelt  that 
•we  were  backing  the  wrong  horse  in  China'  and  that  'Chiang  Kai-shek's 
government  would  collapse  within  90  days.'  Just  prior  to  that  much  heralded 
trip  of  that  great  friend  of  the  common  man,  IPR  published  a  booklet 
by  Henry  Wallace,  Our  Job  in  the  Pacific,  which  they  knew  he  had  not 
written. 

"8.  Four  of  the  six  persons  arrested  in  the  Amerasia  case  were  connected 
with  the  IPR. 
"I  no  longer  believe  the  officers  and  Executive  Committee  can  clean  up  the 
Institute. 

"After  such  an  Investigating  Committee  has  completed  its  investigation  and 
reported,  action  will  then  be  up  to  us.  Our  Trustees  will  not  act  and  if  we 
wait  until  Congressional  investigation  reaches  us,  it  may  be  too  late  to  save 
our  institution  and  even  our  good  reputation." 


4942  INSTITUTE   OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 

At  the  meeting,  April  22,  1947,  the  tellers  advised  me  that  they  had  over  1,100 
proxies  against  the  resolution  for  an  investigating  committee.  I  presented  86 
but  they  disqualified  about  20,  though  they  refused  to  show  me  their  proxies. 
In  the  meeting  I  read  my  proposed  resolution  and  then  stated  : 

"It  would  be  my  intention  to  present  first  to  this  Investigating  Committee 
witnesses,  and  by  witnesses  I  mean  more  than  one,  who  would  testify  that  the 
Institute  of  Pacific  Relations  is  considered  by  the  National  Committee  of  the 
Communist  Party  to  be  one  of  its  organizations  and  that  certain  of  the  Execu- 
tive Committee  of  the  American  Institute  are  members  of  the  Communist  Party. 

"In  addition  to  these  witnesses  who  would  testify  to  that  effect,  I  would 
expect  to  show  that  committee  that  there  have  been  certain  misstatements  of 
fact  in  the  publications  of  the  Institute,  that  these  misstatements  of  fact  follow 
a  pattern,  that  the  publications  of  the  Institute  have  been  free  of  criticism  of 
Japan  up  to  Pearl  Harbor  except  for  criticisms  of  the  Japanese  rural  land 
system,  and  that  they  have  been  free  of  criticisms  of  Russia  up  to  date,  both 
Japan  and  Russia — that  is,  Siberia — falling  within  the  area  covered  by  the  Pacific 
Institute. 

"I  would  call  attention  to  the  fact  that  although  the  Institute  has  referred 
to  many  documents  and  in  books  and  pamphlets  issued  by  it  has  published  many 
pertinent  documents,  four  of  the  most  pertinent  documents  referring  to  the  Far 
East  have  always  been  omitted,  and  as  far  as  I  have  been  able  to  find  by  an 
examination  of  the  publications,  have  never  been  either  printed  in  full  or  referred 
to  by  the  Institute. 

"Those  four  documents  are  the  Tanaka  Memorial,  the  Resolutions  of  the 
Colonies  and  Semi-Colonies  adopted  by  the  Sixth  World  Congress  of  the 
Comintern,  the  program  of  the  Comintern  adopted  by  the  same  Sixth  Congress, 
and  the  note  of  Secretary  Hull  to  Ambassador  Nomura  of  November  21, 1941. 

"I  would  also  expect  to  show  to  that  same  committee  that  many  of  the  writers 
are  not  qualified  and  that  there  are  much  better  qualified  people  in  certain  of 
the  fields  on,  for  example,  the  Philippines,  Hawaii,  than  the  writers  in  the 
publications  of  the  Institute.  They  are  not  qualified,  and  qualified  writers  are 
available,  and,  in  fact,  members  of  the  Institute. 

"I  would  also  call  to  the  attention  of  that  committee  that  American  policy 
for  the  Pacific  has  been  a  consistent  policy  and  in  a  traditional  policy.  That 
policy  is  the  policy  of  the  Open  Door,  proclaimed  in  1899  and  further  confirmed 
in  the  Nine-Power  Treaty  of  1922,  and  that  policy  calls  for  the  Open  Door,  for  the 
Independence  and  the  territorial  integrity  of  China,  and  that  the  publications 
of  the  Institute,  although  they  have  published  vast  amounts  of  material  on  China, 
seldom,  if  ever,  have  referred  to  this  policy  and  its  implications. 

"I  believe  that  if  the  opportunity  is  presented,  I  can  prove  each  of  those  state- 
ments and  also  the  charges  with  which  you  are  familiar  from  the  letter  sent  you 
March  20." 

Mr.  Arthur  H.  Dean,  Vice  Chairman  of  the  IPR,  presided  in  the  absence  of 
the  Chairman,  Robert  G.  Sproul.  He  answered  my  statement,  saying  that  the 
IPR  was  lily-white  (not  red)  and  he  could  vouch  for  it.  The  vote  cast  by  the 
nearly  100  present,  was  unanimous  against  the  resolution.  A  few  days  later,  by 
letter,  I  resigned  from  the  IPR,  since  which  time  I  have  devoted  little 
attention  to  it. 

Just  about  a  year  previous  to  the  above  meeting,  Mr.  J.  B.  Powell,  dean  of 
the  American  correspondents  in  China,  and  Miss  Helen  Loomis,  a  former  mis- 
sionary teacher  in  China,  had  called  a  small  meeting  at  Miss  Loomis'  apartment 
to  form  a  committee  to  warn  the  country  of  the  dangerous  policy  we  were  follow- 
ing in  China.  From  this  meeting  came  the  American  China  Policy  Association, 
Inc.,  of  which  Mr.  Powell  was  President  until  his  death  in  1947,  when  he  was 
succeeded  for  one  year  by  former  Congresswoman  Clare  Boothe  Luce,  and  Miss 
Loomis  was  Secretary-Treasurer.  I  was  elected  Vice  President  and  later  Chair- 
man of  the  Board.  By  resolution  the  American  China  Policy  Association,  Inc., 
limited  its  members  to  persons  of  American  citizenship  and  provided  that  only 
Americans  could  be  brought  as  guests  to  its  Board  meetings,  so  that  America's 
interest,  only,  should  be  presented  for  consideration. 

Meantime  also,  I  had  become  publisher  and  sole  financial  backer  of  the  magazine 
Plain  Talk,  published  from  October  1946  to  May  1950,  as  a  monthly,  and  now 
merged  with  The  Freeman,  a  fortnightly. 

During  these  years,  and  continuing  to  the  present,  I  have  written  numerous 
open  letters  to  various  persons,  including  Government  officials,  numerous  arti- 
cles for  magazines,  and  letters  to  newspapers,  on  the  general  topic  of  our  strug- 
gle with  World  Communism.  I  have  also  made  speeches  on  numerous  occa- 
sions.    In  all  cases  I  have  refused  to  accept  monies,  from  any  source,  either  for 


INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  4943 

articles,  speeches  or  traveling  expenses,  or  as  contributions.  All  expenses  have 
been  paid  by  me  personally  or  by  one  of  the  corporations  controlled  by  me  and 
interested  in  these  matters. 

I  have  five  times  appeared  at  public  hearings  before  Committees  of  the 
Congress — twice  on  behalf  of  the  American  China  Policy  Association,  Inc.,  and 
three  times  as  an  individual.  Three  of  the  hearings  were  before  the  Foreign 
Relations  Committee  of  the  Senate  and  two  before  the  Appropriations  Committee 
of  the  Senate. 

Other  than  these  appearances  my  visits  to  Washington  have  been  mostly 
seeking  information  as  to  what  was  going  on  in  the  labyrinth  of  apparent  ab- 
sence of  over-all  policy  which  has  led  to  such  disastrous  results  for  America 
and  the  Free  World.  The  only  members  of  the  Senate  Foreign  Relations  Com- 
mittee whom  I  have  ever  met  are  Senators  Brien  McMahon,  H.  Alexander 
Smith,  Henry  Cabot  Lodge,  and  Owen  Brewster.  These  were  chance  meetings. 
The  only  members  of  that  Committee  on  whom  I  have  ever  called  are  Senators 
H.  Alexander  Smith  and  Owen  Brewster.  When  Senator  Smith  returned  from 
the  Far  East  in  1949,  I  sent  my  card  in  to  the  Floor  and  he  came  to  the  Senate 
Lobby  and  told  me  of  his  impressions.  I  called  on  Senator  Brewster  in  New 
York  once  when  he  was  en  route  to  Europe  and  presented  him  with  copies  of 
three  important  Comintern  documents. 

Sometime  in  March  1950  one  of  Senator  McCarthy's  assistants  got  in  touch 
with  me  and  I  supplied  published  material  on  the  Far  East  and  on  persons  con- 
nected with  American  policy  in  the  Far  East.  Subsequently,  I  met  the  Senator 
for  the  first  time.  Thereafter  Drew  Pearson  broadcast  the  statement  that  I 
was  backing  Senator  McCarthy  financially.  Up  to  that  moment  it  had  not 
occurred  to  me  that  Senator  McCarthy  had  to  pay  his  staff,  as  I  presumed  they 
were  supplied  by  the  Senate.     So  I  wrote  Drew  Pearson  as  follows : 

"Your  broadcast  suggested  that  Senator  McCarthy  has  been  put  to  heavy 
expense  in  his  patriotic  work  of  exposing  the  traitors  who  have  controlled  our 
policy  in  Asia.  I  think  Americans  should  join  in  helping  pay  some  of  Senator 
McCarthy's  expenses,  so  I  am  going  to  send  him  a  small  check  today  and  hope 
others  do  likewise." 

Some  days,  or  a  week  later,  I  sent  a  check  for  $500  to  Senator  McCarthy.  He 
returned  it  with  a  polite  letter  saying  that  charges  that  I  was  the  China  Lobby 
made  it  inadvisable  for  him  to  accept  the  contribution.  Since  then.  Senator 
McCarthy  has  not  suggested,  nor  have  I  offered  or  made  a  further  contribution ; 
nor  had  I  ever  previously  offered  or  made  any  contribution  to  Senator  McCarthy. 

In  the  course  of  my  studies  (which  were  those  of  a  businessman  with  some 
background,  but  not  those  of  a  trained  student  of  international  affairs),  I 
learned  from  persons  in  a  position  to  know,  that  at  all  times  for  more  than 
10  years  the  Communists  have  maintained  control  of  the  Executive  Committee 
of  the  IPR  and  of  the  staff;  and  that  the  few  changes  made,  under  pressure  of 
public  exposure,  have  not  altered  this  control.  About  .5  years  ago  an  investi- 
gator for  the  State  Department  spent  two  days  in  my  files,  and  after  investiga- 
tion elsewhere  filed  a  report  on  the  IFR  which  must  have  revealed  to  the  State 
Department  the  true  facts.  In  spite  of  which  our  Far  Eastern  destiny  still  lies 
in  the  hands  of  IPR-connected  officials. 

At  about  the  same  time  an  investigator  for  ONI  called  on  me,  said  Admiral 
Nimitz  had  been  invited  to  become  Chairman  of  IPR ;  that  he  had  asked  ONI 
to  report,  and  they  were  making  a  routine  check.  Admiral  Nimitz  did  not 
become  Chairman  or  a  Trustee,  but  thereafter  General  Marshall  became  a 
Trustee,  in  spite  of  the  previously  filed  report  of  the  State  Department  investi- 
gator. 

In  a  speech  to  the  Commonwealth  Club  of  San  Francisco,  February  29,  1952, 
I  called  on  those  Trustees  of  the  IPR  (of  whom  some  were  present)  who  were 
neither  Communist  nor  pro-Communist  to  rehabilitate  themselves  with  their 
fellow  Americans  by  coming  forward  and  publicly  revealing  who  pulled  the 
strings  and  who  had  induced  them  to  lend  their  protection  to  the  Communists. 
On  March  1.S,  1952,  I  wrote  to  the  Trustees  in  part  as  follows : 

"To  Messrs.  .Jos.  P.  Chamberlain,  Arthur  H.  Dean,  W.  F.  Dillingham,  Brooks 
Emeny,  Huntington  Gilchrist,  W.  R.  Herod,  and  Philip  C.  Jessup: 

"In  March  1947  I  proposed  a  Resolution  for  investigation  of  the  Institute  of 
Pacific  Relations,  to  be  voted  at  a  special  meeting  on  April  22,  1947. 

"In  seeking  proxies  to  oppose  my  Resolution,  a  public  letter  (March  17,  1947) 
issued  by  all  of  you,  denied  that  there  was  any  need  for  investigation  of  the 
Institute.     Among  various  inaccurate  statements,  you  said : 

"  'The  Executive  Committee  of  the  Board  of  Trustees  has  investigated  Mr. 
Kohlberg's  charges  and  found  them  inaccurate  and  irresponsible.' 


4944  INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 

"Raymond  Denuett,  your  then  secretary,  has  now  sworn  before  the  McCarran 
Committee  that  the  above  statement  was  untruthful,  and  known  to  you  to  be  so. 

"To  Messrs.  Eugene  Staley,  Herbert  Eloesser,  Galen  M.  Fisher,  Mrs.  Frank  A. 
Gerbode,  O.  C.  Hansen,  Mrs.  E.  H.  Heller,  Eene  A.  May,  Mrs.  Alfred  McLaughlin, 
Mrs.  Harold  L.  Paige,  Robert  Gordon  Sproul,  Lynn  White,  Jr.,  and  Ray  Lyman 
Wilbur  (all  of  California)  : 

"On  March  31,  1947,  you  issued  a  public  letter  of  the  same  general  tenor  as 
the  above,  seeking  proxies  to  oppose  my  Resolution  for  investigation. 

"To  Knight  Biggerstaff  of  Cornell;  John  K.  Fairbank,  of  Harvard;  Harold 
H.  Fisher  of  the  Hoover  Library ;  Kenneth  Scott  Latourette,  of  Yale ;  Raymond 
Kennedy,  of  Yale ;  Wm.  W.  Lockwood,  of  Princeton ;  Donald  G.  Tweksbury  of 
Columbia : 

"You  signed  statements  in  the  same  proxy  fight,  exonerating  the  I.  P.  R.  of 
the  slightest  Communist  bias. 

"To  Messrs.  Edward  W.  Allen,  Raymond  B.  Allen,  Christian  O.  Arndt,  J.  Bal- 
lard Atherton,  E.  C.  Auchter,  George  T.  Cameron,  Edward  C.  Carter,  D.  C. 
Clarke,  Arthur  G.  Coons,  George  B.  Cressey,  Lauchlin  Currie,  John  L.  Curtis, 
Len  de  Caux,  K.  R.  Duke,  Clarence  A.  Dykstra,  Rupert  Emerson,  Frederick  V. 
Field,  Charles  K.  Gamble,  Carrington  Goodrich,  Henry  F.  Grady,  Mortimer 
Graves,  R.  P.  Heppner,  John  R.  Hersey,  Paul  G.  Hoffman,  Benjamin  H.  Kizer, 
Daniel  E.  Koshland,  Lewis  L.  Lapham,  Owen  Lattimore,  Herbert  S.  Little,  Boyd 
A.  Martin,  Charles  E.  Martin,  Abbot  Low  Moffat,  Donald  M.  Nelson,  David  N. 
Rowe,  Gregg  M.  Sinclair,  D.  B.  Straus,  Donald  B.  Tresidder,  Juan  Trippe,  Sum- 
ner Wells,  Brayton  Wilbur,  Heaton  L.  Wrenn,  Louise  L.  Wright  and  J.  D.  Zeller- 
bach: 

"You  were  the  remaining  members  of  the  Board  of  Trustees  of  the  IPR  at  the 
time  my  Resolution  for  investigation  was  voted  on  April  22,  1947.  Not  one  of 
you  voted  for  my  Resolution  to  investigate. 

"Since  that  time  numerous  qualified  witnesses  have  testified  under  oath  be- 
fore the  McCarran  Committee  that : 

"1.  Your  organization  constantly  and  deliberately  followed  the  Commu- 
nist line  in  its  publications. 

"2.  Some  espionage  activities  were  carried  on. 

"3.  More  than  forty  of  your  staff,  Trustees  and  writers  were  actual  Com- 
munists, or  espionage  agents,  or  both,  and  others  leaned  that  way. 

"4.  That  activities  in  infiltrating  our  government  by  such  people  were  car- 
ried on  both  oflicially  and  unofficially  in  your  name. 

"The  balance  of  this  letter  is  addressed  only  to  those  of  you  who  are  not  Com- 
munists, or  pro-Communist  in  your  sympathies.  I  suggest  that  you  explain  to 
the  McCarran  Committee  your  defense  of  the  conspiracy  in  your  midst ;  stating 
names  of  persons  who  induced  you  to  protect  the  guilty,  and  reasons  given ;  and 
reasons  for  neglecting  the  duty  incumbent  on  you  as  Trustees.  For  example, 
which  of  you  inveigled  General  Marshall  into  joining  your  Board? 

"Such  confession  is  the  atonement  for  past  injury  to  our  country  made  by 
Louis  Budenz  and  the  other  ex-Communists  who  testified.  I  hesitate  to  think 
you  have  less  regard  for  our  country's  welfare  than  they." 

Thereafter  I  received  a  letter  from  Dr.  Roscoe  Pound,  dean  emeritus  of  the 
Harvard  Law  School,  and  at  present,  visiting  professor  at  the  School  of  Law, 
University  of  California  at  Los  Angeles,  dated  March  18,  19.52,  in  which  he  said: 

"Many  thanks  for  your  statement  of  date  March  14  which  I  am  rejoiced  to  have. 
One  of  the  worst  offenders  in  my  experience  is  Professor  J.  K.  Fairbank  of 
Harvard.  He  is  beyond  redemption,  but  I  take  pleasure  in  showing  him  up  on 
every  occasion.  I  ran  into  him  first  in  Nanking  where  the  State  Department 
information  office  was  a  fountain  of  misinformation." 

I  further  state  that  the  testimony  on  page  1085  of  the  MacArthur  hearings  of 
last  May  by  Senator  Knowland  and  General  Bradley  to  the  effect  that  we  have 
no  objectives  in  Korea ;  and  the  statement  near  the  bottom  of  page  1556  of 
Part  5  of  the  McCarran  hearings  by  Ambassador  George  Kennan  to  the  effect 
that  we  have  no  over-all  foreign  policy,  not  even  the  Open-Door  Policy  and  the 
Monroe  Doctrine  any  longer,  is  conclusive  proof  either  of  incompetence  on  the 
part  of  the  State  Department,  or  neglect  of  America's  interests  by  that  Depart- 
ment. 

Alfred  Kohlbebg. 

Sworn  to  and  subscribed  before  me  this  IGth  day  of  April  1952. 
[seal]  Pasquale  J.  Fenico. 

Notary  Public,  State  of  New  York. 
Commission  Expires  March  30,  1954. 


INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  4945 

Mr.  Morris.  Mr.  Mandel,  will  you  identify  those  documents,  please? 

Mr.  Mandel.  I  have  here  nine  groups  of  photostats  that  are  stapled 
together,  and  they  come  from  the  files  of  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Ke- 
lations. 

The  Chairman.  Are  they  photostats  of  instruments  found  in  the 
files  of  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations  ? 

Mr.  Mandel.  These  actual  photostats  as  they  are  now  were  found 
in  the  files  of  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations. 

Mr.  Morris.  They  were  found  in  photostatic  form  ? 

Mr.  Mandel.  In  photostatic  form  and  stapled  as  they  are  now.  For 
purposes  of  identification  I  will  read  one  cover  sheet.  It  reads :  "De- 
part of  State,  Office  of  Research  and  Intelligence,"  marked  "Re- 
stricted," No.  3024.3,  Economy  of  Communist  North  China,  1937-45; 
Land  Policy,  Description,  Analysis  of  the  Chinese  Communist  Agrar- 
ian Policies  and  of  the  Results  Obtained  From  These  Policies  in  Com- 
munist-Controlled Areas,  Washington,  D.  C,  March  8,  1946,"  and 
then  there  is  a  rubber  stamp  in  the  photostat,  "Department  of  State, 
Reference  Division,  Received  January  14,  1947,"  and  another  rubber 
stamp,  "Division  of  Geography  and  Cartography,  May  13,  1946, 
Department  of  State." 

Mr.  SouRw^iNE.  Don't  you  think  that  identifies  it  adequately? 

Mr.  Mandel.  All  right. 

Mr.  Morris.  Have  you  made  up  copies  of  the  first  sheets  of  every 
one  of  those  documents  ? 

Mr.  Mandel.  I  have  made  up  copies  of  nine  cover  sheets. 

Mr.  Morris.  May  we  offer  for  the  record  Mr.  Mandel's  copies  of 
the  cover  sheets  of  these  documents  rather  than  the  documents  them- 
selves? In  other  words,  the  significance  of  this  offering  is  the  na- 
ture of  the  documents  found  rather  than  the  contents  of  the  docu- 
ments. Because  of  their  great  bulk  I  do  not  recommend  that  they 
be  put  into  the  record,  but  that  Mr,  Mandel's  copies  of  the  cover  sheet 
in  each  case  be  introduced  into  the  record  after  Mr.  Marks,  Mr.  Hol- 
land, and  Mr.  Carter  have  had  an  opportunity  to  make  comment  on 
them. 

Will  you  accept  that? 

Mr.  Marks.  We  have  not  checked  those  cover  sheets. 

Mr.  Morris.  We  will  get  a  ruling  first. 

The  Chairman.  As  I  understand  it  now,  the  cover  sheets  were 
copied  by  Mr.  Mandel ;  is  that  right  ? 

Mr.  Mandel.  That  is  right. 

The  Chairman.  And  you  want  to  offer  the  cover  sheets  ? 

Mr.  Morris.  We  are  going  to  offer  the  cover  sheets,  thereby  de- 
scribing the  nature  of  the  documents  found. 

The  Chairman.  Does  the  cover  sheet  reflect  the  nature  of  the  docu- 
ment ? 

Mr.  Mandel.  It  does. 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.  What  you  are  offering  is  the  cover  sheet  of  the 
document;  you  are  not  offering  Mr.  Mandel's  copy.  The  docu- 
ments are  here,  and  you  are  offering  the  cover  sheet  of  the  document 
of  the  record  in  each  case ;  is  that  right? 

Mr.  Morris.  That  is  right. 

Mr.  Marks.  Mr.  Mandel  has  his  own  copy. 

The  Chairman.  He  has  a  copy  of  the  photostats. 


4946  INSTITUTE   OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 


Mr.  SouRwiNE.   The  photostats  themselves  are  physically  in  ' 
Mandel's  hands,  and  I  am  simply  suggesting  that  we  disregard 


Mr. 

the 
question  of  any  copies  that  he  may  have  made  and  that  the  Chair's 
instruction  be  that  the  cover  sheets  of  each  of  these  groups  of  photo- 
static documents  be  put  into  the  record. 

Mr.  Marks.  Fine. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  What  is  ordered  into  the  record  is  the  cover  sheet 
itself  if  the  Chair  so  rules. 

Mr.  Morris.  Mr.  Mandel,  could  you  tell  us  precisely  in  what  files 
they  were  found  ?     Is  that  information  possible  ? 

Mr.  Mandel.  I  could  not  tell  you  what  cabinet  or  class  of  cabinet 
it  was  found  in. 

Mr.  Marks.  Do  you  think  they  came  from  Lee,  Mass.,  or  do  you 
think  they  came  from  the  files  you  examined  here  in  New  York? 

Mr.  Mandel.  I  am  positive  they  came  from  the  files  of  Lee,  Mass. 

Mr.  Marks.  I  am  just  trying  to  locate  these  things.  Did  you  notice 
these  things  before  ?  I  know  you  have  had  a  lot  of  papers.  Are  these 
recent  discoveries? 

I  am  going  to  say  frankly  right  now  that  Mr.  Holland  and  Mr. 
Carter  will  state  that  they  do  not  recall  having  seen  those,  and  I  am 
just  trying  to  figure  out  just  what  did  happen. 

Mr.  Mandel.  As  I  recall,  they  were  in  a  drawer  loosely,  not  in  any 
particular  folder,  and  due  to  the  bulk  they  were  withheld  pending 
further  examination  and  questions  to  the  State  Department.  It  is 
correspondence  with  the  State  Department  regarding  these,  and 
that  is  why  they  have  not  come  up  until  now. 

Mr.  Marks.  Do  you  recall  any  correspondence  in  those  boxes  about 
these  boxes  or  any  kind  of  covering  letter  ? 

Mr.  Mandel.  No,  I  do  not. 

Mr.  Marks.  And  there  is  no  stafi^  memorandum  or  anything,  just 
saying  that  we  received  these? 

Mr.  Mandel.  That  is  correct. 

Mr.  Marks.  Perhaps  Mr.  Morris  would  like  to  ask  you  whether  you 
or  Mr.  Carter  can  identify  these, 

Mr.  Morris.  Mr.  Holland,  do  these  documents  suggest  anything  at 
all  to  you  ? 

Mr.  Holland.  No. 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.    Have  you  had  an  opportunity  to  examine  them? 

Mr.  Holland.  Yes ;  not  every  page,  but  I  have  examined  the  covers 
of  each  one,  and  I  have  a  general  idea  of  the  nature  of  the  documents. 
I  have  no  knowledge  of  ever  having  seen  this  document  before,  and 
no  knowledge  of  its  being  in  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations'  files. 
I  wish,  Mr.  Chairman,  to  note  that  in  the  inventory  listing  of  this 
document,  it  is  given  a  committee  serial  number  500.28,  and  I  won- 
dered whether  from  that  Mr.  Mandel  might  be  able  to  locate  a  little 
more  precisely  where  in  the  files  he  found  it. 

Mr.  Mandel.  The  designation  was  made  in  the  last  few  days  and 
covers  only  the  documents  that  we  did  not  have  in  our  ordinary  file 
and  had  to  classify  roughly  for  purposes  of  this  hearing. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  1  might  say  to  Mr.  Holland  if  it  is  important  for 
him  to  know  how  the  committee  operates  in  its  classification  numbers 
that  that  is  more  in  the  nature  of  a  library  classification.  It  does  not 
have  a  reference  back  to  the  source  of  the  document  in  the  IPR  files, 


INSTITUTE   OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  4947 

but  refers  only  to  the  evaluation  or  the  tentative  evaluation  by  the 
committee  staff. 

Mr.  Holland.  Mr.  Chairman,  my  purpose  in  asking  for  informa- 
tion about  the  location  in  the  files  is  because  the  dates  on  these  docu- 
ments I  think  all  relate  to  late  1945  up  to  I  think  either  January  or 
May  1947.  To  the  best  of  our  knowledge  the  files  in  Lee  did  not 
include  material  after  1945. 

Mr.  SouEWiNE.  On  that  point,  the  files  would  of  course  speak  for 
themselves. 

Mr.  Holland.  Sure.  lexplainthisis  the  only  reason  for  my  asking 
for  some  clarification  if  it  can  be  provided. 

Mr.  SotJRWiNE.  Mr.  Mandel,  can  you  recall  whether  there  have  been 
other  documents  in  the  IPR  files  of  a  date  as  late  as  1947  'i 

Mr.  Mandel.  That  point  has  not  come  up. 

Mr.  Morris.  Mr.  Sourwine,  would  it  be  proper  for  me  to  testify  on 
this  of  my  own  recollection? 

Mr.  SouKwiNE.  Do  you  want  to  make  a  statement  or  sworn  testi- 
mony ? 

The  Chairman.  Yes.  Do  you  solemnly  swear  the  testimony  you 
are  about  to  give  before  the  subcommittee  of  the  Committee  on  the 
Judiciary  of  the  United  States  Senate  will  be  the  truth,  the  whole 
truth,  and  nothing  but  the  truth,  so  help  you  God  ? 

Mr.  Morris.  I  do. 

TESTIMONY  OF  ROBERT  MORRIS,  SUBCOMMITTEE  COUNSEL 

Mr.  Morris.  Mr.  Chairman,  this  question  has  come  up,  and  I  have 
a  vivid  and  unmistakable  recollection  of  this  very  question  because  it 
was  my  understanding  when  I  first  began  to  examine  the  files  last 
February  and  March  that  the  documents  contained  only  letters  up  to 
and  including  1945.  The  first  or  the  second  day  that  I  began  to  exam- 
ine the  files  I  found  letters  in  there  subsequent  to  that  date. 

Mr.  Sourwine.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  you  called  that  to  my  attention 
at  that  time,  did  you  not  ? 

Mr.  Morris.  I  did,  Mr.  Sourwine.  They  number,  I  would  say,  at 
least  in  the  hundreds  in  that  description.  Some  of  them  have  been 
put  in  the  record.  I  was  pointing  that  out  to  Mr.  Holland  yesterday, 
and  one  I  could  think  of  offhand  was  a  letter  describing  a  conference 
between  Mr.  Carter  and  Mr.  Robert  T.  Miller,  which  was  introduced 
in  the  record  the  first  or  second  day  of  our  open  hearings.  There  have 
been  others,  and  my  recollection  is  that  it  is  at  least  in  the  hundreds. 
It  came  as  a  surprise  to  me,  and  I  have  an  unmistakable  recollection 
on  that  score. 

Mr.  Mandel.  I  might  add,  Mr.  Chairman,  that  there  were  two 
classes  of  documents,  those  taken  from  the  files  at  Lee,  Mass.,  and  those 
taken  from  the  New  York  office.  If  these  had  come  from  the  New 
York  office  you  would  have  had  photostats  of  all  of  them  because  that 
was  the  arrangement. 

Mr.  Holland.  Yes. 

Mr.  SouRA^rENE.  As  far  as  that  goes,  the  committee  staff  in  its  han- 
dling of  these  documents  has  kept  the  items  which  came  from  the 
New  York  office  and  those  which  came  from  the  Lee  bam  in  such  a 
way  that  there  has  been  no  possibility  to  be  confused. 


4948  INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 

Mr.  JVIandel.  That  is  correct.  They  are  designated  as  coming  from 
the  New  York  office. 

Mr.  MoKRis.  Mr.  Holland,  do  these  appear  to  you  to  be  based  on 
reports  made  by  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations? 

Mr.  Holland.  No  ;  I  have  no  indication  of  that.  Yesterday  when 
I  was  speaking  to  you  informally  I  said  it  might,  but  on  subsequent 
looking  at  them  I  don't  find  any  sign  that  they  are  based  except  in- 
sofar as  they  contain  footnote  references  to  published  materials  by 
the  institute.  The  other  comment  I  wish  to  make  is  that  in  our  New 
York  office  here  and  subsequent  to  1945  after  the  end  of  the  war,  the 
institute  like  a  number  of  other  research  organizations  has  received 
from  the  State  Department  a  nuinber  of  declassified  documents, 
some  of  which  resemble  this,  but  so  far  as  I  am  aware  none  of  them 
have  been  in  this  photostat  form.  They  have  all  been  mimeographed 
or  done  on  one  of  these  ditto  form  things,  and  that  is  why  I  am  ex- 
tremely surprised  to  have  this  brought  to  my  attention,  because  it 
is  the  kind  of  thing  which  I  myself  would  be  expected  to  know  because 
of  its  subject  matter,  but,  as  I  say,  I  have  no  knowledge  or  recollection 
of  having  seen  it  before  or  knowledge  of  its  being  in  the  institute's 
files. 

Mr.  Marks.  Do  the  declassification  documents  received  always  show 
on  the  document  that  they  have  been  declassified? 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  I  cannot  answer  it.  It  should  be  obvious  that  it  is 
possible  to  have  in  one's  possession  a  document  which  does  not  show 
any  declassification  stamp  and  which  has  in  fact  been  declassified, 
because  if  you  had  a  document  in  your  possession  at  a  time  when  it  was 
classified  and  retained  it  in  your  possession  until  after  it  was  declas- 
sified, it  would  be  a  declassified  document. 

Mr.  Marks.  I  understand  that,  but  I  think  the  practice  is  sometimes 
to  declassify  by  a  covering  letter. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Perhaps  you  are  sufficiently  familiar  to  testify  on 
that  point. 

Mr.  Marks.  From  Mr.  Holland's  experience,  and  I  would  like  him 
to  testify  on  that. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Do  you  consider  Mr.  Holland  is  able  to  testify  with 
regard  to  Government  practices  ? 

Mr.  Marks.  Just  his  own  experience  in  regard  to  the  Institute  of 
Pacific  Relations. 

Mr.  Holland.  From  our  own  experience,  Mr.  Chairman,  in  one  or 
two  cases  we  have  received  documents  subsequent  to  1945  from  the 
State  Department  in  sending  along  with  a  group  of  documents,  most 
of  which  had  the  usual  stamp  "declassified  by  order  of,"  and  then  the 
signature  of  the  person — one  or  two  documents  did  not  have  this 
stamp,  but  the  document  was  identified  in  a  covering  letter  transmit- 
ting it  to  us,  saying,  "We  are  herewith  sending  you  the  following 
document." 

Nevertheless,  this  does  not 

Mr.  Marks.  You  have  not  completed  that  sentence,  I  don't  think. 
Is  that  all  the  letter  said  ?     ' 

Mr.  Holland.  Of  course,  I  cannot  remember  the  exact  title,  but 
indicating  the  title  on  the  document,  which  on  subsequent  examina- 
tion we  have  found  did  not  include  the  usual  stamp. 

Mr.  Marks.  But  the  letter  talks  about  classification.    What  is  it? 


INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  4949 

Mr.  Holland.  I  can't  speak  from  direct  recollection,  but  I  do  know 
we  have  one  or  more  letters  in  our  files  with  inventory  documents  being 
transmitted  to  us,  and  in  that  inventory  are  items  which  on  subsequent 
examination  we  found  referred  to  documents  which  did  not  include 
on  the  cover  the  usual  declassification  stamp. 

Mr.  Marks.  Did  the  letter  refer  to  those  documents  as  declassified, 
or  was  it  completely  silent  ? 

Mr.  Holland,  That  I  can't  say. 

The  Chairman.  Well,  we  have  the  testimony  here  of  Mr.  Mandel 
that  these  photostats  were  actually  found  in  the  files  of  the  Institute 
of  Pacific  Relations  in  photostatic  form  as  they  are  presented  to  the 
committee  now ;  is  that  correct  ? 

Mr.  Mandel.  That  is  correct. 

The  Chairman.  Wliat  is  your  offer? 

Mr.  Morris.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  offer  the  cover  sheets  of  each  one  of 
these  documents  and  ask  that  they  be  admitted  into  the  record. 

The  Chairslan.  All  right. 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.  After  the  Chair  rules  on  that  point  and  if  Mr. 
Marks  has  finished  his  cross-examination  of  Mr.  Holland,  I  have  a 
question  I  want  to  ask. 

The  Chairman.  Do  you  want  to  cross-examine  now  ? 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.  I  would  simply  like  to  ask  Mr.  Holland  this :  Since 
you  did  remember  such  a  letter,  do  you  remember  who  wrote  it  ? 

Mr.  Holland.  No,  because  it  was  not  addressed  to  me.  I  ascertained 
this  information  by,  speaking  to  our  publications  secretary  yesterday. 

Mr.  SoURWiNE.  Was  it  an  official  State  Department  letter,  or  merely 
from  someone  in  the  State  Department  ? 

Mr.  Holland.  No,  it  was  an  official  State  Department  letter  which 
I  can  produce.  It  does  not  refer  to  this  document  because  when  I 
asked  for  this  information,  I  said,  "Have  we  any  record  in  our  file 
of  a  document  with  this  title  and  serial  number?"    And  it  is  not  there. 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.  I  would  like  to  ask  that  Mr.  Holland  be  directed 
to  furnish  to  the  committee  the  letter  he  speaks  of  and  any  other  letter 
he  speaks  of,  to  wit,  letters  which  contain  in  terms  transmittals  of 
documents  which  at  the  time  were  on  their  classified  list  and  also  that 
he  indicate  which  of  the  documents  on  that  letter  so  transmitted  were 
in  fact  on  their  classified  list. 

The  Chairman.  All  right.  Your  request  is  that  these  cover  sheets 
be  inserted  ? 

Mr.  Morris.  That  is  right. 

The  Chairman.  It  is  so  ordered. 

(Mr.  Mandel,  after  a  subsequent  examination  of  his  files,  testified 
at  a  hearing  held  on  May  13,  1952,  that  he  had  been  in  error  in  testi- 
fying that  the  photostats  were  found  in  the  files  of  the  Institute  of 
Pacific  Relations.     See  pp.  4616  and  4617,  pt.  13.) 

(The  documents  referred  to  were  marked  "Exhibit  Nos.  1322  to- 
1330,  inclusive,"  and  are  as  foljows:) 


4950  LNSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 

181101         3 

Exhibit  No.  1322 

(Handwritten:)  097.3 
44  Z1092R 

no.  3024.1 

BESTRICTED 

DEPARTMENT  OF  STATE 

Interim  Research  and  Intelligence  Service 

research  and  analysis  branch 

R  &  A  No.  3024.1 

EcoNOMT  OF  Communist  North  China,  1937-1945 :  Areas  of  Economic  Control 

DESCRIPTION 

This  Study,  the  first  of  a  series,  outlines  the  territorial  basis  of  the  economy 
of  Communist  North  China. 

Date :  23  November  1945. 

This  document  contains  information  affecting  the  national  defense  of  the 
United  States  within  the  meaning  of  the  Espionage  Act,  50  USC  31  and  32,  as 
amended.  Its  transmission  or  the  revelation  of  its  contents  in  any  manner  to  an 
unauthorized  person  is  prohibited  by  law. 

Copy  No. 

Restricted. 


Exhibit  No.  1323 

Department  of  State,  Intelligence  Reference  Division.    Received,  Aug.  12,  1946. 

(Handwritten:)   R 

097.3 
Z1092 
no.  3024.5 

RESTRICTED 

DEPARTMENT  OF  STATE 

Office  of  Research  and  Intelligence 

No.  3024.5 

Economy  of  Communist  North  China,  1937-1945:  Standards  of  Living 

description 

Analysis  of  wages,  food,  clothing,  shelter,  health  care,  and  other  aspects  of 
standards  of  living  in  Communist  North  China. 
Washington,  D.  C,  June  15, 19^6. 
Restricted. 


INSTITUTE   OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  4951 

Exhibit  No.  1324 

(Handwritten)   R 
29  097.3 

Z1092 
no.  3024.6 

KESTEICTED 

DEPARTMENT  OF  STATE 

Office  of  Research  and  Intelligence 

No.  3024.6 

Economy  of  Coaimunist  Nobth  China,  1937-1945  :  Labor 

description 

A  study  of  labor  policies,  labor  force,  wages  and  hours,  and  labor  unions  in 
Communist  North  China. 

Washington,  D.  C,  April  25, 19.^6. 
Restricted. 


Exhibit  No.  1325 

Handwritten:  097.3 

22  Z1092 

#3024.8 

1946 

eestricted 

Economy  of  Communist  North  China,  1937-1945:  Cooperatives 

DEPARTMENT   OF   STATE 

Intelligence  Research  Report 

OCL-3024.8 

June  30,  1946. 

A  study  of  the  historical  background,  types,  organization,  and  development  of 
cooperatives  in  Communist  areas  of  North  China. 
Distributed  by  Office  of  Intelligence  Coordination  aiJd  Liaison  (OCL), 

Restricted. 


Exhibit  1326 

(Handwritten)  097.3 
38   Z1092 
#3024.2/45 
restricted 

DEPARTMENT  OF  STATE 

Interim  Research  and  Intelligence  Service  :  Research  and  Analysis  Branch 

R.  &  A.  3024.2 

Economy  of  Communist  North  China,  1937-45  :  Summary  of  Economic  Policies 

description 

A  summary  of  the  economic  policies  of  the  Chinese  Communists  as  analyzed 
in  further  detail  in  the  forthcoming  parts  of  the  Economy  of  Communist  North 
China,  1937-45. 

11  December  1945. 

Restricted. 
(80380) 


4952 


INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 


Exhibit  No.  1327 

(Handwritten:)  097,3 

47  Z1092 

No.  30243 

KESTEICTED 

DEPARTMENT  OF  STATE 

Office  of  Research  and  Intelligence 

No.  3024.3 

Economy  of  Communist  North  China,  1937-1945:  Land  Policy 

description 

Analysis  of  the  Chinese  Communist  agrarian  policies  and  of  the  results  obtained 
from  these  policies  in  Communist-controlled  areas. 

Washington,  D.  C,  8  March  1946. 
Restricted. 

Handwritten:  446 
gs 


ExHiBrr  No.  1328 

Handwritten :  57 

Illegible  initials 
097.3 
Z1092 
#3024.4/47 
restricted 

DEPARTMENT  OF  STATE 

Office  of  Research  and  Intelligence 

No.  3024.4 

Economy  of  Communist  North  China,  1937-1945 :  Land  and  Food 

description 

Analysis  of  the  topographic  and  agricultural  regions,  land  utilization,  and  crop 
production  of  Communist  North  China. 

Washington,  D.  C,  April  12,  19.'f6. 

Restricted. 


Exhibit  No.  1329 

restricted 

Handwritten:    097.3 
27         Z1092 

#3024.7/46 
DEPARTMENT  OF    STATE 

Office  of  Research  and  Intelligence 

No.  3024.7 

Economy  of  Communist  North  China,  1937-1945 :  Industries  and  Mining 

description 

A  study  of  the  nature  and  extent  of  industrial  development,  types  of  indus- 
trial activity,  and  geographic  distribution  of  industries  in  Communist  areas. 

Washington,  D.  C,  August  20, 1946. 

Restricted. 


INSTITUTE   OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  4953 

Exhibit  No.  1330 

Handwritten :  #3024.9/46.  Other  handwritten  fijiures  crossed  out. 
24 

kestkicted 

Economy  of  Commukist  Nokth  China,  1937-1945:   Finance 

DEPARTMENT  OF  STATE 

Intelligence  Reseaech  Repobt 

OCL-3024.9 

August  26,  1946. 

A  study  of  money  and  banking  and  the  operation  of  taxation  systems  in  Com- 
munist Areas. 
Distributed  by  Office  of  Intelligence  Coordination  and  Liaison  (OCL). 
Restricted. 

Mr.  Carter.  Mr.  Mandel  recently  referred  apropros  of  letters  al- 
legedly in  the  Lee  files  after  1945.  There  were  two  sources  of  the 
Senate  subcommittee's  IPR  documents,  one  at  Lee  and  one  in  the 
New  York  office.  I  think  I  might  have  pointed  out  before,  Mr.  Chair- 
man, that  in  the  barn  at  Lee  was  a  three-drawer  wooden  cabinet  of 
my  personal  papers.  Those  were  taken  to  Washington  at  the  same 
time,  and  it  is  conceivable  that  some  of  these  1945  and  subsequent  let- 
ters were  in  my  personal  file,  not  in  the  IPR  files. 

I  do  not  thiiik  that  is  particularly  material,  but  there  is  that  pos- 
sibility. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Could  you  say  whether  these  photostats  were  in  your 
personal  files  ? 

Mr.  Carter.  My  testimony  on  them  is  identical  with  that  of  Mr. 
Holland,  that  until  I  saw  them  in  Davis  Polk's  office  yesterday  I  didn't 
remember  ever  having  seen  them  before. 

]Mr.  SouRWiNE.  Then,  you  cannot  testify  whether  they  were  or  were 
not  in  your  personal  files  ? 

Mr.  Carter.  No.  It  was  not  apropos  of  that,  but  to  establishing  the 
date  of  what  the  Lee  files  covered.  I  thought  that  in  my  personal 
files  there  might  have  been  some  IPR  letters.  The  thing  that  recalled 
it  to  me  was  Mr.  Mandel  and  Mr.  Morris's  comment  with  reference 
to  the  Miller  letter  which  was  of  a  date  later  than  1945. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Was  that  Miller  letter  in  your  personal  files,  or 
do  you  know  ? 

Mr.  Carter.  I  don't  know. 

Mr.  SoLTRWiNE.  Mr.  Mandel,  can  you  say  whether  the  so-called  per- 
sonal files  of  Mr.  Carter  were  separately  identified  ? 

Mr.  jVLyndel.  They  were  not. 

Mr.  Morris.  Mr.  Chairman,  there  has  come  up  for  attention  part 
of  the  witness,  Mr.  Owen  Lattimore's,  testimony  that  he  did  not  clearly 
understand  the  testimony  of  Mr.  Barmine  with  respect  to  a  certain  con- 
versation :Mr.  Barmine  "had  with  General  Berzin.  Mr.  Chairman,  I 
feel  our  public  record  is  clear  and  unmistakable  on  this  point,  particu- 
larly if  you  read  two  or  three  pages,  and  it  comes  to  the  very  point. 

In  reading  through  the  executive  session  testimony  of  Mr.  Barniine 
taken  on  May  5,  1951,  several  months  prior,  the  thing  is  even  more 
clear  and  more  precise.     For  the  sake  of  clarity  I  ask  that  pages  21 

8834S — 52 — pt.  14 4 


4954  INSTITUTE   OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 

and  22  of  Mr.  Barmine's  executive  session  testimony  be  introduced 
into  our  public  record. 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.  Mr.  Chairman,  since  that  obviously  requires  a  rul- 
ing by  the  committee  to  release  executive  session  testimony,  I  would 
ask  Mr.  Morris  if  he  would  amend  his  request  to  be  that  the  chair 
at  an  appropriate  time  lay  before  the  full  committee  the  question  of 
inserting  in  the  record  such  portions  of  the  executive  session  testimony. 

The  Chairman.  I  think  that  is  the  correct  attitude  to  take.  I  think 
it  should  be  presented  to  the  subcommittee.  At  that  time  let  the  sub- 
committee release  it  from  its  executive  position. 

Mr.  SoURWiNE.  The  chair  could  order  included  at  this  point  in  the 
record  such  portions  of  the  executive  testimony  of  Mr.  Barmine  as  the 
subcommittee  rules  may  be  released  from  the  executive  session. 

The  Chairman.  That  will  be  the  order. 

(The  document  referred  to  was  marked  Exhibit  No.  1331  and  is  as 
follows :) 

Exhibit  No.  1331 

Mr.  Bakmine.     *     *     * 

In  this  connection  with  General  Berzin  and  one  of  his  assistants,  we  were 
discussing  possible  personnel. 

Mr.  Morris.  Who  was  his  assistant? 

Mr.  Barmine.  He  was  chief  of  the  second  section,  Firin. 

So  there  was  discussion  about  the  personnel  at  least  and  Firin  was  called  to 
the  discussion  and  there  were  exchanges  about  the  possible  people  among  the 
Military  Intelligence  personnel  who  were  at  that  time  in  China  or  had  knowledge 
of  Chinese  affairs,  and  would  it  be  possible  to  use  them. 

Several  names  of  Russians,  Chinese,  Americans,  Czechoslovakians,  French, 
were  mentioned. 

Now,  I  want  to  make  the  statement  that  that  conversation  was  in  1935,  sixteen 
years  ago,  and  I  only  can  tell  these  conversation  were  carried  by  hours  and  for 
weeks.  There  were  so  many  other  problems  in  our  work  in  the  export  of  arms, 
things  that  you  are  interested  in,  it  was  a  very  casual  and  incidental  part  of  it. 

I  had  my  hands  full  of  other  things,  so  probably  only  I  can  tell  to  the  best 
of  my  recollection  whatever  remains  in  my  memory. 

Mr.  Morris.  What  did  he  say  about  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations? 

Mr.  Barmine.  Several  names  were  named  of  men  working  for  the  apparatus 
of  Military  Intelligence  there,  and  suggested,  not  even  suggested,  but  discussed 
the  posibility.    Two  of  them  were  Americans,  Lattimore  and  Joseph  Barnes. 
******* 

Executive  Session,  Volume  21,  May  5, 1951. 

Testimony  of  Alexander  Gregory  Barmine,  pages  21-22  of  transcript. 

Mr.  Morris.  Mr.  Mandell,  will  you  identify  these  two  letters,  please  ? 

Mr.  Mandell.  I  have  here  three  photostats  which  I  personally  ob- 
tained from  the  files  of  Ray  Lyman  Wilbur  at  the  Stanford  University. 

The  Chairman.  Did  you  have  those  photostats  made  ? 

Mr.  Mandel.  Yes. 

Mr.  SouRWiNE.  You  mean  from  the  files  of  Ray  Lyman  Wilbur,  or 
from  the  files  of  the  Ray  Lyman  Wilbur  Library  or  some  other 
library  ? 

Mr.  Mandel.  They  were  files  of  Ray  Lyman  Wilbur. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE,  Personal  files? 

Mr.  Mandel.  Yes.  They  were  obtained  from  the  Hoover  Libr^^ry 
at  Stanford  Univei-sity. 

Mr.  Morris.  Mr.  Chairman,  the  first  of  these  purports  to  be  a  letter 
signed  by  Mr.  Edward  C.  Carter,  dated  December  30,  1933,  to  the 
members  of  the  American  council : 


INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  4955 

It  gives  me  great  pleasure  to  announce  that  at  the  board  of  trustees  meeting 
on  December  20  Mr.  Joseph  Barnes  was  unanimously  selected  my  successor  as 
secretary  to  the  American  council. 

I  offer  this  to  Mr.  Carter  and  ask  him  if  he  can  recall  having  written 
that  letter.  Does  that  look  like  a  photostatic  copy  of  a  document  sent 
by  you,  Mr.  Carter? 

Air.  Carter.  Yes. 

The  Chairman.  The  question  is,  Does  he  recall  having  sent  the 
original  of  that  ? 

Mr.  Carter.  I  do. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  That  is  a  photostatic  copy  of  your  signature? 

Mr.  Carter.  Yes. 

Mr.  Morris.  I  have  here  photostatic  copies  of  correspondence  be- 
tween Mr.  Eliot  Wadsworth  and  Mr.  Edward  C.  Carter  dated  No- 
vember 25, 1941,  and  November  26, 1941.  I  offer  you  that,  Mr.  Carter, 
and  ask  you  if  those  documents  recall  such  an  exchange  of  corre- 
spondence that  you  had  ? 

Mr.  Carter.  They  appear  to  be  one  sent  by  me  and  the  other  re- 
ceived by  me. 

Mr.  SouRwiNE.  Is  one  of  those  in  fact  a  letter  which  you  sent  and 
signed  ? 

Mr.  Carter.  Yes. 

Mr.  SouRWiNE,  Is  it  a  photostatic  copy  ? 

Mr.  Carter.  Yes.    The  signature  is  not  there  on  either  letter. 

Mr.  Sourwine.  This  is  a  photostatic  copy  of  a  letter  dated  Novem- 
ber 26,  1941,  typed  and  addressed  "Dear  Eliot"  and  is  a  letter  which 
in  fact  you  dictated  and  sent  ? 

Mr.  Carter.  Yes. 

Mr.  Sourwine.  The  next  document  is  headed  "American  Red  Cross" 
and  is  dated  November  25,  1941,  to  Mr.  Edward  C.  Carter  and  signed 
"Eliot  Wadsworth."    Is  that  a  copy  of  a  letter  you  received? 

Mr.  Carter.  Yes. 

Mr.  Morris.  Ma^  they  be  received  in  the  record  ? 

The  Chairman.  They  will  be  received  in  the  record. 

(The  documents  referred  to  were  marked  "Exhibits  Nos.  1332,  1333, 
1333-A,  and  are  as  follows :) 

Exhibit  No.  1332 

Amekican  Council,  Institute  of  Pacific  Rbxations 

129  East  52nd  St.,  New  York  City  (top  floor) 

Telephone  PLaza  3-4700.     Cable,  INPAREL,  New  York 

December  30,  1933. 

To  the  Members  of  the  American  Council  : 

It  gives  me  great  pleasure  to  announce  that  at  the  Board  of  Trustees  meeting 
on  December  20th  Mr.  Joseph  Barnes  was  unanimously  elected  my  successor  as 
Secretary  of  the  American  Council.     He  will  take  office  on  January  1st,  1934. 

For  the  past  two  years  Mr.  Barnes  has  been  a  member  of  the  Research  staff 
of  the  American  Council.  He  was  the  editor  of  the  series  of  studies  in  Conflict 
and  Control  which  were  presented  as  the  American  Council  data  papers  at  the 
Banff  Conference.  He  wrote  Government  Promotion  of  Foreign  Trade  in  the 
United  States  in  that  series.  In  1932,  in  collaboration  with  Mr.  Frederick  V. 
Field,  Mr.  Barnes  wrote  two  of  the  American  Council's  most  widely  circulated 
pamphlets,  Conflict  in  the  Far  East,  1931-1932,  and  Behind  the  Far  Eastern  Con- 
flict. He  is  the  author  of  several  of  the  American  Council's  Fortnightly  Memo- 
randa. 


4956  INSTITUTE   OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 

At  the  1933  annual  meeting  of  the  American  Academy  of  Political  and  Social 
Science,  Mr.  Barnes  read  a  paper  on  The  Tactics  of  the  Third  International,, 
and  at  the  annual  meeting  of  the  American  Historical  Association  he  presented 
a  paper  on  Military  Communism.  In  March  1934,  Doubleday,  Doran  are  publish- 
ing a  symposium  which  has  been  planned  by  Mr.  Barnes  and  written  by  ten 
members  of  the  American  Council.  The  title  of  the  forthcoming  book  is  "Empire 
in  the  East." 

After  being  graduated  from  Harvard  and  completing  a  period  of  study  at  the 
London  School  of  Economics  and  in  the  Soviet  Union,  Mr.  Barnes  joined  the 
staff  of  the  Chase  National  Bank.  From  the  Chase  Bank  he  returned  to  Russia 
for  a  further  period  of  study,  at  the  end  of  which  he  went  to  the  Far  East  as  a 
member  of  the  American  Group  at  the  Shanghai  Conference  in  1931.  He  joined 
the  staff  of  the  American  Council  at  the  end  of  that  year.  In  addition  to  the 
higliest  research  qualifications,  Mr.  Barnes  has  shown  pronounced  executive 
ability.  He  assumes  office  with  the  unqualified  support  of  the  officers  of  the 
Council. 

In  connection  with  my  new  work  as  Secretary  General  of  the  Institute  of 
Pacific  Relations,  Mrs.  Carter  and  I  leave  San  Francisco  for  Honolulu  and  the 
Far  East  on  January  26th. 


Sincerely  yours, 


[s]  Edward  C.  Carter, 
[t]  Edwaed  C.  Caetek. 


Exhibit  No.  1333 

American  Red  Cross, 
Washington,  D.  C,  November  25,  1941. 
Mr.  Edward  C.  Carter, 

129  East  52d  Street,  New  York,  N.  T. 

Deas  Ned  :  Thanks  for  your  letter  of  the  21st  with  a  most  interesting  report 
as  to  the  varied  activities  of  the  staff  of  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations. 

You  certainly  have  been  playing  checkers  and  almost  rival  Felix  Frankfurter 
in  his  reputing  activities  in  recommending  young  men  for  positions. 

I  am  certainly  glad  that  you  put  aside  the  crown  and  stuck  to  your  old  job 
which  must  be  more  important  all  the  time. 
Enclosed  is  check  for  $50,  which  I  am  glad  to  send. 
Sincerely, 

(Signed)     Eliot  Wadswoeth. 


Exhibit  No.  1333-A 

November  26,  1941. 
Eliot  Wadsworth,  Esq., 

American  Red  Cross,  Washington,  D.  G. 
Dear  Eliot  :  It  was  great  to  get  your  prompt  and  generous  response  to  our 
appeal.  Enclosed  is  the  Assistant  Treasurer's  receipt. 

As  you  can  well  imagine,  it  is  satisfying  to  find  that  we  have  been  lucky  in 
developing  both  a  system  and  an  appeal  which  draws  exceedingly  able  young 
people  to  our  staff,  whose  services  subsequently  appear  invaluable  to  various 
governments. 

Allen  Wardwell  has  just  spoken  very  appreciately  of  Andrew  Grajdanzev's 
article  on  Russia's  War  Potential  in  the  Far  Eastern  Survey  of  November  17, 
and  four  departments  of  the  Government  have  indicated  that  his  article  on 
the  Trans-Siberian  Railway  and  the  Problem  of  Soviet  Supply  in  December 
Pacific  Affairs  is  the  most  authoritative  and  useful  treatment  of  this  all-import- 
ant railway  which  has  been  prepared  in  this  country. 
Again  many,  many  thanks. 
Sincerely  yours, 

Edward  C.  Carter. 

Mr.  Morris.  With  respect  to  these  others,  they  do  not  require  the 
presence  of  these  gentlemen  here,  but  they  are  perfectly  willing  to 


INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  4957 

rstay  on.     I  suggest  that  they  do  stay  on  because  they  may  be  of  inter- 
est to  them.     The  only  thing  is  your  time. 

The  Chairman.  My  time  is  coming  up  right  now.  I  have  an  ap- 
pointment.    When  would  we  go  on  again? 

Mr.  Morris.  We  can  do  it  in  Washington. 

The  Chairman.  That  would  be  better. 

Mr,  SouRwiNE.  Before  we  conclude  this  hearing,  I  would  like  to 
ask  one  question  of  Mr.  Carter  and  Mr.  Holland.  Do  each  of  you 
adopt  as  your  testimony  the  statements  here  made  in  your  behalf  by 
Mr.  Marks  ? 

Mr.  Holland.  I  do. 
•  Mr.  Carter.  I  do. 

Mr.  Morris.  We  have  two  statements  from  Mr.  Carter  which  have 
been  submitted  to  the  committee  today,  I  have  not  seen  either  one 
of  those,  but  the  question  comes  up.  Suppose  those  statements  are 
based  on  letters  that  are  not  now  in  our  records;  will  they  be  able  to 
be  received  in  the  record  ? 

The  Chairman.  They  are  not  admitted  in  the  record  of  this  com- 
mittee yet.  If  you  need  those  letters,  you  can  call  on  Mr.  Carter  to 
produce  them. 

Mr.  Morris.  On  several  occasions  I  have  invited  Mr,  Marks  and 
Mr.  Holland  and  Mr.  Carter  and  others  in  the  Institute  to  put  into 
our  record,  if  they  feel  it  is  necessary  in  the  sake  of  justice  and  fair- 
ness, if  we  have,  for  instance,  introduced  a  letter  of  a  certain  nature, 
the  reply  to  that  letter.  I  was  hoping  that  today  they  might  have 
some  of  those  things  that  might  go  into  our  record  at  this  time. 

Mr.  Holland.  The  selection  of  those  letters  is  one  of  the  things 
why  Mr.  Carter  is  working  in  New  York.  We  do  have  a  few  and,  as 
I  recall,  Mr.  Carter  has  one  section,  the  appendix  to  one  of  his  state- 
ments, and  we  will  have  others  that  we  wish  to  submit  fairly  soon. 

Mr,  SouRwiNE.  With  the  knowledge  of  the  shortage  of  time  that 
the  chairman  has,  it  seems  perfectly  clear  there  is  going  to  have  to 
be  one  more  session.  Could  we  recess  subject  to  the  call  of  the 
chairman  ? 

The  Chairman.  All  right. 

(Whereupon,  at  12:15  p,  m.,  the  hearing  was  adjourned,  subject 
to  the  call  of  the  Chair,) 


4958 


INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 


Exhibit  No.  765 


To- 

From— 

Date 

Type  of 
Document 

File 
Number 

Exhibit 
Num- 
ber 

ECC  and  CP 

WWL  

1/  5/37 

1/  5/37 

11/15/37 

12/  1/37 

1/  4/38 

9/19/38 

.  10/10/38 

1/  5/40 

7/12/40 

3/21/41 

4/15/43 

12/10/41 

12/19/41 

12/23/41 

1/16/42 

2/12/42 

3/  3/42 

3/27/42 

3/17/42 

4/21/42 

6/15/42 

10/21/42 

10/21/42 

11/16/42 

11/  6/42 

11/19/42 

it  conf.) 

11/19/42 

11/27/42 

12/  3/42 

12/28/42 

4/17/43 

9/16/42 

10/12/42 

10/  1/42 

10/  9/42 

12/29/47 

12/26/42 

J  dated  12/ 

12/  2/42 

Carbon 

4( 

tt 
It 

Photostat. 
tt 

Carbon 

Original.-. 

Photostat. 
tt 

tt 

Carbon... 

Original... 
tt 

Copy 

Carbon 

Photostat. 

Carbon. . . 

Original.-. 
It 

Photostat. 
tt 

It 

Original... 

Carbon 

tt 

It 

It 

Photostat. 
tt 

tt 

Carbon... 

Original... 
tt 

Carbon.-. 

21/42) 
Original... 

191.9 
131B.113 

119.40 

191. 100 

119. 146 

105.  244 

100.  26 

191.98 

191.2 

100.385 

131B.42 
131B.61 
119. 120 
105.  202 
119.75 
191. 197 
131B.110 

tt 

131B.77 

105. 322 

131B.  117 

500.1 

191.45 

191.45 

105. 27 

131B.63 
131B.13 
131B.44 
500.  2 
131B.  149 
131B.57 

tt 
tt 
tt 

500. 18 
13IB.68 

131B.  2 

765A 

FVF 

WWL 

766 

Fred  V.  Field 

W.  W.  Lockwood,  Jr 

Wm.  W.  Lockwood,  Jr 

WWL 

767 

Maxwell  M.  Hamilton 

768 

BL 

769 

WLH                                 

WWL 

770 

Owen  Lattimore  .-. 

Wm.  W.  Lockwood,  Jr 

George  V.  Blue 

771 

W.  W.  Locliwood 

773 

E   C  Carter 

Wm.  W.  Lockwood.. 

774 

W  W  Lockwood 

Bob  Lynd  - 

775 

ECC   MSF  WIW    HM   CP 

WWL                         

775A 

Prof  O   Nve  Steieer 

Wm.  W.  Lockwood      

776 

Wm.  W.  Lockwood 

Lt.  Col.  B.  B.  McMahon... 
WWL 

777 

ECC                                         -  - 

778 

Wm  W.  Lockwood 

Roger  S.  Greene 

779 

Arthur  H.  Dean 

Wm.  W.  Lockwood 

Joe  (8-page  memo  attached). 
WWL        

780 

Wm.  W.  Lockwood 

781 

KB   GET  WLH  et  al 

782 

W.  L.  Holland 

C.  F.  Remer  (COI)... 

783 

Ma  .  Hardy  C.  Dillard 

WWL... 

784 

ECC 

785 

Wm.  W.  Lockwood                 -  . 

Jesse  I.  Miller  (War  Dept.).. 
W.  W.  Lockwood .-- 

786 

Robert  W.  Bamett 

787 

ECC                                    -      .. 

WWL 

788 

Dr.  S.  K.  Horn  beck 

W.  W.  Lockwood 

W.  W.  Lockwood..  

789 
790 

(Attached:  Partial"  list  of  U.  S. 
W.  A.  M.  Burden 

Lt  Col  John  W   Coulter 

Delegation  to  Mont  Trembla: 

Wm.  W.  Lockwood 

Wm  W.  Lockwood 

791 
792 

Wm.  Lockwood 

Robert  N.  Magill.-. 

Wm.  W.  Lockwood 

793 

Laughlin  Currie 

Anthonv  Jenkinson 

ECC   WLH,  RWB 

794 

Wm.  W.  Lockwood.. 

WWL 

795 
796 

Wm.  W.  Lockwood 

tt 

Lt.  Col.  Wm.  S.  Culbertson 

Maxwell  S   Stewart 

Wm.  S.  Culbertson,  Lt.  Col. 
It 

Wm.  W.  Lockwood 

Wm.  W.  Lockwood . 

797 

798 

799 

799-A 

W.  W.  Lockwood 

(Enc.  letter  to  Col.  W.  W.  Pett 
Philo  W   Parker  and  others 

Wm.  Mayer,  Col 

igrew  from  Wm.  W.  Lockwoo 
Wm.  W.  Lockwood 

799-B 
799-C 

Exhibit  No.  7G5-A 
WWL  to  ECO  and  CP; 

Miss  Grace  Simons,  4122  42nd  Street,  Long  Island  City,  Apt.  3K,  came  in 
to  inquire  about  a  job.  She  would  like  to  do  some  kind  of  writing  and  research, 
but  is  equipped  and  willing  to  do  secretarial  work. 

Miss  Simons  returned  from  the  Far  East  a  year  ago.  During  her  five  years 
residence  in  China  her  experience  was  as  follows : 

One  year  as  secretary  to  Leighton  Stuart  at  Yen-ching;  Two  years  as  secre- 
tary to  Messr.  Hogg  and  MacKay  at  the  National  City  Bank  in  Shanghai ;  and 
a  year  and  a  half  with  Havas  in  Shanghai  doing  rewrites  and  translations  from 
French.  During  the  past  few  months,  she  has  been  doing  secretarial  and  library 
work  in  the  New  York  office  of  Havas  but  is  now  without  employment.  I  should 
judge  that  she  is  about  35  years  old. 

The  most  intriguing  thing  about  Miss  Simons  is  the  fact  that  she  is  the 
sister  of  Rahna-Trone  of  Vincent  Sheehan  fame. 


(Hand  written) 


REFERENCES 


Grace  Simons,  4122  42nd  St.,  Long  Is.  City,  Apt.  3-K. 

American — Chi — sister  of  Rahna-Trone,  Yenching,  sec.  to  Stuart,  Shanghai^ 
1932-37. 

Sec'y — Hogg  &  MacKay,  Nat.  City  Bank.  v 

Havas  1^2- 

Rewrite  &  translation  French. 

NYC — Havas — Editorial  &  Library  wofk. 

Secretarial  work  equipped  writing  &  research. 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS  4959 

Exhibit  No.  766 

Janxjaby  5,  1937. 
WWL  to  FVF: 
Re:  Study  of  the  U.  S.  Navy. 

While  in  Chicago  I  talked  with  several  people,  especially  with  Quincy  Wright, 
concerning-  a  research  project  on  the  Navy.  Wright  expressed  himself  as  very 
much  in  favor  of  the  proposal,  and  was  unable  to  recall  very  much  that  has  been 
done  in  this  field.  He  thought  that  the  subject  would  require  some  prolonged 
digging  in  Congressional  hearings,  navy  reports,  etc. 

As  to  persons  who  know  something  about  the  subject,  I  learned  of  two. 
Wright  mentioned  Mr.  Robert  P.  Lane,  now  director  of  the  New  York  Welfare 
Council,  122  East  22d  Street.  He  once  did  a  good  deal  of  work  (at  Chicago,  I 
think)  on  the  navy  during  the  first  phase  of  the  modern  era — 1884-1898.  This 
work  might  be  made  available  to  us.  The  second  person  is  John  Ross,  of  the 
Institute  of  International  Studies  at  Yale.  He  is  said  to  be  working  on  various 
aspects  of  the  navy  in  connection  with  the  Yale  studies  in  American  foreign 
policy.  Another  person  with  an  academic  interest  in  the  Navy  is  Joseph  P. 
Baxter,  of  Harvard.  Doubtless  these  people,  and  perhaps  others,  should  be 
consulted. 

At  the  present  stage,  my  suggestion  would  be  to  proceed  as  follows : 

(1)  Secure  for  Pacific  Affairs  from  some  competent  person  an  analysis  of  the 
naval  building  program  since  1933,  and  especially  of  the  construction  and  en- 
largement of  naval  and  air  bases  in  the  Pacific.  This  could  be  primarily  an 
analytical  study  of  the  economic  and  strategic  factors.  It  might  be  confined  to 
Pacific  bases,  which  the  navy  people  reckon  as  second  only  to  ships  as  an  ele- 
ment of  sea  power.  (Some  experts  claim,  I  believe,  that  the  building  of  bases 
in  the  Western  Pacific  would  make  the  fleet  something  like  50%  more  effective, 
and  that  the  money  spent  on  one  battleship  might  better  go  into  the  building 
of  bases).  This  article  we  might  secure  from  some  young  naval  officer  who 
knows  what  he  is  talking  about.  The  editor  of  the  Proceedings  of  the  Naval  In- 
stitute might  be  approached  for  suggestions.  Incidentally,  we  should  subscribe 
to  this  publication. 

(2)  Have  Hall  continue  his  present  bibliographical  work  with  a  view  to  pre- 
paring for  Pacific  Affairs  a  bibliography  on  the  U.  S.  Navy  (appropriations, 
building  programs,  operations,  strategy,  etc.)  and  a  more  extensive  bibliography 
for  ofiice  reference. 

(3)  With  the  knowledge  gained  from  this  bibliographical  work,  we  can  dis- 
cuss with  Walter  Millis,  and  also  perhaps  with  Stone  of  the  F.  P.  A.  and  the 
above-mentioned  Ross,  Lane  and  Baxter  the  possibility  of  an  extended  study  of 
the  Navy.  If  we  could  arouse  the  interest  of  Millis  in  doing  the  job,  it  would 
be  relatively  easy,  would  it  not,  to  secure  funds  to  finance  the  project. 

Copy  to  WLH. 


Exhibit  No.  767 

November  1.5,  1937. 
Mr.  Frederick  V.  Field, 

San  Francisco. 

Dear  Fred  :  Probably  by  this  time  you  have  given  up  the  American  policy  pam- 
phlet in  despair.  Here  is  another  draft.  Will  you  please  read  it  at  once  and 
return  your  comments  by  air  mail?  I  am  unwilling  to  have  it  go  to  press  without 
your  criticisms. 

As  a  matter  of  fact  as  things  have  turned  out  it  is  unfortunate  that  we  did 
not  publish  your  original  draft  of  this  pamphlet  weeks  ago.  I  am  afraid  that 
the  best  opportunity  has  already  passed,  although  it  is  still  worth  while  to  get 
out  something.  If  we  have  missed  the  boat  I  am  afraid  that  it  is  my  responsibil- 
ity. When  I  consented  to  undertake  the  job  I  had  no  idea  of  the  number  of  things 
which  would  delay  and  interrupt  its  completion  or  of  the  diflBculties  I  would 
encounter  in  this  rather  unfamiliar  field.  However,  I  have  learned  a  good  deal 
about  the  subject  even  though  it  has  been  a  little  expensive  for  the  American 
Council  and  a  little  trying  for  Jinny,  whose  apartment  has  been  littered  up  with 
mountains  of  clippings  for  weeks. 

I  hope  that  you  are  finding  material  to  do  a  first-class  job  for  the  Sitrvey  on 
shipments  of  war  supplies  to  China  and  Japan.  We  should  have  had  a  thorough 
discussion  of  this  topic  before  this.  So  far  as  the  China  trade  is  concerned 
I  have  made  a  few  casual  inquiries  around  here  but  have  been  unable  to  learn 


4960  INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 

anything  definite.  San  Francisco  should  be  a  good  place  to  find  out  about  what- 
ever stuff  is  going  from  Pacific  Coast  ports.  Some  stuff,  however,  may  be  going 
via  Europe.  I  notice  that  the  nineteen  planes  were  loaded  on  a  train  headed  east 
several  weeks  ago.  Another  story  told  of  DuPont  shipments  of  TNT  by  way  of 
Germany. 

Eliot  Janeway,  with  whom  Chen  and  I  have  had  several  long  talks  recently, 
is  convinced  that  an  embargo  on  American  shipments  to  Japan,  even  if  under- 
taken without  the  cooperation  of  other  powers,  would  be  a  very  serious  blow 
to  the  Japanese.  He  says,  for  example,  that  this  high-test  aviation  fuel  which 
the  Japanese  have  recently  bought  in  large  quantities  is  a  special  kind  of  gas 
which  cannot  be  procured  elsewhere.  Without  it  Japanese  planes  would  be 
crippled  both  in  respect  to  speed  and  efiiciency.  Janeway  says,  furthermore,  that 
American  machinery  and  machine  tools  now  going  to  Japan  cannot  be  easily  re- 
placed. In  the  case  of  industries  equipped  with  American  machinery  constant 
replacements  are  required  in  the  form  of  parts  which  are  manufactured  best 
in  this  country.  Japanese  steel  production,  he  says,  is  deficient  particularly  in 
various  kinds  of  alloy  steels  (manganese,  nickel,  etc.)  and  they  rely  heavily  on 
American  supplies.  How  much  weight  should  be  attached  to  this  point  I  don't 
know.  It  is  difficult  to  believe  that  the  Japanese  are  as  dependent  as  Janeway 
believes  and  that  they  could  not  carry  on  readily  even  though  with  some  diflB- 
culties  if  they  can  no  longer  secure  American  stuff.  This  is  a  technical  question 
on  which  we  are  not  very  well  qualified  to  pass  judgment.  It  would  be  inter- 
esting to  get  the  opinion  of  businessmen  who  know  the  oil  and  machinery  trades 
thoroughly. 

I  have  agreed  tentatively  to  tackle  the  subject  of  Japan's  economic  problem 
in  North  China  for  the  Stxr^'ey.  Whether  there  is  enough  reliable  information 
to  make  possible  and  satisfactory  a  job  remains  to  be  seen.  Have  you  any 
suggestions  as  to  how  the  thing  should  be  tackled  and  where  the  best  informa- 
tion is  to  be  found?  Peflfer  says  that  he  went  to  great  efforts  to  collect  infor- 
mation on  this  subject  and  made  little  headway.  Even  the  best  informed  people 
in  North  China  did  not  know  what  was  going  on. 

In  response  to  a  letter  of  mine,  Joe  Jones,  who  is  now  an  economic  specialist 
in  the  Far  Eastern  Division,  writes  that  he  is  now  contemplating  a  study  of  a 
similar  nature.  He  thinks  that  the  Department  of  Agriculture  and  the  Bureau 
of  Mines  can  be  enlisted  to  help.  He  is  willing  to  supply  us  with  information  for 
this  study  but  is  not  yet  sure  how  quickly  it  can  be  carried  through.  He  offers 
to  let  me  see  the  basic  diplomatic  and  consular  reports  on  the  economic  resources 
of  North  China.  I  shall  go  down  to  Washington  one  of  these  days  and  go  over 
the  matter  with  him. 

That  reminds  me  that  I  am  sending  a  copy  of  this  American  policy  manuscript 
to  Maxwell  Hamilton  with  the  request  that  he  or  someone  else  in  the  Division 
go  over  it  for  us. 

Sincerely  yours, 

Wm.  W.  Lockwood,  Jr. 


Exhibit  No.  768 

December  1,  1937. 
Mr.  Maxwell  M.  Hamilton, 

Department  of  State,  Washington,  D.  C. 

Dear  Mr.  Hamilton  :  I  am  most  grateful  to  you  for  the  suggestions  concern- 
ing the  manuscript  America  and  the  Far  Eastern  War  conveyed  with  your  letter 
of  November  .30th.  Some  of  the  suggested  corrections  I  am  now  unfortunately 
unable  to  make  because  the  printing  of  the  pamphlet  is  already  far  advanced, 
but  I  appreciate  very  much  this  help  which  you  have  very  kindly  given  us. 
Sincerely  yours, 

Wm.  W.  Lockwood,  Jr. 


.  INSTITUTE   OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  4961 

Exhibit  No.  769 

January  4,  1938. 
BL  from  WWL : 

IPR  Representative  in  Washington 

If,  as  your  letter  indicates,  the  proposal  for  an  IPR  Washington  representative 
has  come  up  for  discussion,  there  are  a  few  suggestions  I  might  offer  as  to  the 
functions  which  such  a  person  might  perform.  Obviously  it  is  important  to  have 
rather  definitely  in  mind  what  our  representative  could  most  usefully  do  before 
laying  any  plans,  even  though  it  is  true  that  a  resourceful  and  energetic  person 
would  naturally  create  his  own  job  to  a  large  extent. 

As  for  Washington  "society,"  I  never  made  much  use  of  the  black  or  white  tie 
in  Washington  and  I  don't  know  what  the  possibilities  really  are.  Doubtless 
there  are  potential  contributors  there,  but  I  see  little  reason  to  suppose  that  we 
should  set  out  to  cultivate  directly  the  elderly  dowagers  of  Washington  any  more 
than  the  social  set  of  any  other  city. 

Nor  is  it  likely  that  Washington  is  a  particularly  opportune  place  for  a  local 
educational  program.  Outside  of  the  comparatively  small  circle  of  government 
people,  Washington  is  a  rather  provincial  town  with  a  good  deal  of  the  lethargy 
of  a  huge  bureaucracy  hanging  over  it,  and  with  so  much  "'public  affairs"  as  its 
daily  business  that  it  is  bored  with  the  whole  thing  and  is  rather  unreceptive 
to  lectures,  dinners,  discussion  groups,  etc. 

The  really  important  contacts  in  Washington  are  as  follows  : 

(1)  administrative  officials  and  legislators 

(2)  news  men 

(3)  private  educational  agencies  (League  of  Women  voters.  National  Council; 

FPA,  AVIL,  etc.) 

(4)  Embassies,  especially  Chinese  and  Japanese,  and  Filipino  delegation 

(5)  universities 

It  would  be  the  job  of  our  representative  there  to  work  with  these  groups, 
first,  to  extract  from  them  the  information,  aid,  and  support  which  they  can  give 
to  Quv  national  program,  and,  second,  demonstrate  the  value  of  the  IPR  and  of 
himself  to  them  in  a  variety  of  ways. 

Given  our  present  program  and  set-up  it  should  be  recognized,  I  think,  that 
the  value  of  a  Washington  office  would  be  somewhat  limited.  It  would  become 
invaluable,  however,  as  our  program  develops  along  new  lines,  as  it  is  likely 
to  do.  The  present  limitations  in  this  regard  are  threefold.  First,  as  long  as 
our  chief  and  almost  sole  current  publication  is  the  Survey,  we  have  little  prac- 
tical use  for  the  political  information  for  which  Washington  is  the  pi'eeminent 
source,  both  its  officials  and  its  newsmen.  If  we  did  get  the  hot  dope  from  the 
State  Department,  what  would  we  do  with  it? 

Second,  as  long  as  our  publications  deal  mainly  with  the  general  course  of 
events  in  China  and  Japan  rather  than  with  the  specific  American  angle  of  such 
events  or  with  American  affairs  which  have  some  relation  to  the  Far  East, 
Washington  contacts  are  also  of  limited  aid.  Excepting  for  the  Embassies — 
and  this  is  a  doubtful  exception — I  doubt  if  one  can  get  in  Washington  a  great 
deal  of  news  froin  the  Far  East  which  is  not  available  here.  Its  preeminence 
is  as  a  source  of  information  on  what  is  going  on  in  the  United  States,  and  the 
value  of  an  IPR  agency  there  would  depend  in  part  on  how  much  we  propose  to 
concern  ourselves  with  American  shipping,  investments,  education,  public 
opinion,  etc. 

Third,  our  value  to  the  people  in  Washington  and  the  welcome  we  would  re- 
ceive depend  on  what  we  can  give  them  in  the  way  of  information  as  to  events, 
publications,  and  what  not  in  the  Far  East.  It  would  hinge  on  whether  our 
contacts  through  our  international  set-up  enable  us  to  offer  anything  of  distinc- 
tive value.  At  present  the  IPR  is  so  loosely  knit  and  our  contacts  in  the  Far 
East  so  haphazard  that  we  have  little  to  offer  in  Washington  through  the  con- 
tinuous personal  relationship  which  an  IPR  man  might  have  there.  The  people 
there  already  have  access  to  most  of  our  sources  of  information  and  more  besides. 
We  can  offer  them  a  limited  educational  outlet  and  the  support  of  our  research 
program  such  as  it  is,  it  is  true,  and  in  this  way  we  can  enlist  the  interest  and 
support  of  persons  anxious  to  enlighten  public  opinion.  On  the  whole,  however, 
an  IPR  man  starting  out  in  Washington  today  would  find  himself  in  the  position 
of  going  hat  in  hand  for  information  and  assistance  rather  than  bringing  some- 
thing the  people  there  are  eager  to  get. 


4962  INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 

There  are  a  good  many  things  an  IPR  agency  in  Washington  could  do  and  it 
might  be  a  swell  job  for  someone  to  tackle.  If  there  are  limitations  such  as  I 
have  described  and  if  they  should  be  overcome,  one  way  of  contributing  to  this 
end  would  be  for  someone  to  start  in  down  there.  Some  of  the  possibilities  are 
as  follows : 

(1)  The  Washington  bureaus— agriculture,  commerce,  tarifC,  maritime,  etc., 
are  stuffed  full  of  information  on  all  aspects  of  American  economic  life  and  of 
economic  developments  abroad.  Moreover,  for  most  subjects  of  this  sort  with 
which  we  deal  there  are  men  who  have  spent  their  lives  cramming  up  on  the  data 
and  they  are  usually  quite  willing  to  cooperate  with  outsiders.  I  should  say  that 
roughly  a  third  of  the  Survey  should  be  devoted  to  American-Far  Eastern  topics 
and  that  such  studies  can  be  done  in  Washington  better  than  anywhere  else.  One 
obvious  function  of  an  IPR  agency,  then — although  not  the  most  important  one — 
would  be  to  serve  as  a  branch  of  the  New  York  research  staff  for  the  execution  of 
certain  projects.  Moreover,  the  ideas  and  information  picked  up  in  Washington 
through"  this  broadened  contact  might  help  to  shape  our  whole  program  more 
realistically. 

(2)  Our  Washington  man  would  doubtless  have  to  spend  a  great  deal  of  time 
drifting  around  among  officials,  Congressmen  and  newsmen  developing  personal 
contacts  and  making  himself  a  person  to  whom  individuals  might  turn  when  an 
issue  of  Pacific  relations  and  policy  arose.  (Bill  Stone  has  done  this  rather 
successfully,  especially  as  regards  armaments  and  naval  policy.)  The  import- 
ance of  the  Washington  newspaper  corps  ought  to  be  emphasized  in  this  connec- 
tion. The  Washington  correspondents  are  the  most  influential  group  of  reporters 
in  the  country.  Moreover,  they  have  a  wide  editorial  leeway  in  their  despatches. 
Also,  they  are  fairly  close  knit  and  accessible  as  a  group  since  tlieir  offices  are 
practically  all  in  one  building,  and  since  Washington  is  a  comparatively  small 
place.  An  able  IPR  man  could  make  himself  useful  feeding  them  stuff,  prompting 
various  stories,  securing  Washington  releases  on  IPR  studies,  etc. 

As  regards  Congressmen,  we  should  have  to  be  quite  wary.  Under  no  cir- 
cumstances do  we  want  to  engage  in  lobbying.  By  slow  personal  contact,  how- 
ever, a  relationship  with  the  IPR  which  is  now  totally  lacking  might  be  built  up 
informally.  It  is  not  difficult  to  imagine  that  under  the  circumstances  of  the 
last  six  month  this  contact  might  be  valuable.  The  same,  I  think,  can  be  said  of 
relationships  with  administrative  officials,  and  especially  with  the  junior  group 
who  do  most  of  the  real  brain  work  in  Washington.  This  part  of  the  job  ought  to 
be  thoroughly  enjoyable  providing  it  was  not  aimless,  and  in  the  end  it  would  be 
helpful  all  around. 

The  value  of  such  contacts  with  Congress,  the  State  Department,  and  the 
correspondents  would  depend  in  part,  I  should  think,  on  whether  we  plan 
to  go  into  the  field  of  political  journalism.  If  we  do,  an  agency  in  Washington 
would  be  just  as  indispensalDle  for  us  as  for  the  FPA.  I  doubt  that  we  want 
to  go  very  far  in  this  direction,  but  as  matters  now  stand  we  lack  channels 
for  effectively  using  the  political  information  to  be  had  in  Washington.  If 
we  should  eventually  take  over  Amerasia  or  if  we  should  start  a  mimeographed 
news  sheet  for  American  Council  members,  or  something  like  that,  it  would 
be  different.  In  any  case  if  we  expand  along  the  lines  of  regional  educational 
activities,  a  Washington  bureau  might  be  helpful  in  a  variety  of  ways. 

(3)  The  universities  in  Washington  are  rather  poor  on  the  whole,  and 
there  is  no  use  looking  to  them  for  a  lot  of  good  research  in  our  field  (Brook- 
ings stands  in  a  somewhat  different  category).  Nevertheless,  there  is  a  good 
deal  of  educational  effort  in  the  field  of  public  affairs  and  a  growth  of  special- 
ized training  for  government  work.  Our  man  might  be  able  to  associate  him- 
self with  these  activities  through  doing  some  teaching,  taking  part  in  dis- 
cussion groups,  etc.,  but  this  sort  of  thing  would  not  add  up  to  a  great  deal 
in  its  value  to  the  IPR. 

(4)  Another  minor  phase  of  the  opportunity  in  Washington  is  a  closer 
relationship  with  a  handful  of  private  agencies,  including  the  ones  named 
above,  with  the  Embassies,  and  with  such  offices  as  the  ILO,  etc.  This  need 
not  be  rated  very  high  in  the  scale,  for  such  contacts  can  be  maintained  from 
New  York,  but  it  would  be  all  to  the  good  if  we  had  a  man  on  the  spot. 

(5)  One  more  function  of  the  IPR  representative,  and  doubtless  a  fairly 
troublesome  one,  would  be  to   trundle  foreign  visitors   around. 

Tlius  the  job  suggests  a  combination  of  research  and  of  contact  work,  both 
to  secui'e  and  supply  current  information  and  to  pick  up  leads  for  our  general 
national  program.  I  dare  say  it  would  be  something  of  a  gamble  at  the  start, 
but  it  seems  to  be  a  logical  step  in  expansion.     This  step  is  especially  impor- 


INSTITUTE   OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  4963 

tant — in  fact,  it  is  essential — if  we  are  to  move  further  and  further  away 
from  a  strict  research  program  appealing  only  to  the  academic  world.  It 
goes  without  saying  that  the  individual  chosen  for  the  job  would  have  to 
know  his  onions  and  be  able  to  make  his  way  as  a  person ;  otherwise  he  can 
do  us  a  lot  of  damage. 

Incidentally,  as  a  measure  of  economy  it  might  be  possible  for  the  IPR 
representative  to  share  the  office  and  secretarial  services  of  the  FPA  in 
Washington. 


Exhibit  No.  770 

Septembeb  19,  1938. 
WLH  f ram  WWL : 

Several  of  us  had  lunch  today  with  Mr.  R.  Kano,  who  is  a  friend  of  Tsuru  of 
Harvard  and  who  came  in  to  inquire  about  the  possibility  of  work  in  connection 
with  the  Secretariat  Inquiry.  I  referred  him  to  you,  of  course,  and  suggested 
that  he  telephone  tomorrow  or  Wednesday  to  make  an  appointment.  Kano  left 
Japan  three  years  ago,  having  involved  himself  in  sufficient  difficulty  with  the 
authorities  to  make  it  difficult  or  impossible  for  him  to  continue  his  university 
work  at  Shizuoka.  He  spent  two  years  at  Chicago,  receiving  his  A.  B.  degree. 
Last  year  he  studied  economic  history  at  the  Sorbonne,  and  he  has  just  come 
over  from  Paris,  hoping  to  find  some  opportunity  which  wiU  enable  him  to  sup- 
poi't  himself  in  academic  work.  Tsuru  had  written  him,  he  says,  that  he  (Tsuru) 
might  be  doing  some  work  on  the  Secretariat  Inquiry,  and  suggesting  that  Kano 
might  assist  him.  Meanwhile,  Tsuru  returned  to  .T.ipan  for  a  brief  visit  this 
summer,  and  Kano,  hearing  nothing  further  from  him,  has  come  over  anyway. 

Kano  makes  a  good  impression  in  terms  of  personality  and  intelligence.  He 
is  somewhat  leftist — how  far  I  don't  know — and  his  particular  interest  is  in  the 
economic  history  of  Japan  in  modern  times.  He  and  Tsuru  are  translating  a 
Marxist  interpretation  of  the  rise  of  Japanese  capitalism,  and  hoping  to  publish 
it,  possibly  under  assumed  names  (this  is  confidential).  He  says  that  he  can 
still  go  back  to  Japan,  but  that  he  might  be  denied  any  university  connection, 
and  for  for  this  reason  he  prefers,  if  possible,  to  remain  here  for  the  time  being. 
He  is  now  awaiting  the  return  of  Tsuru,  on  September  26th,  and  can  be  reached 
at  73  Martin  Street,  Cambridge,  Massachusetts. 


Exhibit  No.  771 

New  Yokk,  N.  Y.,  October  10,  1938. 
Mr.  Owen  Lattimore, 

6  Middleton  Court,  'Paddington  Road, 
Hoinelmid,  Baltimore,  Maryland. 

Dear  Owen  :  This  wiU  introduce  to  you  Arthur  L.  Pollard,  of  Knoxville,  Ten- 
nessee. Mr.  Pollard,  a  successful  engineer  and  businessman  who  has  had  a  lot  to 
do  with  the  fertilizer  program  in  the  Tennessee  Valley,  is  arranging  for  a  trip 
to  the  Soviet  Union  next  May.  He  is  anxious  to  talk  with  you  about  certain 
phases  of  his  plans,  and  I  am  sure  that  you  will  be  glad  to  make  his  acquaintance. 
Sincerely  yours, 

Wm.  W.  Lockwood,  Jr. 


Exhibit  No.  773 

Department  of  State, 
Washington,  January  5,  1940. 
In  reply  refer  to  RP. 

Mr.  William  W.  Lockwood, 

Research  Secretary,  American  Council,  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations, 
129  East  Fifty-second  iStreet,  Neiv  York,  New  York. 

My  Dear  Mr.  Lockwood:  The  receipt  is  acknowledged  of  your  letter  of  De- 
cember 21, 1939,  in  which  you  request  copies  of  certain  documents. 

There  are  enclosed  copies  of  publications  containing  the  texts  of  the  docu- 
ments to  which  you  refer,  with  the  exception  of  the  document  described  as 
"Letter  from  Department  of  State  to  registered  manufacturers  and  exporters 


4964  INSTITUTE   OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 

of  aircraft,  July  1,  1938."     A  summary  and  partial  quotation  of  the  letter  of 
July  1,  1938,  will  be  found  in  the  enclosed  copy  of  The  Department  of  State 
Bulletin,  August  12,  1939,  page  121. 
Sincerely  yours, 

George  V.  Blue, 
George  V.  Blue, 
Acting  Assistant  Chief, 
Division  of  Research  and  Publication. 
Enclosures : 

1.  Senate  Document  No.  55,  72d  Congress,  1st  Session. 
8.  Publication  No.  296. 

3.  Conference  Series,  No.  37. 

4.  Press  release  no.  706  of  December  20, 1939. 

5.  The  Department  of  State  Bulletin  (Publications  Nos.  1359,  1363,  and 
1404). 


Exhibit  No.  774 

American  Committee  for  International  Studies, 

Princeton,  Netv  Jersey,  July  12  1940. 
Mr.  E.  C.  Carter, 

Institute  of  Pacific  Relations,  129  East  52  Street,  New  York,  New  York. 

Dear  Mr.  Carter:  In  talking  yesterday  (Thursday)  with  Joe  Jones  in  Wash- 
ington, I  found  that  he  is  very  much  interested  in  the  whole  conception  of  a 
Pacific  bloc  as  we  discussed  the  subject  recently  at  Lee.  If  you  are  getting  out 
a  report  on  those  discussions,  he  would  like  to  see  a  copy  and  would  also  appreci- 
ate the  chance  to  talk  to  Fred  Alexander  the  next  time  the  latter  is  in  Washing- 
ton.    It's  Joseph  M.  Jones,  Division  of  Far  Eastern  Affairs,  State  Department. 

Jones,  by  the  way,  gives  an  optimistic  impression  as  regards  the  possibilities 
of  future  American  aid  to  China.  He  is  very  guarded  in  what  he  says,  but  I 
rather  inferred  that  he  was  thinking  of  monetary  cooperation  through  the  Trea- 
sury and  perhaps  also  a  tightening  embargo  against  Japan.  Alger  Hiss,  on  the 
other  hand,  fears  that  the  appeasement  move  is  gaining  a  good  deal  of  ground 
south  of  Forty-second  Street.  Hiss,  by  the  way,  is  probably  one  of  the  few  gen- 
uinely liberal  men  in  the  State  Department — that  is  to  say,  he  sees  the  direct 
connection  between  effective  national  defense  and  a  strong  New  Deal  policy  at 
home.  A  Republican  victory  in  the  Fall,  he  believes,  will  be  the  prelude  to  an 
appeasement  program,  a  "back-to-normalcy"  movement,  and  the  danger  of  in- 
ternal disintegration. 

As  you  have  learned  from  other  sources,  the  State  Department  was  anything 
but  pleased  with  the  O'Ryan  mission  and  with  the  President's  interview  with 
the  General.  I  gather  that  the  official  introductions  giv^n  by  the  mission  are  not 
going  to  be  very  helpful  to  them,  and  that  Mr.  Grew  will  not  be  very  cooperative. 

I  spent  most  of  yesterday  scouting  around  in  the  Latin-American  field,  trying 
to  find  out  what  the  government  proposes  to  do.  When  the  President  issued  his 
public  statement  about  a  hemisphere  cartel  some  weeks  ago,  they  really  had  no 
plan,  as  a  matter  of  fact,  and  a  good  deal  of  discussion  since  then  has  thus  far 
failed  to  produce  one.  There  is  wide  disagreement,  with  the  Department  of 
Agriculture  taking  the  lead  in  favoring  drastic  efforts  to  reorient  and  control 
trade  and  currency  relations,  with  the  Treasury  lukewarm,  and  with  the  State 
Department  divided  but  inclined  on  the  whole  to  be  cautious  and  skeptical.  If 
you  would  like  to  see  an  enthusiastic  set  of  proposals  along  this  line,  write  to  the 
American  Council  on  Public  Affairs,  1721  Eye  Street,  for  a  pamphlet  entitled, 
"Total  Defense."  This  is  the  work  on  a  committee  headed  by  Clark  Foreman. 
It  has  had  such  a  response  in  Washington  that  Foreman  and  Joan  Raushenbush 
are  now  producing  a  book  on  the  subject.  There  is  the  same  kind  of  feverish 
activity  around  Washington  now  that  used  to  chai'acterize  it  during  the  early 
days  of  the  New  Deal.  By  comparison,  I  must  confess  that  the  universities  I 
have  been  visiting  seem  like  medieval  monasteries. 

Although  innocuous  enough,  this  isn't  quite  the  kind  of  letter  I  like  to  leave 
lying  around,  so  will  you  kindly  toss  it  in  the  waste  basket? 

Sincerely  yours,  ^ 

Bill,  William  W.  Lockwood,  Secretary. 

WWL/mn. 


INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  4965 

Exhibit  No.  775 

Columbia  University  in  the  City  of  New  York 

faculty  of  political  science 

March  21,  1941. 

Dear  Bill  :  I  guess  it's  too  late,  but  why  the  devil  don't  you  have  Joe  Barnes 
do  a  book  on  the  Soviet  Union  rather  than  Germany?  I'd  rather  read  him  on  the 
S.  U.  than  any  man  I  know  of.  Or  he  could  compare  certain  aspects  of  both 
Germany  and  Russia,  e.  g. : 

Relation  of  economic  to  political  power  in  each  country. 

The  social  structuring  of  life  of  the  common  people  at  grass  roots  in  each 
country. 

The  freedom  allowed  the  individual  in  each. 

Tolerance  of  diversity. 

Citizenship  literacy  and  devices  (press,  etc.)  serving  effective  participation  as 
citizen. 

Etc. 

Joe  is  unique  in  that  he  knows  both  Russia  and  Germany  well.  Other  men 
can  write  on  the  economic  structure  of  Germany  (an  important  job)  but  Joe,  bet- 
ter than  anyone  else,  could  bring  us  Americans  a  comparative  sense  of  the  social 
strengths  and  weaknesses  of  the  two  systems. 

What  we  need  on  both  countries  is  not  books  pro  and  con,  but  candid  appraisals 
of  strengths  and  weaknesses. 

I  don't  know  Hartshorne — only  that  he  has  been  working  on  case  studies  of 
Nazis. 

Tours, 

Bob  (Lynd). 

(Handwritten)  To  W.  W.  Lockwood. 


Exhibit  No.  775-A 

April  15,  1943. 
To:  ECC 
MSF 
WLH 
MM 

CF 

From:  WWL 

Max  Stewart  called  me  on  Tuesday  to  say  that  Peggy  Snow  had  been  in  to 
express  to  him  her  concern  over  the  prevailing  and  increasing  lack  of  knowledge 
among  even  informed  people  concerning  current  developments  in  China.  She 
felt  this  very  strongly  in  Washington,  and  felt  that  something  ought  to  be  done 
about  it.  She  wondered  whether  some  new  organization  and/or  journal  should 
be  started  to  circulate  at  least  within  a  limited  group  the  information  brought 
back  by  people  coming  from  Chungking. 

Max  doesn't  like  the  idea  either  of  a  new  organization  or  of  a  new  journal, 
but  agrees  with  her  diagnosis  of  the  situation  and  wonders  whether  the  IPR 
can  do  something  about  it.     He  suggested  to  Peggy  Snow,  I  believe,  that  she 
come  in  and  see  Harriet  Moore  and  Mr.  Carter. 
Two  possibilities  suggest  themselves  : 

(1)  That  we  make  an  effort  to  include  more  current  material  on  China  in  the 
Survey  and  in  our  pamphlets,  and 

(2)  That  we  redouble  our  program  of  meetings  in  Washington  and  New  York, 
taking  steps  to  bring  in  more  non-members  from  organizations,  the  press,  etc. 


Exhibit  No.  776 

December  10,  1941. 
Professor  G.  Nye  Steiger, 

Simmons  College,  Boston,  Massachusetts. 
Dear  Steiger:  I  am  wondering  whether  I  may  call  on  you  for  assistance  in 
meeting  an  emergency  demand  from  the  Public  Relations  Bureau  of  the  War 
Department. 


4966  INSTITUTE  or  pacific  relations 

That  Bureau,  under  Colonel  Beukema,  whom  you  probably  know,  is  arranging: 
for  an  educational  program  on  the  international  position  of  the  United  States, 
to  be  carried  forward  in  the  army  camps  this  winter.  Colonel  Beukema  has 
asked  the  American  Council  to  cooperate  in  the  supply  of  materials,  including 
one  item  which  we  would  like  very  much  to  get  you  to  do. 

This  is  a  series  of  three  lectures  which  are  to  be  prepared  within  the  next 
month,  printed  or  mimeographed,  and  distributed  to  a  large  number  of  officers 
in  charge  of  camp  programs.  These  officers  in  turn  will  themselves  deliver  the 
lectures  in  series,  and  use  them  as  a  basis  for  questions  and  discussion.  It  is 
proposed  that  the  three  lectures  be  divided  chronologically  as  follows:  (1)  The 
period  1931  to  1934,  with  some  preparatory  background;  (2)  the  internal  situa- 
tion in  China  and  Japan  during  the  period  1934  to  1937,  the  international  setting 
of  the  two  countries  at  this  time  and  events  leading  up  to  the  outbreak  of  hos- 
tilities in  the  latter  year;  and  (3)  the  last  four  years  culminating  in  the 
present  war. 

Each  of  the  lectures  is  to  be  about  seventeen  pages,  double  spaced.  They 
should  be  simple,  factual,  as  graphic  as  possible,  and  directed  at  an  audience  of 
a  high-school  level. 

The  War  Department  is  in  a  position  to  pay  the  author  an  honorarium  of 
$10  per  day  for  time  expended  in  their  preparation. 

There  is  no  one  I  can  think  of  who  could  do  this  job  more  admirably  than  you. 
You  have  a  thorough  command  of  the  facts  and  a  wide  experience  in  writing^ 
for  high-school  and  college  readers.  You  could  also  give  the  papers  the  char- 
acter which  would  be  necessary  for  effective  oral  delivery. 

Within  a  day  or  two  I  can  give  you  further  particulars.  I  have  only  just 
learned  of  this  over  the  telephone,  but  a  member  of  our  staff  is  talking  with 
Beukema  this  afternoon  and  will  be  back  tomorrow  with  the  details. 

I  hope  very  much  that  you  will  be  able  to  join  us  in  this  cooperation  with  the 
government  in  an  exceedingly  important  enterprise. 
Sincerely  yours, 

Wm.  W.  Lockwood,  Secretary. 

(Handwritten:)   WLH. 


Exhibit  No.  777 

War  Department, 
War  Department  General  Staff, 
Military  Intelligence  Division,  G-2, 

Washington,  D.  C,  December  19, 19^1. 
Mr.  William  W.  Lockwood, 

Institute  of  Pacific  Relations,  Inc.,  129  East  52nd  Street,  New  York  City^ 
New  York. 
Dear  Bill  :  Colonel  Bratton's  office  appreciated  most  highly  the  receipt  of  the 
three  publications  sent  me  by  you. 

Question  :  May  we  keep  them,  or  are  they  to  be  returned  to  your  office? 
In  addition,  Bratton  would  especially  like  to  have  "British  Rule  in  Eastern. 
Asia"  and  "Malaya  in  War  Time."  And,  to  finish  this  skimpy  letter.  Colonel 
Bratton  wishes  that  you  would  look  in  on  him  the  next  time  you  come  to  Wash- 
ington. Come  to  my  office,  3502  Munitions  Building,  and  I  will  take  you 
around  to  meet  him. 

Thanks  again.  Bill.    Arrange  to  have  at  least  a  meal  at  the  house  when  you: 
hit  Washington. 
Sincerely, 

B.   B.   McMahon, 
Lieut.  Col.,  General  Staff  Corps,  Coordinating  Section. 

(Handwritten  :)  ED  War  Dept. 

(Handwritten  : )   ED — Would  you  write  Bratton.     I  think  Bill  saw  him  Friday^ 
He  intended  to. 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS  4967 

Exhibit  No.  778 

12/23/41. 
To:  ECC. 
From:  WWL. 

In  response  to  your  inquiry,  here  is  a  little  more  dope  on  the  organization  of  the 
Economic  Defense  Board  (now  the  Board  of  Economic  Warfare). 

Charles  Rayner,  Assistant  Executive  Director,  is  heading  the  Far  Eastern  Di- 
vision, at  least  for  the  time  being.  All  I  know  of  him  is  that  he  was  once  with 
the  Standard  Oil  at  Singapore,  but  left  in  1917.  Apparently  he  has  had  no  more 
recent  Far  Eastern  experience. 

Ralph  Turner,  formerly  of  the  University  of  Pittsburgh,  is  Assistant  Chief 
of  the  Far  Eastern  Division.  He  was  taken  over  from  the  old  Office  of  Export 
Control  research  unit,  where  I  worked  with  him  last  summer.  Turner  is  also 
no  Far  Eastern  specialist.  However,  he  is  a  fellow  of  some  ability,  particularly 
in  seeing  the  larger  outlines  of  a  problem.  He  also  knows  that  he  doesn't 
know  much  about  the  Far  East  and  is  eager  for  assistance. 

Jim  Shoemaker,  the  third  person  with  Far  Eastern  responsibility,  came  to  the 
Office  of  Export  Control  last  summer  from  Brown  University.  He  spent  some 
years  teaching  in  Japan,  and  has  returned  there  in  recent  years  for  occasional 
visits. 

Slioemaker  told  me  two  things  in  confidence  last  week : 

1.'  There  are  a  half  dozen  rather  highly  paid  jobs  still  open  in  the  Far  Eastern 
Division.  Shoemal^er  himself,  however,  and  perhaps  the  others,  too,  are  re- 
luctant to  raid  the  IPR.  (It  is  interesting  that  several  agencies  seemingly  take 
this  view  at  present.)  He  raised  tlie  question  of  part-time  or  short-term  con- 
sultative appointments  for  IPR  staff  members,  and  I  assured  him  that  of  course 
we  would  do  every  thing  we  could  to  cooperate. 

2.  Rupert  Emerson  may  undertake,  on  behalf  of  the  Board,  a  sizeable  study  of 
America's  economic  stake  in  the  Far  East  as  affected  by  the  war,  and  post-war 
prospects.  Apparently  Emerson  is  restless  over  the  fact  that  he  has  been 
given  little  to  do  thus  far  in  his  present  job  as  expert  in  the  Office  of  Inter- 
American  Affairs.  This  office — that  is  its  economic  section — is  closely  linked 
with  the  Board  of  Economic  Warfare.  It  is  possible  that  Emerson  may  now  be 
shifted  to  the  Far  Eastern  Division  for  this  special  job.  If  it  is  undertaken,  our 
staff  may  be  asked  to  make  certain  contributions. 

Co:  WLH 
RWB 
KB,  CP,  MSP,  MG 


Exhibit  No.  779 

Roger  S.  Greene, 
348  Lincoln  Street, 
Worcester,  Massachusetts,  January  16,  1942. 
Mr.  William  W.  Lockwood. 
American  Council, 

Institute  of  Pacific  Relations, 

129  East  52nd  Street.  'New  York.  N.  T. 

Dear  Mr.  Lockwood  :  Before  the  next  annual  meeting,  that  is  the  1943  meet- 
ing, will  you  not  consider  changing  the  method  of  submitting  nominations  to 
the  Board  of  Trustees  of  the  IPR  by  presenting  a  larger  number  of  names  than 
the  number  of  vacancies  to  be  filled?  The  present  system  gives  the  members  no 
chance  to  express  their  preference  except  by  a  highly  organized  electioneering 
process  which  few  if  any  members  would  care  to  undertake. 

For  example,  while  I  have  had  a  high  opinion  of  Fred  Field's  personal  char- 
acter, his  judgment  during  the  past  two  years  has  been  so  strange  that  it  seemed 
to  me  that  he  must  be  almost  in  a  psychopathic  state.  If  a  man  like  that  is  to 
be  nominated  surely  one  ought  to  have  a  chance  to  pick  an  alternate  instead  of 
him.  When  Chinese  of  a  not  particularly  conservative  type  think  that  too 
many  of  the  IPR  staff  are  too  much  under  Russian  Soviet  influence,  as  I  know 
that  they  do,  it  would  appear  to  be  time  to  be  more  cautious.  I  am  not  objecting 
so  much  to  radical  views  on  political,  economic  and  social  subjects,  on  which 
radical  views  may  be  called  for,  but  to  the  tendency  to  follow  a  party  line,  and 
to  flop  suddenly  from  one  side  to  the  other  in  accordance  with  a  party  directive. 
The  latter  habit  is  the  reverse  of  encouraging  to  intellectual  freedom. 
Yours  sincerely, 

(Signed)     Roger  S.  Greene. 


4968  INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 

Exhibit  No,  780 

February  12,  1942. 
Mr.  Arthur  H.  Dean, 

4S  Wall  Street,  Netc  York,  N.  Y. 

Dear  Mr.  Dean  :  In  February  1941,  when  you  last  contributed  to  the  American 
Council,  the  United  States  was  technically  at  peace  with  the  world.  Today  we're 
fighting  a  world  war,  and  initially  suffering  grave  reverses  on  the  vast  and  little- 
understood  Pacific  front. 

I  think  you  will  agree  that  the  war  strikingly  confirms  a  basic  thesis  of  the 
Institute  of  Pacific  Relations — that  the  Pacific  is  vital  to  America.  As  a  member, 
you  will  be  interested  in  a  brief  report  on  the  services  of  the  I.  P.  R.  in  the  war 
crisis. 

Since  December  7  the  I.  P.  R.  has  handled  a  growing  stream  of  inquiries  from 
business  houses,  publishers,  newspai)ers,  radio  commentators  and  teachers.  There 
have  been  urgent  requests  from  the  Army,  Navy,  and  other  government  depart- 
ments for  special  reports  and  for  the  loan  of  I.  P.  R.  studies  still  in  manuscript  or 
proof.  I.  P.  R.  books  will  be  found  in  constant  use  on  scores  of  Washington  desks 
today.  Large  special  editions  of  our  pamphlets  are  being  provided  at  cost  to 
meet  the  Army's  urgent  need  for  reliable  educational  materials  in  its  camps.  We 
are  also  supplying  the  War  Department  with  basic  lectures  on  the  Far  East  for 
its  educational  program. 

The  importance  of  the  Institute  as  a  training  center  for  Far  Eastern  experts  in 
recent  years  is  also  shown  by  the  number  of  former  I.  P.  R.  statf  members 
promptly  called  into  important  government  work.  Owen  Lattimore,  as  you  know, 
is  serving,  on  the  nomination  of  President  Roosevelt,  as  personal  advisor  to 
Generalissimo  Chiang  Kai-shek ;  Ch'ao-ting  Chi  is  Secretary-General  of  the 
A.  B.  C.  Currency  Stabilization  Board ;  others  are  in  a  dozen  key  agencies  in 
Washington. 

Government  agencies  have  turned  to  our  staff  experts  for  special  studies  of  the 
Japanese  economy  and  of  the  carrying  capacity  of  the  Trans-Siberian  Railway. 
United  China  Relief  has  drawn  extensively  on  I.  P.  R.  personnel  for  planning  its 
China  relief  program.  The  American  Council  on  Eudcation  has  asked  our  help 
in  extending  and  improving  teaching  on  the  Far  East  in  the  schools  of  America. 

Few  persons  realize  that  it  would  have  been  impossible  for  the  I.  P.  R.  to 
respond  to  these  national  needs  so  quickly  had  the  Institute  not  long  been 
planning  for  such  an  emergency.  In  our  research  program,  for  example,  that 
meant  launching  some  years  ago  a  wide-ranging  set  of  long-term  inquiries  into 
the  basic  problems  and  conditions  of  the  Far  Eastern  countries.  Many  of  these 
studies  (see  our  recent  catalog)  are  just  coming  off  the  press  as  they  are  vitally 
needed  for  the  war  effort  of  the  United  Nations. 

Recognizing  the  importance  of  Southeast  Asia  in  world  politics,  the  I.  P.  R. 
five  years  ago  initiated  a  series  of  studies  on  the  governments,  resources  and 
development  of  those  areas.  As  a  result  we  are  now  issuing  the  only  up-to-date, 
authoritative  books  on  Thailand,  Malaya,  Formosa,  Burma,  as  well  as  new 
studies  of  Indo-China  and  the  Netherlands  Indies.  Every  one  of  these  urgently 
needed  studies  would  not  have  to  be  made  under  immense  difficulties  by  defense 
agencies  if  the  I.  P.  R.  by  its  foresight  had  not  done  the  job. 

Other  volumes,  too,  take  on  a  new  war  significance.  What  is  the  industrial 
staying  power  of  the  Japanese  Empire  and  the  Japanese-controlled  areas  of 
China  and  Indo-China?  This  question,  now  so  vital  to  the  war  effort,  has  been 
the  subject  of  continuous  I.  P.  R.  study.  The  latest  results  are  now  being  pub- 
lished in  The  Industrialization  of  the  Western  Pacific,  in  Japan's  Industrial 
Strength,  and  in  Industry  in  Southeast  Asia,  not  to  mention  earlier  studies  of 
the  Far  Eastern  economies. 

What  is  the  strategic  and  economic  importance  of  the  Soviet  Far  East  for 
the  war  plans  of  the  United  States  today?  The  best  available  information 
on  this  subject  is  contained  in  a  forthcoming  I.  P.  R.  report  on  Soviet  Policy  in 
the  Far  East,  begun  in  1939. 

What  Russian,  Japanese,  Chinese,  and  Dutch  maps  of  the  Far  East  are  easily 
available  In  American  libraries?     Pacific  Area  Maps  gives  the  answer. 

What  about  aviation  in  the  Pacific  area  after  the  war  with  its  vast  expansion 
of  aircraft  production  capacity?  An  indispensable  preliminary  for  any  such 
inquiry  is  the  I.  P.  R.  monograph  just  published  as  Air  Transport  in  the  Pacifi,c 
Area,  begun  eighteen  months  ago. 

Since  Pearl  Harbor  the  demands  upon  the  I.  P.  R.  have  doubled  and  trebled. 
We  see  an  even  bigger  opportunity  ahead.     Both  nationally  and  in  cooperation 


INSTITUTE   OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  4969 

with  its  sister  Councils  in  the  ABCDR  war  partnership,  the  American  Council 
ought  now  to  throw  all  its  accumulated  resources  into  the  war  and  postwar 
effort  of  the  United  Nations  in  the  Pacific. 

To  help  meet  this  opportunity  we  are  asking  you  to  make  your  1942  member- 
ship contribution  at  the  present  time.     If  possible,  we  would  greatly  appreciate 
your  increasing  it  over  the  sum  of  $100  which  you  gave  last  February. 
Sincerely  yours, 

Wm.  W.  Lockwood. 
WWL :  JL. 


Exhibit  No.  781 

(Handwritten:)  Joe  Jones.  M.  S.  F.  What  would  you  think  of  a  "Werner 
pamphlet  right  away?  Return  to  W  W  L  file.  Sent  to  Carnegie  Endownment 
&  returned. 

Department  of  State, 
Washington,  March  3,  19Jf2. 
Mr.  WiLUAM  W.  Lockwood, 

American  Cotmcil,  Institute  of  Pacfic  Relations, 

129  East  Fifty-second  Street,  New  York,  New  York. 

Dear  Bill  :  There  is  enclosed  a  copy  of  a  memorandum  which  I  have  prepared 
setting  forth  the  most  significant  conclusions  which  I  drew  from  the  discus- 
sions at  Princeton  last  week  end. 

I  am  not  sure  how  many  agree  with  me,  but  I  was  especially  impressed  with 
Mr.  Werner  and  his  contribution.  I  fear  that  many  who  have  not  read  his 
books  and  who  were  not,  therefore,  predisposed  in  his  favor  may  not  have  been 
able  properly  to  understand  and  appreciate  him.  In  my  memorandum  I  have 
tried  to  place  him  in  his  proper  setting  and  to  give  the  essence  of  his  views.  So 
many  people  here  have  been  instantaneously  impressed  by  his  views  that  I 
venture  to  send  you  a  copy  of  my  memorandum  for  whatever  use  you  may  wish 
to  make  of  it. 

Alger  Hiss  has  suggested  that  it  would  be  exceedingly  useful  if  you  could  put 
out  a  pamphlet  on  the  conference  within  the  next  few  days  or  weeks,  stressing 
Mr.  Werner's  contribution,  as  well  as  his  background  and  writings.  I  think 
that  might  be  a  very  good  idea.  Meanwhile,  I  am  doing  all  that  I  can  to  popu- 
larize Mr.  Werner's  views  in  the  Department,  elsewhere  in  the  Government,  and 
with  appropriate  Chinese,  including  T.  V.  Soong.  It  doesn't  seem  to  be  a  very 
diflBcult  job  either  because  they  have  seemed  to  appeal  to  everyone  as  extremely 
sensible.  The  surprising  thing  to  me  is  that  they  are  new.  Werner  is  coming 
down  to  Washington  this  week  and  I  hope  to  be  able  to  take  him  around. 

I  want  to  say  again  that  I  found  the  conference  not  only  enjoyable  but  exceed- 
ingly useful,  and  I  think  that  additional  conferences  of  that  nature  would  be  of 
considerable  usefulness  in  the  near  future.  All  of  our  ideas  are  in  a  state  of 
flux  as  they  have  never  been  before  and  for  that  reason  now  as  never  before  a 
group  discussion  should  help  clarify  our  views.  I  would  appreciate  it  if  you 
would  convey  these  views  to  Mr.  Carter.  Incidentally  I  think  he  did  a  mag- 
nificent job  of  running  the  conference. 

I  have  used  and  am  using  Mr.  Werner's  name  freely  in  connection  with  his 
views,  while  maintaining  the  rule  of  secrecy  with  respect  to  the  views  of  other 
people  at  the  conference.  Mr.  Werner  being  a  publicist,  and  his  private  views 
being  no  different  from  bis  public  views,  I  have  not  thought  it  necessary  to 
follow  the  conference  rule.  If  you  do  not  agree  with  me  please  let  me  know. 
Sincerely, 

Joe. 

Enclosure. 

March  2,  1942. 

The  week-end  conference  at  Princeton  on  February  28  and  March  1,  held  under 
the  auspices  of  the  American  Council  of  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations,  was 
well  attended  (a  list  of  those  participating  is  attached)  and  in  my  opinion  the 
discussions  were  well  conducted  and  arrived  at  significant  conclusions.  Without 
reference  to  the  printed  agenda  I  set  forth  below  the  most  significant  conclusions 
which  I  drew  from  the  discussions. 

88348— 52— pt.  14- 5 


4970  INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 

I.    STRATEGY 

The  principal  contribution  to  the  discussions  of  strategy  was  made  by  Mr.  Max 
Werner,  author  of  Military  Strength  of  the  Powers  and  Battle  for  the  World. 
Mr.  Werner  was  born  in  Russia  and  has  lived  a  considerable  part  of  his  life  in 
Germany  and  France  and  elsewhere  on  the  European  Continent.  He  Is  thor- 
oughly familiar  with  the  military  literature  of  the  world  and  writes  with  great 
logic  and  brilliance.  His  most  recent  book,  Battle  for  the  World — The  Strategy 
and  Diplomacy  of  the  Second  Worid  War,  was  published  in  April  1941  prior  to 
the  German  attack  on  Russia  and.  of  course,  to  our  entry  into  the  war.  This 
book  is  nevertheless  exceedingly  fresh  when  read  now,  even  after  the  events  of 
1941.  His  judgments  and  evaluations  both  in  regard  to  diplomacy  and  strategy 
have  been  proved  in  the  year  subsequent  to  the  publication  of  his  book  nearly 
one  hundred  percent  accurate.  He  has  an  understanding  of  strategy,  facts,  the 
mentalities  of  the  general  staffs  and  political  leaders  in  the  various  countries 
in  Europe  and  Asia  which  is  most  impressive.  His  knowledge  and  interpreta- 
tion of  Russian  military  strength,  strategy,  and  diplomacy  is  particularly  impres- 
sive, and  his  correctness  has  been  demonstrated  by  events.  His  opinions,  there- 
fore, in  my  opinion,  merit  closest  attention. 

I  summarize  briefly  below  Mr.  Werner's  analysis  of  the  current  situation  and 
his  sugtrestions  as  to  policy,  with  the  addition  of  a  few  supplementary  factors 
brought  out  by  other  persons  at  the  Conference  which  fit  into  Mr.  Werner's 
general  plan  : 

War  between  the  United  States  and  Japan  has  traditionally  been  conceived  as 
a  naval  war  where;is  in  fact  the  Japanese  have  employed,  in  blitzkrieg  tempo, 
land  armies,  using  mechanical  equipment  as  far  as  possible,  and  supported  by 
airplanes.  Japan's  successes  in  Southeastern  Asia  have  made  it  exceedingly 
difficult  fdi-  us  to  deal  with  the  situation  without  confronting  the  Japanese  with 
equivalent  or  superior  land  forces  using  the  proper  equipment  and  supported  by 
superior  air  power.  The  concentration  of  American  industry  for  the  most  part 
in  tlie  eastern  regions  of  the  T'nited  States,  the  vast  distances  between  our  west 
coast  and  Southeast  Asia,  and  the  shortage  of  shipping  space  makes  it  an 
extremely  difficult  matter  to  accomplish  tliat  end.  Japan  must  be  defeated  by  a 
superior  land  army  using  modin-n  equipment  and  air  power.  Who  has  in  the 
Far  East  an  army  equipped  with  modern  weapons  and  supported  by  air  power? 
The  Soviet  Union.  The  Russian  Army  is  strategically  situated  near  vulnerable 
Japanese  home  bases,  is  large,  well-equipped,  and  capable  of  the  job  of  handling 
the  Japanese.  M^n-eover,  war  between  Japan  and  the  Soviet  Union  is  inevitable 
within  the  next  few  weeks,  months,  or  years  and  both  the  Japanese  Government 
and  the  Soviet  Government  realize  it.  The  conflict  of  interests  between  Japan 
and  the  Soviet  Union  is  fundamental  and  the  situation  is  explosive. 

We  must  conceive  of  the  present  war  as  a  global  war  and  plan  our  strategy 
along  global  lines.  The  Soviet  Union  is  fighting  desperately  in  Europe  and  it 
must  at  an  indefinite  time  in  the  future  fight  in  the  Far  East.  We  are  at  war 
both  with  Germany  and  Japan.  It  would  be  an  economical  division  of  labor, 
which  would  have  great  potentialities  of  reducing  the  length  and  cost  of  the 
war,  and  if  we  could  induce  the  Russians  to  employ  their  Far  Eastern  army 
against  Japan  while  we  aid  Russia  in  Europe  where  transportation  and  supply 
problems  are  easier  for  us  to  solve.  Indeed,  this  may  be  the  only  way  in  which 
we  can  win  the  war. 

How  can  we  induce  Russia  to  employ  its  Far  Eastern  army  in  the  common 
interest? 

(1)  By  opening  up  a  new  front  in  the  West  (Mr.  Werner  did  not  elaborate 
on  this  point  but  indicated  the  front  might  be  in  Africa,  Italy,  or  elsewhere,  the 
main  idea  being  to  engage  German  troops  and  equipment.  He  suggested  that 
thirty  British  Divisions  and  thirty  American  Divisions  properly  equipped  could 
handle  this  matter,  with  another  sixty  Divisions  in  reserve)  ; 

(2)  By  furnishing  Soviet  armies  on  the  European  and  Asiatic  fronts  with 
from  two  to  three  thousand  planes  monthly  and  from  two  to  three  thousand 
tanks  monthly  (this  contribution  would  be  a  joint  British  and  American  con- 
tribution) ; 

(3)  By  concentrating  air  and  submarine  power  in  Alaska  and  the  Aleutian 
Islands  and  coordinating  an  attack  with  the  Russian  attack  ; 

(4)  By  equipping  Chinese  armies  in  North  China  as  fully  as  possible  for  a 
coordinated  attack  in  North  China  and  Manchuria. 

The  foregoing  program  of  course,  implies  cooperation  between  the  Soviet 
Union  and  the  British  and  American  Governments  on  a  full  and  frank  basis. 


INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  4971 

The  ConfeTence  generally  stressed  the  necessity  of  such  cooperation.  It  is 
possible  to  achieve  such  cooperation.  The  Russians  tried  desperately  to  achieve 
a  system  of  collective  security  in  Europe.  After  Munich  they  tried  sincerely 
to  obtain  some  binding  alliance  with  France  and  Great  Britain.  The  British 
and  Franch  would  neither  arm  themselves  adequately  against  the  German 
danger  (the  strength  of  the  Germans  and  the  pitiful  weakness  of  the  British 
and  Franch  were  well-known  to  the  experts)  nor  would  they  ally  themselves  with 
the  Soviet  Union.  Accurately  judging  German  strength,  and  despairing  of 
the  British  and  French,  the  Russians  decided  to  rely  upon  themselves  alone, 
signed  an  agreement  with  the  Germans  in  August  1939  and  proceeded  to  increase 
their  armaments  as  fast  as  possible  and  to  improve  their  strategic  situation 
by  absorbing  the  small  Baltic  States  and  by  attacking  Finland.  The  Russians 
will  now  be  impressed  and  moved  not  by  words  but  by  the  strength  which  we 
are  prepared  to  exert  in  the  common  cause. 

n.  EMPLOYMENT  AND  DEVELOPMENT  OF  THE  WAR  POTENTLiLS  OF  COLONIAL  PEOPLES 

It  is  frequently  said  that  this  war  is  a  war  of  four-fifths  of  the  people  of  the 
world  against  one-fifth,  that  it  is  a  peoples'  war,  a  war  for  freedom.  It  is  more 
accurate  to  say,  however,  that  it  is  a  war  of  one-fifth  against  one-fifth  of  the 
world  with  the  remaining  three-fifths  of  the  world  indifferent.  This  remaining 
three-fifths  of  the  world  consists  of  Colonial  peoples  who  are  insufliciently^ 
interested  and  prepared  to  defend  their  own  territories  against  attack.  We  have 
seen  that  the  people  of  Malaya  aided  the  Japanese  rather  more  than  they  aided 
Britain ;  that  the  Burmese  are  aiding  the  attacking  enemy ;  that  the  peoples 
of  the  Netherlands  Indies  (the  action  of  the  people  of  Java  remains  to  be  seen). 
are  insufliciently  developed,  both  spiritually  and  materially,  to  defend  their  lands. 
Will  the  peoples  of  India  aid  the  British  in  the  defense  of  India,  or  will  they  be 
indifferent,  will  they  aid  the  attackers? 

How  can  tlie  morale  of  China  be  improved  further  that  resistance  might  be 
continued  at  the  highest  possible  level?  (It  was  recognized  that  China  was 
not  a  colonial  country  and  that  China  has,  of  course,  been  defending  herself 
with  great  tenacity ;  nevertheless,  it  was  recognized  by  the  Conference  that 
there  are  many  things  which  the  United  States  and  Great  Britain  can  do 
in  order  to  strengthen  the  morale  of  the  Chinese  peoples  and  increase  their 
fervor  for  a  continuation  of  the  peoples'  war. ) 

With  respect  to  India  it  was  agreed  that  in  the  interest  of  common  defense 
and  of  winning  this  desperate  war  the  Indians  must  be  given  a  considerable 
measure  of  independence,  that  their  nationalism  must  be  aroused  and  inspired 
to  self-defense,  and  that  India's  economic  war  potentialities  be  fully  developed 
with  outside  aid. 

With  respect  to  China  it  was  suggested  that  steps  be  taken  to  accept  China 
fully  and  frankly  as  a  full-scale  partner  in  this  war  and  accord  her  a  full 
voice  in  the  conduct  of  the  war.  She  is  still  being  treated  as  somewhat  of  an 
outsider.  It  was  suggested  that  steps  should  be  taken  at  once,  as  a  part 
of  the  war  effort,  to  abolish  extraterritoriality  in  China,  to  return  Hong 
Kong  to  China  legally,  and  to  abolish  the  discrimination  against  China  in  our 
immigration  law.  The  cause  of  the  "peoples'  war"  might  be  greatly  en- 
hanced by  taking  these  steps. 

Australia  and  New  Zealand  should  be  admitted  into  a  fuller  participation 
in  the  conduct  of  the  war.  They  are  at  present  represented  in  the  Pacific 
War  Council  in  London  but  they  feel  that  in  some  way  they  should  be  rep- 
resented in  the  councils  at  Washington. 

(It  was  commented  upon  widely  how  much  greater  had  been  the  participation 
of  the  Philippine  people  in  the  war  than  in  other  areas  where  a  less  liberal  colo- 
nial policy  had  been  followed.) 

It  was  the  general  feeling  in  the  Conference  that  the  old  order  in  Asia  was  com- 
pletely gone  and  would  never  be  restored ;  that  the  peoples  of  Asia  must  be  per- 
mitted and  assisted  to  become  masters  in  their  own  houses ;  that  British  and 
American  superiority  must  give  way  to  cooperation  on  a  level ;  and  that  both 
in  the  conduct  of  the  war  and  the  organization  of  peace  it  is  imperative  that  the 
peoples  of  Asia  be  given  a  greater  voice. 

III.  ORGANIZATION  FOR  THE  CONDUCT  OF  WAR    (AND  FOR  THE  DEVELOPMENT  OF  PEACE) 

This  subject  was  only  partially  discussed,  and  no  conclusions  were  reached.  It 
was,  however,  generally  recognized  as  an  important  problem  which  merits  care- 
ful consideration  in  tlie  future.    Considerable  dissatisfaction  was  expressed  with 


4972  INSTITUTE   OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 

the  existing  set-up  with  a  British-American  Chiefs  of  Staff  Group  functioning  in 
Washington  and  a  largely  British,  largely  advisory  Pacific  War  Council  oper- 
ating in  London.  It  was  felt  that  the  smaller  nations  were  too  far  removed  from 
decisions  taken  in  Washington,  although  it  was  recognized  that  a  diversity  of 
voices  in  the  Central  War  Council  may  lead  to  confusion. 
SR :  Jones :  MJK/HNS. 


Exhibit  No.  782 

Makch  27, 1942. 
To:  KB 
KRCG 
MSF 
CP 
From :  WWL. 

The  newest  government  project  calling  for  study  of  the  Far  East  is  a  School 
of  Military  Government  being  organized  under  auspices  of  the  War  Department. 
This  is  to  be  located  at  the  University  of  "Virginia  under  the  direction  of  Major  H. 
C.  Dillard  and  J.  I.  Miller.  These  two  gentlemen  called  on  me  Tuesday  to  ask 
the  cooperation  of  the  I.  P.  R.  in  advice  on  materials,  personnel  and  curriculum. 
The  purpose  of  this  school  is  to  train  oflScers  in  the  techniques  and  problems  of 
military  government  in  areas  taken  over  from  the  enemy. 

As  the  war  progresses,  and  as  the  military  forces  are  successful  large  areas 
will  be  freed  from  Axis  domination  and  will  require  provisional  military  adminis- 
trations. In  many  respects  the  policies  followed  in  this  interim  period  may  set 
the  mold  for  long-term  postwar  economic  and  political  readjustment. 

It  is  proposed  to  provide  a  selected  group  of  officers  with  general  background  and 
training  for  this  job.  The  first  course  will  begin  in  June  and  run  for  approxi- 
mately three  months.  The  curriculum  will  include  elementary  training  in  the 
organization  of  the  Army  and  the  War  Department  and  legal  procedural  prob- 
lems, and  historical  experience  where  it  seems  applicable.  As  men  are  ticketed 
for  various  areas  they  will  be  given  intensive  background  courses  in  the  history, 
geography,  resources,  economic  and  political  organization  of  the  area  in  question. 

Dillard  and  Miller  would  like  our  assistance  at  several  points.  Immediately 
they  would  like  suggestions  on  Far  Eastern  personnel  available  and  competent 
to  give  instruction,  at  least  for  this  first  summer  period.  I  would  be  glad  to 
have  suggestions  as  to  historians,  political  scientists,  geographers,  etc.  who  might 
be  considered  in  this  connection. 

In  the  second  place  they  want  help  in  building  up  a  library  of  teaching  ma- 
terials. On  looking  over  my  shelf  of  recent  I.  P.  R.  books,  they  decided  that  they 
should  have  virtually  all  of  our  books,  periodicals  and  reports.  I  am  sending 
them  a  complete  list,  eliminating  only  those  things  that  clearly  are  not  useful, 
and  in  addition  including  suggestions  regarding  non-I.  P.  R.  materials. 

The  headquarters  of  the  School  of  Military  Government  at  present  are  in  the 
new  Armory  Building,  10th  and  B  Streets,  SE.,  Washington,  D.  O.  (War  De- 
partment Extension  71951). 

(Handwritten:)   ECC. 

(Handwritten:)   ECC:  MG— return  to  ECC. 


Exhibit  No.  784 

War  Department, 
The  School  of  Military  Government, 

Washington,  April  21,  19^2. 
Mr.  William  W.  Lookwood, 

Secretary,  American  Council,  Institute  of  Pacific  Relatione, 
129  East  52nd  Street,  New  York  City. 
Dear  Mr.  Lockwood  :  Many  thanks  for  your  letter  of  April  17,  which  reached 
us  prior  to  the  interview  with  Mr.  Holland. 

Mr.  Holland  made  a  very  favorable  impression  all  around.  We  are,  however, 
definitely  troubled  by  the  citizenship  business.  Indeed  it  is  our  understanding 
that  present  regulations  forbid  us  to  employ  on  our  regular  stafif  a  noncitizen. 
The  matter  is  one  we  are  now  investigating. 


INSTITUTE   OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  4973 

Even  if  our  tie-up  with  the  I.  P.  R.  does  not  mature  this  time,  there  is  of 
course  the  possibility  that  it  will  in  the  future.     Hence  I  feel  that  Mr.  Hol- 
land's trip  was  not  by  any  means  a  fruitless  one. 
We  deeply  appreciate  the  interest  you  have  shown. 
Yours  very  sincerely, 

[8]  Hardy  C.  Dillard 
Hardy  C.  Dillakd, 
Major,  AUS,  Director  of  Instruction. 


Exhibit  No.  785 

June  15,  1942. 
Copy 
ECC  from  WWL : 

In  response  to  your  request  I  have  hastily  jotted  down  a  number  of  sugges- 
tions for  the  American  group  at  the  conference.  It's  a  long  list,  of  course,  but  I 
believe  we  should  add  to  it  considerably,  and  then  get  competent  advice — say 
that  of  Currie,  Barnes,  and  Jessup — on  elimination.  This  list  runs  too  much  in 
the  regular  groove  as  regards  non-government  people.  So  far  as  Washington  is 
concerned,  we  need  more  intimate  knowledge  as  to  who  really  are  in  the  key 
positions. 
Government  : 

Gruening,  Ernest  H.,  Governor,  Alaska. 

Bean,  Louis,  Board  of  Economic  Warfare. 

Perkins,  Milo,  Board  of  Economic  Warfare. 

Rietler,  Winfield,  Board  of  Economic  Warfare, 

Shoemaker,  James,  H.,  Board  of  Economic  Warfare. 

Stone,  W.  T.,  Board  of  Economic  Warfare. 

Wallace,  H.  A.,  Vice  President,  BEW. 

Staley,  Eugene,  Bureau  of  the  Budget. 

Barnes,  Joseph,  Coordinator  of  Information. 

Bunche,  Ralph,  Coordinator  of  Information. 

Fahs,  C.  B.,  Coordinator  of  Information. 

Hayden,  J.  R.,  Coordinator  of  Information. 

Wheeler,  Leslie,  Department  of  Agriculture. 

Ropes,  E.  C,  Department  of  Commerce,  Bureau  of  Foreign  and  Domestic 
Trade. 

Berle,  A.  A.,  State  Department. 

Davies,  Joseph,  State  Department. 

Grady,  Henry,  State  Department. 

Hiss,  Alger,  State  Department. 

Hornbeck,  S.  K.,  State  Department. 

Sayre,  Francis  B.,  State  Department. 

Stinebower,  L.  D.,  State  Department. 

Vince,  Jacob,  Treasury  Department. 

White,  H.  D.,  Treasury  Department. 

Gulick,  Luther  H.,  National  Resources  Planning  Board. 

Emerson,  Rupert,  Office  of  Price  Administration. 

Nathan,  Robert,  War  Production  Board. 

Currie,  Lauchlin,  White  House. 

Lubin,  I.,  White  House. 
Others  : 

Bassett,  Arthur,  American  Red  Cross. 

Bates,  Searle,  International  Missionary  Council. 

Beukema,  Col.  Herman,  West  Point. 

Binder,  Carroll,  Chicago  Daily  News. 

Clapper,  Raymond,  Washington  Columnist. 

Cowles,  Gardner,  Des  Moines  Register  &  Tribune. 

Dennett,  Tyler,  Historian. 

Dollard,  Charles,  Carnegie  Corporation. 

Emeny,  Brooks,  Foreign  Affairs  Council,  Cleveland. 

Field,  Frederick  V.,  New  York. 

Herod,  W.  R.,  International  General  Electric. 

Jessup,  Prof.  Philip  C,  Columbia  University. 

Kizer,  Benjamin  H.,  Pacific  Northwest  Regional  Planning  Commission. 

Lochhead,  Archie,  Universal  Trading  Corporation. 


4974  INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 

Xiuce,  Henry,  Time,  Inc. 

Jklolyneaux,  Peter,  Texas  Weekly. 

Moore,  Harriet  L.,  American  Russian  Institute. 

Schwellenbacli,  Judge  Lewis  B.,  U.  S.  District  Court,  Spokane,  Wash.  (ex- 
Senator). 

Sproul,  Allan,  Federal  Reserve  Bank,  New  York. 

Sweetland,  Monroe,  National  CIO  Committee  for  American  and  Allied  War 
Relief. 

Voorhis,  Jerry,  House  of  Representatives. 

Wilkie,  Wendell,  Attorney. 

Willits,  Joseph  H.,  Rockefeller  Foundation. 

Wilson,  C.  E.,  General  Electric. 

Yarnell,  Admiral  H.  E.,  U.  'S.  N.,  retired. 
(Handwritten:)  conference. 

Exhibit  No.  786 

War  Department, 
Services  of  Supply, 
Office  of  the  Provost  Marshal  General, 

Washinffton,  October  21,  1942. 
Mr.  William  W.  Lockwood, 

Secretary,  American  Council,  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations,  Inc., 
129  East  52nd  Street,  New  York  City,  New  York. 

Dear  Mr.  Lockwood  :  I  appreciate  very  much  your  visit  yesterday  and  the 
willingness  to  cooperate  in  the  War  Department's  Program  for  Military  Govern- 
ment to  which  it  bore  evidence. 

Pursuant  to  our  agreement  that  I  would  supplement  the  statement  contained 
in  the  "Synopsis  of  War  Department  Program  for  Military  Government", 
copies  of  which  were  furnished  you  yesterday,  the  following  supplemental  state- 
ment is  made. 

The  reservoir  of  technical  and  advisory  personnel  referred  to  in  the  "Synop- 
sis" is  the  group  toward  the  recruitment  of  which  you  have  volunteered  the  serv- 
ices of  your  organization.  There  is,  of  course,  no  immediate  need  for  this  per- 
sonnel ;  on  the  other  hand,  it  will  not  do  to  await  the  need  before  attempting  to 
recurit  them.  Consequently,  it  is  the  intention  of  the  War  Department  to  select 
this  group  at  once  and  commission  them  in  the  Army  Specialist  Corps  in  a  status 
of  leave  roithout  pay.  This  will  permit  these  persons  to  coyitinue  in  their  pres- 
ent useful  civilian  employment  until  such  time  as  a  need  arises  for  thorn,  when 
they  tmll  not  only  have  been  selected,  but  will  be  immediately  available  for 
service. 

It  is  planned,  however,  after  some  substantial  numbers  have  been  enrolled  in 
this  reserve  to  ear-mark  them  for  specific  areas  and  then  to  send  them,  in 
groups,  to  certain  colleges  and  universities  for  a  brief  training  period,  not  to  ex- 
ceed four  weeks,  in  which  they  will  be  given  some  insight  into  the  principles  of 
military  government,  and  some  background  instructions  in  the  areas  for  which 
they  have  been  ear-marked.  No  effort  will,  of  course,  be  made  during  this 
training  period  to  instruct  anyone  in  the  functional  activities  for  which  he  has 
been  selected  since  the  selection  of  each  will  have  been  premised  upon  the  fact 
that  he  is  already  specially  qualified  in  his  own  profession.  Inasmuch  as  the 
recruitment  of  this  personnel  must  be  accomplished  with  an  eye  to  the  Selective 
Service  regulations,  no  person  can  be  emolled  in  the  Army  Specialist  Corps  un- 
less he  is  either  over  forty-five  years  of  age,  or  if  under  forty-five,  has  been  classi- 
fied in  Class  3 A  or  in  more  deferred  classifications  under  the  Selective  Service 
administration. 

Your  efforts  in  assisting  the  War  Department  in  compiling  lists  of  available 
personnel  for  the  foregoing  purposes  will  be  greatly  appreciated,  and  some  early 
activity  in  this  direction  on  your  part  will  be  most  helpful. 

With  bi'st  wishes,  I  am, 
Sincerely  yours, 

Jesse  I.  Miller, 
Acting  Chief,  Military  Government  Division. 


INFTITUTE   OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  4975 

Exhibit  No.  787 

October  21,  1942, 
Robert  W.  Baknett, 

Institute  of  Pacific  Relations, 

100  Jackson  Place  NW.,  Washington,  D.  G. 

Dear  Bob  :  The  interviews  with  conference  invitees  yesterday  were  quite 
successful  on  the  whole.  Remer  and  Bunch  definitely  will  come  unless  O.  S.  S. 
policy  prevents.  Despres  makes  the  same  reservations ;  also  he  is  not  yet  sure 
of  being  able  to  get  away  for  that  time.  Coe  and  Stone  accept  tentatively,  al- 
though uncertain  about  whether  they  can  get  away  for  the  full  period.  Emerson 
doubts  very  much  that  he  can  free  himself  to  attend.  Coe  and  Stone  have  agreed 
to  take  up  the  question  with  Perkins,  and  have  hopes  that  he  will  attend  for  two 
or  three  days,  though  no  longer  than  that.  Other  possibilities  developed  in  dis- 
cussion, and  these  I'll  take  up  with  you  later. 

Meanwhile  there  are  one  or  two  specific  things  I'd  like  you  to  do. 

Harry  White  is  in  London,  I  am  told,  though  I  didn't  call  his  office.  I  am 
mailing  a  formal  invitation  to  him,  and  suggest  that  you  call  his  secretary  to  say 
that  this  is  something  about  which  we  should  like  to  talk  with  White  on  his 
return. 

I  also  invited  Lon  De  Caux,  C.  I.  O.  publicity  director  and  editor  of  the  C.  /.  O. 
News.  He  immediately  gave  his  tentative  acceptance.  I  got  a  vei^y  favorable 
impression  from  conversation  with  him,  and  Michael  knows  him. 

De  Caux  suggested  Bo?'is  ^^huski?},  of  the  A.  F.  of  L.,  as  another  good  labor 
person  for  the  conference.  He  is  the  research  director,  I  believe.  If  the  Nomi- 
nating Committee  approves,  I'd  like  you  and  Michael  to  see  him  at  the  Washing- 
ton headquarters  and  extend  an  invitation.  Before  doing  this,  however,  you  had 
better  wait  lor  further  word  from  me. 

In  the  opinion  of  Hiss,  Coe,  and  Despres,  we  ought  to  try  to  get  Berle  or  Dean 
Acheson,  or  both.     More  about  this  later,  too. 

(Handwritten  :) 

One  important  gap  in  the  present  line-up  is  India.  The  Washington  possibili- 
ties are  Paul  Ailing,  now  political  adviser  and  formerly  chief  of  the  State  De- 
partment's Near  Eastern  Division;  Wallace  Murray,  present  chief;  Eric  Bee- 
croft,  and  Norman  Brown.  From  what  I  learned  of  the  two  State  Department 
men,  neither  would  be  very  useful  to  us.  As  between  Beecroft  and  Brown,  I'd 
like  your  opinion  and  Michael's.  Despres  says  that  the  written  work  of  Brown's 
section  is  first  rate — imaginative  and  pointed.  He  doesn't  know  Brown's  quali- 
fications as  a  conference  iiarticipaut.  Bremer  thinks  well  of  Brown  as  more 
than  the  conventional  academician.  In  his  favor  are  not  only  his  position,  but 
also  his  academic  standing.  Although  we  are  paying  little  attention  to  this 
consideration  in  making  up  the  American  group,  it  would  be  desirable,  other 
things  being  equal,  to  include  at  least  one  person  with  senior  rank,  among  schol- 
ars in  the  Asiatic  field.  But  this  shouldn't  decide  the  matter  unless  on  other 
grounds  as  well  Brown  is  the  best  nominee. 

Another  possibility  we  might  consider  is  someone  from  Knox's  office  or  Stlm- 
son's.  Coe  and  Hiss  mentioned  Adlai  Stevens{sic) ,  one  of  Knox's  special  assist- 
ants. Hiss  also  suggested  with  some  approval  Harvey  Bundy,  former  As- 
sistant Secretary  of  State  and  now  special  assistant  to  Stimson.  Then  there 
is  General  Little,  a  Marine  general  formerly  in  China,  now  retired  (?).  Also 
General  Magruder,  whereabouts  unknown.  Despres  suggested  Admiral  Hart, 
saying  that  it  wouldn't  be  a  bad  idea  to  have  someone  who  would  give  a  pretty 
forthright  and  orthodox  Navy  view,  as  this  view  will  greatly  influence  the  post- 
war settlement. 

Still  other  suggestions  include  Robert  Sherwood,  head  of  the  O.  W.  I.'s  Over- 
seas Section,  and  Gardner  Cowles. 

Ben  Kiser  probably  will  write  Congressman  Coffee  a  personal  letter,  and  leave 
it  to  us  to  follow  up  with  an  interview. 

In  a  day  or  so  I'll  send  a  revised  list  indicating  where  we  now  stand  on  invi- 
tations and  acceptances. 

Reed  Hager,  by  the  way,  would  like  very  much  to  see  you,  and  took  down  your 
telephone  number.  He  has  been  with  Rupert  Emerson  in  the  office  of  the  O.  P.  A. 
Regional  Administrator  handling  Territories  and  Possessions.  Next  week  he 
probably  will  shift  to  the  civilian  stafT  of  the  Munitions  Assignments  Board. 
This  will  put  him  in  a  key  position,  as  a  member  of  the  group  working  for  Hopkins 
in  this  field.  His  home  address  is  2031  Huidekoper  Place. 
Sincerely  yours, 

Wm.  W.  Lockwood,  Secretary. 


4976  INSTITUTE   OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 

Exhibit  No.  788 

November  16,  1942. 

WWL  to  ECG 

•  Barnett  writes,  apparently  quoting  Hiss,  that  Hornbeck  warmly  supports  the 
invitation  to  Yarnell,  but  feels  that  it  would  be  improper  for  him  to  take  any 
initiative  in  approaching  Secretary  Knox,  as  I  suggested  he  do.  Hornbeck's 
opinion  apparently  is  that  the  best  procedure  would  be  for  you  to  write  directly 
to  Welles.  Attached  is  a  carbon  of  my  letter  to  Hornbeck,  in  case  you  Wish 
to  use  the  same  form  with  Welles. 

You  may  want  to  tell  Welles  that  the  American  Council  has  issued  conference 
invitations  to  Hornbeck,  Hamilton,  and  Pasvolsky. 

Hiss  added  that  Hornbeck  and  Hamilton  would  be  very  glad  to  have  their 
expenses  paid.     I  see  no  reason  for  us  to  do  this,  and  I  imagine  you  will  agree. 


Exhibit  No.  789 

November  6,  1942. 

Dr.  Stanley  K.  Hornbeck, 

State  Department,  Washington,  D.  C. 

Dear  Hornbeck  :  The  American  Council  is  eager  to  include  Admiral  Yarnell 
as  a  member  of  the  American  group  at  the  Mont  Tremblant  Conference  in  De- 
cember. 

Admiral  Yarnell  has  expressed  a  keen  interest  in  attending,  and  suggested 
that  we  write  the  Secretary  of  the  Navy  requesting  official  approval. 

If  you  think  it  advisable,  we  would  very  much  appreciate  your  taking  up 
the  question  with  Secretary  Knox,  supporting  our  request  and  indicating  the 
importance  of  the  Conference. 
Sincerely  yours, 

W.  W.  LOCKWOOD, 

Executive  Secretary. 


Exhibit  No.  790 

November  19,  1942. 
Mr.  Benjamin  H.  Kizer, 

Old  National  Bank  Building, 

Spokane,  Washington 

Dear  Ben  :  Things  have  moved  so  fast  that  I  haven't  been  able  to  keep  you 
posted  on  every  development  in  the  assembling  of  the  conference  group.  In  any 
case,  I  know  that  you  wanted  us  to  go  ahead  on  our  own  intiative. 

Enclosed  is  the  list  as  it  stands.  Everyone  on  it  has  given  his  final  O.  K.  for 
at  least  part-time  attendance.  The  exception  is  General  Strong,  who  hopes  and 
expects  to  be  present,  however. 

We  now  run  the  risk  of  finding  ourselves  with  a  larger  group  than  we  wanted. 
There  are  still  several  people  to  be  heard  from — for  example,  Gideon  Seymour, 
a  Minneapolis  journalist,  John  B.  Cook,  a  Chicago  businessman,  John  Coffee, 
and  Max  Hamilton  of  the  State  Department.  This  results  from  the  fact  that 
two  weeks  ago  we  became  alarmed  Ijy  the  lack  of  response  and  stepped  up  the 
number  of  invitations.  In  the  past  few  days  a  number  of  people  have  came 
through. 

Considering  the  circumstances,  I  believe  that  we  have  a  good  group — good  in 
the  sense  that  it  is  diversified  and  includes  a  number  of  able  people.  The 
problem  now  will  be  to  produce  some  degree  of  unity  and  coherence  in  the 
American  presentation  at  Mont  Tremblant.  Don't  you  agree  that  the  American 
group  as  such  ought  to  have  a  number  of  meetings  of  its  own  ? 
Hastily  yours, 

Wm.  W.  Lockwood, 

Secretarj/. 

Copies  to :  Harriet  L.  Moore 
Philip  C.  Jessup 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC   RELATIONS  4977 

November  19,  1942. 
Confidential 

Partial  List  of  United  States  Delegation 

Mont  Tremblant  Conference,  December  4-14,  1942 

Institute  of  Pacific  Relations 

Brown,  W.  Norman,  British  Empire  Section,  OflSce  of  Strategic  Services. 

Bunche,  Ralph  J.,  British  Empire  Section,  Office  of  Strategic  Services. 

CoE,  Frank,  Assistant  to  the  Director,  Board  of  Economic  Warfare. 

CuRRiE,  Lauchlin,  Admiinstrative  Assistant  to  he  President. 

De  Caitx,  Len,  Publicity  Director,  Congress  of  Industrial  Organizations. 

Dennett,  Tyler,  former  President,  Williams  College. 

Desprees,  Emile,  Chief,  Economic  Section,  Office  of  Strategic  Services. 

Earle,  Edward  M.,  Institute  for  Advanced  Study. 

Embree,  Edwin  R.,  President,  Julius  Rosenwald  Fund,  Chicago. 

Emeny,  Brooks,  Director,  Foreign  Affairs  Council,  Cleveland. 

Field,  Frederick  V.,  Chairman,  Editorial  Board,  Amerasia. 

HoRNBECK,  Stanley  K.,  Political  Adviser,  Department  of  State. 

Johnson,  Luther  A.,  Congressman,  Sixth  District,  Texas. 

KizER,  Benjamin  H.,  Chairman,  Northwest  Regional  Planning  Commission. 

McCoy,  General  Frank  R.,  President,  Foreign  Policy  Association. 

Moore,  Harriet  L.,  Secretary,  American  Russian  Institute. 

Pasvolsky,  Leo,  Chief,  Division  of  Special  Research,  Department  of  State. 

Remer,  C.  T.,  Chief,  Far  Eastern  Section,  Office  of  Strategic  Services. 

Sohwellenbach,  Lewis  B.,  Judge,  U.  S.  District  Court  of  Appeals,  Spokane. 

Shiskin,  Boris,  Research  Director,  American  Federation  of  Labor. 

Stone,  William  T.,  Assistant  Director,  Board  of  Economic  Warfare. 

Straight.  Michael,  Editor,  The  New  Republic. 

Strong,  Major  General  George  V.,  Assistant  Chief  of  StafC  (G-2),  Department 

of  War. 
Thomas,  Elbert  H.,  Senator  from  Utah. 
Viner,  Jacob,  University  of  Chicago. 

Wilbur,  Brayton,  President,  Wilbur-Ellis  Company,  importers,  San  Francisco. 
Yarnell,  Admiral  Harry  E.,  U.  S.  N.,  retired. 

Exhibit  No.  791 

(Handwritten:)  W.  L.  H. 

November  19,  1942. 
Mr.  W.  A.  M.  Burden, 

Department  of  Commerce,  Washington,  D.  C. 

Dear  Mn.  Burden  :  I  note  with  interest  the  press  report  of  your  speech  the 
other  day  on  air  transport  in  the  Arctic.  This  prompts  me  to  ask  your  advice 
and  assistance  on  one  or  two  aspects  of  our  present  I.  P.  R.  program. 

Early  next  month  the  Eighth  International  Conference  of  the  Institute  will 
convene  at  Mont  Tremblant,  Quebec.  Delegates  from  Britain,  the  Dominions, 
India,  China,  the  Netherlands,  and  other  I.  P.  R.  countries  are  coming  together 
for  a  ten-day  round-table  session  on  Wartime  and  Postivar  Cooperation  Among 
the  United  Nations  in  the  Paciflc.  A  number  of  studies  are  being  prepared  for 
this  conference,  which  in  turn  will  set  the  stage  for  a  large-scale  I.  P.  R.  inquiry 
during  the  next  two  or  three  years  into  the  terms  and  conditions  of  postwar 
reconstruction  in  this  vast  area. 

One  of  the  key  questions,  of  course,  is  the  potential  role  of  air  transport, 
in  relation  both  to  military  security  and  to  economic  development.  Although 
this  is  bound  to  figure  in  the  Mont  Tremblant  discussions,  we  have  not  yet 
documented  the  subject  in  any  special  I.  P.  R.  paper. 

I  wonder  whether  by  any  chance  you  would  be  willing  to  prepare  a  brief 
article  on  the  svibject,  with  special  refei-ence  to  the  North  Pacific,  for  publication 
in  the  Far  Eastern  Sm-vei/.  In  order  to  make  it  available  for  the  conference,  we 
should  have  to  have  the  manuscript  not  later  than  December  1.  Even  if  this 
were  out  of  the  question,  we  should  like  very  much  to  publish  such  an  article 
in  the  f^urrey. 

In  the  second  place,  I  wonder  whether,  in  your  opinion,  we  ought  to  endeavor 
to  arrange  for  a  more  extensive  study  in  this  field  for  later  publication — say,  in 
pamphlet  form.     One  difficulty,  of  course,  is  that  much  of  the  new  technical 


4978  INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 

information  necessarily  is  secret  for  the  time  being.  If  this  would  not  preclude 
our  arranging  for  an  interesting  and  useful  report  on  the  future  of  air  transport 
in  the  Pacific,  do  you  have  anyone  in  mind  who  might  be  competent  and  available 
for  the  job? 

As  you  may  recall,  last  year  the  I.  P.  R.  published  a  monograph  by  Sydney  B. 
Smith,  formerly  of  the  State  Department,  on  At?-  Transport  in  the  Pacific  Area. 
If  you  haven't  a  copy,  I'd  be  glad  to  send  you  one.  It  was  a  pre-Pearl  Harbor 
study,  and  therefore  is  now  only  of  historical  interest  in  its  account  of  the  prewar 
development  of  air  lines.  It  might,  however,  be  the  basis  of  a  further  report 
which  would  take  up  the  question  as  of  the  present  date,  and  would  deal  some- 
what more  speculatively  with  the  future.  You  may  be  interested  in  a  conference 
paper  on  The  North  Pacific  International  Planning  Project,  just  issued  by  the 
American  Council.  It  is  a  memorandum  on  the  future  development  of  Alaska, 
the  Yukon  and  the  Pacific  Northwest,  by  the  chairman  and  staff  of  Region  Nine, 
National  Resources  Planning  Board. 
Sincerely  yours, 

Wm.  F.  Lockwood, 

Secretary. 

WWL:  wm 


Exhibit  No.  792 

November  27,  1942. 
Lieutenant  Colonel  John  W.  Coui-ter. 

Room  2C766,  Pentagon  Building,  Washington,  D.  C. 

Dear  Colonel  Coxtlteb:  In  response  to  your  letter  of  November  24  inquiring 
regarding  the  Eighth  International  Conference  of  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Re- 
lations, December  4-14,  1942,  at  Mont  Tremblant,  Quebec,  may  I  suggest  that 
you  consult  my  letter  to  Major  General  George  V.  Strong,  dated  Nocember  11? 
This  letter  with  its  enclosures  gave  full  particulars. 

Mr.  Robert  W.  Barnett,  the  Institute's  Washington  representatives,  can  give 
you  further  information  if  you  wish  it.  His  office  is  at  700  Jackson  Place  (tele- 
phone National  3428). 


Sincerely  yours, 
WWIiCMS. 


Wm.  W.  Lockwood,  Secretary. 


Exhibit  No.  793 


Office  of  Strategic  Services, 
Washington,  D.  C,  December  3,  1942. 
Mr.  William  Lockwood, 

American  Council  Institute  of  Pacifie  Relations, 
129  East  52nd  Street,  New  York  City 
Dear  Bill:  Mr.  Remer  thanks  you  for  the  copy  of  Mr.  Barnett's  interviews 
with  Chinese  leaders  which  you  sent  him  on  October  22nd.    We  have  much  of  this 
material  on  file  in  the  office,  so  I  am  returning  this  copy  to  you. 
I  trust  that  the  Mont  Tremblant  Conference  was  highly  successful. 
Best  regards, 

Bob 

Robert  N.  Maghx. 


Exhibit  No.  794 

Copies  to  ECC  and  WHL. 

December  28,  1942. 
Mr.  Lauchlin  Cttrrie, 

Room  228,  State  Department  Building,  Washington,  D.  C. 
Dear  Laugh:  Enclosed  herewith  is  a  staff  memorandum  on  the  high  points 
of  the  Mont  Tremblant  Conference.     You  may  feel  free  to  use  the  memorandum 
confidentially  in  any  way  you  wish. 

Brief  summaries  of  this  sort  never  succeed  in  conveying  the  color  and  vi- 
tality of  the  round  table  process,  but  I  hope  you  may  nevertheless  find  this  of 
some  value. 


INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  4979 

The  IPR  now  has  the  job  of  building  on  the  foundation  of  this  post  war  dis- 
cussion. In  this  connection  we  ought  presumably  to  establish  contracts  with 
Governor  Lehman's  office — both  to  insure  that  full  use  is  made  of  whatever  value 
there  may  be  in  the  Conference  documentation  and  discussion,  and  also  to  see 
what  further  IPR  work  would  be  most  useful  for  the  purpose  of  Governor  Leh- 
man's program.  After  the  first  of  the  year  we  would  like  to  discuss  this  with 
you. 

In  a  few  days  I  will  send  you  under  separate  cover  a  new  set  of  IPR  school 
books  on  the  countries  of  Asia.  They  are  just  out  and  are  already  getting  an 
enthusiastic  reception.  One  wishes  that  the  State  Department's  Cultural  Re- 
lations Division  and  the  Office  of  Education  could  see  their  way  to  assisting  sub- 
stantially in  developing  work  of  this  tyi)e.  The  Rockefeller  Foundation  has  now 
decided  not  to  go  extensively  into  this  field,  thus  leaving  pretty  flat  for  the 
moment  the  ambitious  plans  of  the  IPR  and  American  Council  on  Education 
for  capitalizing  on  the  new  interest  in  the  Far  East  among  school  authorities. 

One  other  matter — Wilma  Fairbank  has  just  written  to  say  that  she  does  not 
feel  that  she  can  accept  our  offer  to  her  of  the  Washington  IPR  secretaryship. 
If  you  happen  to  think  of  anyone  who  might  be  a  candidate,  we  would  welcome 
nominations. 

Sincerely  yours, 

"Wm.  W.  Lockwood,  Secretary. 


Exhibit  No.  795 

April  17,  1943. 
Mr.  Anthony  .Tenkinson, 
16  West  12th  Street, 

New  York,  N.  Y. 
Deak  Tony  :  Fred  told  me  the  other  day  that  you  saw  the  notice  in  the  paper 
about  the  film,  KNOW  TOUR  ENEMY.     This  announcement  startled  us,  too,  for 
we  are  still  in  the  preliminary  stages  of  negotiation. 

We  are  probably  going  to  cooperate  with  the  Princeton  Film  Center,  how- 
ever, in  producing  this  documentary  film  on  Japan.  The  producer  seized  on 
this  title  as  a  good  one  though  the  film  narrative  itself  Avill  be  somewhat  more 
general  in  character  than  the  contents  of  the  pamphlet.  The  Navy  has  been 
sending  us  endless  forms  to  sign  in  connection  with  the  pamphlet  order.  Once 
the  payment  comes  through  we  will  immediately  forward  a  check  to  you  on 
the  arrangement  proposed  some  weeks  ago. 
Sincerely  yours, 

Wm.  W.  Lockwood, 

Secretary. 
cc:  TGS 

ECD  &  MPF 


Exhibit  No.  796 

September  16, 1942. 
WWL  to  :  ECC     WLH     RWB 

I  understand  that  W.  S.  Culbertson,  formerly  a  draft  commissioner,  is  now 
creating  an  office  and  program  in  G-2  with  the  aim  of  developing  certain  general 
studies  of  a  geopolitical  character.  He  is  particularly  interested  in  making  use 
of  the  scholarly  resources  of  private  research  institutes  and  universities. 


4980  INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 

(Handwritten:)  Please  return  to  WWL. 
(Handwritten:)   WLH     ECC     RWB     10/19/42. 

Exhibit  No.  797 

War  Department, 
War  Department  Generax  Staff, 
Military  Intelligence  Division,  G-2, 
Washington,  2431  Munitions  Building,  October  12,  1942. 
Mr.  William  W.  Lockwood, 

American  Council,  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations,  Inc., 
129  East  52nd  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y. 

Dbvvr  Mr.  Lockwood  :  Thank  you  very  much  for  your  letter  of  the  9th  instant. 
It  will  be  entirely  satisfactory  to  me  to  have  the  proposed  Round  Table  Confer- 
ence on  India  postponed  until  after  the  tirst  of  the  year.  I  hardly  think  we  could 
do  an  adequate  job  before  that  time  anyway.  In  the  meantime  I  hope  to  have 
an  opportunity  to  talk  the  whole  matter  over  with  you  and  to  explain  the  pro- 
cedure and  technique  of  Round  Tables  which  I  have  in  mind. 
With  i)ersonal  regards,  I  am, 
"Very  sincerely  yours, 

William  S.  Culbertson, 
Lt.  Colonel,  OSC,  Chief,  Geopolitical  Section,  MIS, 


Exhibit  No,  798 

War  Department, 
War  Department  General  Staff, 
Military  Intelligence  Division,  G-2, 
Washington,  2431  Munitions  Building,  October  1,  1942. 
Mr.  W.  W.  Lockwood, 

Secretary,  American  Council,  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations, 
129  E.  52nd  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y. 

Dear  Mr.  Lockwood  :  In  part  as  a  result  of  our  conversation  a  short  time  ago 
and  in  part  as  a  result  of  a  conversation  which  I  had  with  Dr.  Earle  of  Prince- 
ton, I  desire  to  raise  the  question  whether  a  Round  Table  group,  in  line  with  the 
procedure  which  I  am  developing  under  this  Section,  might  be  sponsored  by 
the  Institute  of  Pacillc  Relations.  The  suggestion  which  I  have  in  mind  is  India. 
If  you  should  think  well  of  this  idea,  I  shall  be  glad  to  confer  with  you  or  with 
Mr.  P>arnett. 

I  shall  be  in  New  York  next  Tuesday  and  continue  on  to  Boston  where  I 
will  be  for  two  or  three  days.    I  will  be  back  in  Wasliington  October  12. 
With  personal  regards,  I  am, 
Very  sincerely  yours, 

William  S.  Culbertson, 
Lt.  Colonel,  GSC,  Chief,  Geopolitical  Section,  MIS. 


Exhibit  No.  799 

c.  c. :  WLH-ECC,  RWB,  with  copy  Culbertson  to  WWL  10-1^2. 
(Handwritten:)  War  Dept. 

October  9,  1942. 
Lt.  Col.  William  S.  Culbertson, 

Chief,  Geopolitical  Section,  Military  Intelligence  Division,  0-2, 
General  Staff,  War  Department,  Washington,  D.  C. 
2431  Munitions  Building. 

Dear  Colonel  Culbertson  :  In  reply  to  your  letter  of  October  1,  I  wonder  if 
you  would  explain  in  a  little  more  detail  what  you  have  in  mind  in  regard  to 
the  proposed  conference  on  India. 

Would  you  like  to  have  the  Institute  take  charge  of  arrangements  for  t^e 
meeting,  selection  of  personnel,  preparation  of  the  agenda,  etc.?  Do  you  have  in 
mind  a  week-end  discussion  in  which  both  government  officials  and  private  indi- 
viduals would  take  part? 


INSTITUTE   OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  4981 

If  it  ijiT«1ved  a  good  deal  of  organizing  work  for  us  here,  I  doubt  that  we  could 
take  it  on  before  tlie  end  of  the  year.  Until  that  time,  we  happen  to  be  pretty 
well  occupied  witla  plans  and  «.rrangements  for  a  big  IPR  conference  to  be  held 
In  Canada  in  December. 

It  wouM  be  possible  now,  I  fcelieve,  to  assemble  a  group  of  experts,  chiefly  from 
Washington  and  the  New  York  area,  who  together  might  be  able  to  clarify  the 
Imdian  picture  in  a  very  useful  way.  At  the  moment,  however,  our  staff  is  so 
overloaded  with  work  that  we  hardly  see  how  we  can  take  on  the  organizing  re- 
sponsibility at  present. 
Simcerely  yours, 

Wm.  W.  Lockwood,  Secretary. 


Exhibit  No.  799-A 

(HaEid'writtffli:)   File  Lockwood. 

[Copy] 

Princeton  University, 
Princeton,  New  Jersey, 
School  of  Public  and  International  Affairs, 

December  29, 1947. 
Mr.  MiJxwELL  S.  Stewart, 

American  Omincil,  InstUnte  of  Pacific  Relations,  Inc., 
1  East  SJfth  St.,  Netv  York  22,  N.  Y. 

Dear  Max:  My  reactions  to  Arthur  Bisson's  pamphlet  manuscript  on  Japan 
are  as  follows : 

It  is  a  well-written  and  clear  exposition  of  the  outcome  of  the  postwar  elections, 
in  terms  of  the  success  of  the  parties  and  some  of  the  factors  influencing  their 
soaecess.     I  learned  a  lot  from  it. 

Nevertheless,  I  feel  that  its  political  assumptions  and  value  judgments  raise 
the  whole  issue  of  IPR  pamphlet  policy.  A  pamphlet  carries  institutional  spon- 
sorship of  its  point  of  view  unless  it  is  one  of  a  number  of  divergent  views  pre- 
sented— ^which  would  not  be  the  case  here.  The  question,  therefore,  is  whether 
the  American  Council  should  sponsor  strong  political  judgments  on  current 
controversial  issues.  In  my  own  view  it  should  avoid  doing  so  unless  in  a  non- 
partisan round-table  fashion.  This  limitation  is  implicit  in  its  whole  set-up,  and 
failure  to  recognize  this  clearly  is  responsible  for  many  present  IPR  diflSculties. 
It  is  a  real  limitation,  of  course,  but  it  still  leaves  room  for  a  useful  and  important 
program. 

Accordingly,  I  would  question  publication  of  the  manuscript  as  it  stands.  Now 
I'll  try  to  be  a  little  more  explicit. 

The  manuscript  defines  political  progress  strictly  in  terms  of  the  triumph  of  the 
Communists  and  left-wing  Socialists.  The  "new  democratic  forces"  are  equated 
with  the  Communist  and  Socialist  parties  on  p.  26,  but  earlier  the  right-wing 
Socialists  are  excluded  from  the  "true  progressives"  (p.  24)  and  are  lumped 
with  the  old  guard  (p.  13).  The  latter  are  blamed  for  the  lack  of  a  united  Com- 
munist-Socialist front  (p.  12),  and  to  this  is  ascribed  the  deplored  Liberal-Pro- 
gressive victory  in  1946  (p.  14) . 

It  happens  that  I  also  believe  that  democracy  in  Japan  is  linked  with  the  for- 
tunes of  the  Social  Democrats  (though  I'm  more  skeptical  about  the  united  front 
with  the  Communists).  But  I'm  in  doubt  whether  the  IPR  should  argue  this 
doctrine  on  either  point,  especially  when  the  pamphlet  presents  no  factual  evi- 
dence for  this  definition  of  democracy  or  for  labelling  the  Liberals  and  Democrats 
as  the  useless  and  objectionable  old  guard.  A  reader  is  certainly  entitled  to 
ask  what  about  totalitarianism  on  the  left,  what  are  these  Japanese  parties 
really  after,  what  kind  of  political  system  can  Japan  with  her  traditions  be  ex- 
pected to  adopt,  etc.  Instead,  he  gets  here  a  very  specific  standard  of  judgment, 
assumed  ex  hypothesi. 

As  for  SCAP  policy,  MacArthur  is  sharply  criticized  for  failure  to  conduct 
sweeping  purges  and  to  do  a  good  many  other  things,  especially  in  the  first  six 
months.  With  some  of  the  criticisms  I  would  certainly  agree.  But  I  would  make 
more  allowances  for  lack  of  preparation,  shortage  of  staff,  the  inevitable  confu- 
sion of  the  earlier  period,  failure  to  estimate  the  depth  of  the  problem,  etc.  And, 
aside  from  that,  it  would  seem  to  me  that  we  have  faced  a  basic  dilemma  in  over- 
all policy  which  is  not  recognized  here.    We  were  committed  to  indirect  govern- 


4982  INSTITUTE   OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 

ment,  probably  for  good  reasons.  We  were  also  committed  to  encouraging  self- 
government  by  democratic  procedures,  iu  a  situation  wiiere  defeat  did  not  itself 
bring  revolution.  Arthur  argues  for  a  policy  of  sweeping  intervention  which  would 
have  run  the  danger  (1)  of  our  having  to  administer  Japan  from  top  to  bottom 
and  (2)  of  our  installing  a  set  of  left-wing  puppets  lacking  real  strength  in  the 
Japan  of  1945-47.  He  has  much  more  confldence  than  I  in  the  possibilities  and 
the  desirability  of  totalitarian  (i.  e.  military)  force  operating  from  the  outside 
and  at  the  top  to  democratize  Japan.  He  is  therefore  more  disappointed  in  the 
outcome  to  date. 

But  again  I  don't  object  to  the  pamphlet  because  I  disagree ;  Arthur  has  a  much 
closer  knowledge  of  the  facts  than  I  (though  I  question  a  few  statements  like  the 
one  on  p.  17  ascribing  Japanese  support  of  the  Emperor's  retention  to  SCAP). 
Rather,  I  question  whether  the  IPR  should  sponsor  what  is  in  a  rather  summary, 
ex  parte  judgment  on  an  operation  which  has  been  exceedingly  delicate  in  char- 
acter and  one  where  good  democrats  can  honestly  differ  in  evaluating  the  goals 
and  the  progress  toward  them.  Most  Americans  will  reject  the  tests  of  success 
which  he  applies  and  will  feel  correspondingly  less  dissatisfied  with  the  Mac- 
Arthur  record. 

Perhaps  these  objections  could  be  overcome  by  some  alterations  in  balance,  em- 
phasis, and  phraseology.  For  example,  the  conclusions  on  democratization  pre- 
sented by  Maki  and  Steele  in  recent  IPR  publications  are  not  open  to  objection  on 
the  issue  I  have  raised.  For  examples  of  other  articles  on  Japan  which  are 
valuable  and  also  entirely  appropriate  for  IPR  publication,  see  those  by  Sansom 
and  Ladejinsky  in  Foreign  Affairs  for  January  1948. 
Sincerely  yours, 

(Signed)     Bill, 

Wm.  W.  Lockwood, 

Assistant  Director. 


Exhibit  No.  799-B 
(Handwritten:)  Note  made  HRH. 

"War  DEPARTilENT, 

MiLiTAKY  Intelligence  Service, 
Washington,  Dccemher  26,  194^. 

Mr.  William  W.  Lockwood,  „  t  ^• 

Secretary,  American  Council,  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations, 
129  East  Fifty-second  Street, 
New  York,  New  York. 
My  Dear  Mr.  Lockwood:  Your  letter  to  Colonel  Pettigrew,  dated  December 
21,  has  been  referred  to  me  during  Pettigrew's  absence  on  a  rather  prolonged 

"our  office  is  very  much  interested  in  the  proceedings  of  the  IPR  conference 
and  would  like  to  get  at  least  two  and  preferably  five  complete  sets.  Our  Far 
Eastern  Group  is  divided  into  five  branches,  and  I  believe  it  would  be  advan- 
tageous for  us  to  have  one  copy  on  file  with  each  branch. 

I  expect  to  •'et  in  touch  with  Mr.  Barnett  today  and  ask  him  if  he  could  spare 
us  some  time,  with  the  object  of  giving  us  a  first-hand  picture  of  the  proceed- 
ings.   Your  kind  cooperation  is  greatly  appreciated. 

Sincerly  yours,  .^  „  _^ 

William  Mayeb, 

Colonel,  G8C,  Acting  Chief,  Far  Eastern  Oroup. 


(Handwritten:)  original  sent  to  ED. 

December  21,  1942. 

Colonel  M.  W.  Pettigrew,  G.  S.  C, 
Chief,  Far  Eastern  Oroup, 

Military  Intelligence  Service, 

War  Department,  Washington,  D.  C.  *• 

Dear  Colonel  Pettigrew  :  In  answer  to  the  request  stated  in  your  letter  of 
the  third,  I  believe  we  can  arrange  to  provide  your  office  with  a  full  set  of  re- 
ports from  the  Mont  Tremblant  IPR  Conference.  ,    ^      ^.     ^ 
We  were  sorry  that  the  pressure  of  affairs  in  Washington  prevented  the  attend- 
ance of  someone  in  Military  Intelligence  Service.     The  Conference  proved  to 


INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  4983 

be  a  remarkably  interesting  discussion  of  almost  every  phase  of  the  War  effort 
and  postwar  possibilities  in  the  Far  East.  The  British,  Chinese,  Australians, 
New  Zealanders,  Indians,  Canadians  and  others  were  ably  represented,  and  the 
discussion  was  quite  frank  and  illuminating.  If  you  would  like  a  i)ersonal  re- 
port on  what  went  on,  may  I  suggest  that  you  get  in  touch  with  Robert  W.  Bar- 
nett,  our  Washington  representative,  who  can  be  reached  at  700  Jackson  Place 
(National  3428).  I  believe  he  could  give  you  a  very  interesting  and  informative 
account  of  the  whole  proceedings. 
Sincerely  yours, 

Wm.  W.  Lockwood,  Secretary. 


Exhibit  No.  799-C 

Decembeb  2,  1942. 
Mr.  Philo  W.  Pabkeb, 

Standard-Vacuum  Oil  Company, 

26  Broadway,  Netv  York  City. 

Deab  Me.  Parkee:  The  War  Department  has  asked  the  American  Council  to 
assist  in  compiling  a  list  of  technical  and  advisory  personnel  who  might  be 
enlisted  to  take  part  in  its  program  of  military  government  in  occupied  areas. 

This  is  to  ask  whether  you  could  help  us  in  meeting  this  important  request 
by  forwarding  to  me  nominations  of  persons  qualified  in  your  opinion  for  the 
type  of  work  specified. 

The  War  Department's  specifications  and  general  plans  in  this  field  are  out- 
lined in  the  attached  letter  and  memorandum.  To  facilitate  you  in  scanning 
the  material,  I  have  underlined  certain  passages. 

As  you  will  see,  the  Department  is  looking  for  men  experienced  in  such  fields 
as  industry,  raw  materials,  banking  and  fiscal  operations,  public  health  and 
sanitation,  public  utilities  and  relief  administration. 

Candidates  must  be  over  45  years  of  age  or,  if  under  45,  must  be  in  one  of  the 
deferred  classifications  of  the  Selective  Service. 

According  to  the  original  plan,  these  men  were  to  be  commissioned  in  the  Army 
Specialist  Corps.  With  the  abolition  of  that  Corps,  recently  announced,- they  will 
probably  be  given  commissions  in  the  U.  S.  Army.  They  will  be  allowed  to  con- 
tinue their  present  civilian  employment  until  called  up  for  service.  A  brief 
training  period,  not  to  exceed  four  weeks,  is  envisaged. 

The  Council  is  particularly  interested  in  submitting  nominations  of  persons 
of  Far  Eastern  experience  but  would  be  glad  to  forward  suggestions  regarding 
other  specially  qualified  personnel. 

Any  help  you  can  give  us  will  be  greatly  appreciated. 
Sincerely  yours, 

Wm.  W.  Lockwood,  Secretary. 


Letters  of  identical  text,  as  the  one  sent  to  Mr.  Philo  W.  Parker,  Standard- 
Vacuum  Oil  Company,  26  Broadway,  New  York  City,  were  sent  to  the  following: 
Mr.  Boies  C.  Hart.  National  City  Bank,  .55  Wall  Street,  New  York  City 
Mr.  Randall  Gould,  Starr,  Park  and  Freeman,  Inc.,  101  Fifth  Avenue,  New  York 

City 
Dr.  Henry  Heleney,  60  Gramercy  Park  North,  New  York  City 
Ml'.  Joe  Mickle,  International  Missionary  Council,  156  Fifth  Avenue,  New  York 

City 
Mr.  W.  S.  Roberson,  American  and  Foreign  Power  Company,  Two  Rector  Street, 

New  York  City 
Mr.  Julian  Arnold,  262  Arlington  Avenue,  Berkeley,  California 
Mr.  William  P.  Hunt,  Hunt  Engineering  Company,  150  Broadway,  New  York  City 
Dean  Robert  Calkins,  "School  of  Business,  Columbia  University,  New  York  City 
President  Everett  N.  Case,  Colgate  University,  Hamilton,  New  York 
Mr.  Lennig  Sweet,  United  China  Relief,  1790  Broadway,  New  York  City 
Dr.  Eugene  L.  Opie,  Rockefeller  Institute  for  Medical  Research,  York  Avenue 

and  66th  Street,  New  York  City 
Dr.  Reginald  Atwater,  American  Public  Health   Association,  1790  Broadway, 

New  York  City 
Mr.  G.  Ellsworth  Juggins,  79  Worth  Street,  New  York  City 
Mr.  George  R.  Coleman,  50  Church  Street.  New  York  City 
Mr.  E.  E.  Barnett,  Y.  M.  C.  A.,  347  Madison  Avenue,  New  York  City 


4984 


ENSTITUTE   OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 


Exhibit  No.  800 


To— 


Programs  for  Mr.  W. 

Holland's  stay 
(office  memo) 

IPR  Staff  Members 


E.  C.  Carter 

Harondar 

E.  C.  Carter 

W.  W.  Lock  wood 

ECC 

WLH 

Phil 

Carl  F.  Remer 

W.  L.  Holland 

Maj.  G.  A.  Lincoln 

Qeo.H.  Kerr 

Wm.  Holland 

Wm.  Holland -. 

Wm.  Holland 

W.  L.  Holland 

Wm.  T.  Stone 

W.  L.  Holland 

WLH  KM..   -.  

(Attached :  Back- 
ground Information — 
The  Strength  of  the 
Muslim  League  in  In- 
dia, Mr.  Jinnah's  posi- 
tion—164/No.  4/2/1/1.3. 

Hugh  Borton 

Mr.  Holland 

W.  L.  Holland 

Free  distribution  list  for 
"Korean  industry  and 
transport  by  A.TG: 

Preface,  Grajdanzev 

Hilda  Austern 

Owen  Lattimore 

Wilma  Fairbank 

W.  T.  Holland 

Dr.  Wm.  T.  Holland.... 

Wm.  T.  Holland 

Wm.  Holland 

Lauchlin  Currie 

Wm.  Holland 

T.  A.  Bisson 

Wilma  Fairbank  .  

Prof.  Schuyler  Wallace. 

Wm.  L.  Holland 

Wm.  Holland 

Schuyler  C.  Wallace 

Wm.  Holland 

W.  L.  Holland 

W.    L.    Holland    (note 
attach). 

Irving  Friedman 

Wm.  L.  Holland 

Alice  B.  Foy ..     . 

W.  L.  Holland 

Eleanor  Lattimore 

W.  L.  Holland 

W.  L.Holland 

Douglas  MacLennan 

W.  L.Holland 

Edvv.  C.  Carter 

E.  Herbert  Norman 

W.L.Holland 

W.  L.Holland 

Charles  Loomis 

Sir  George  Sansom 

Holland- 

Dean  Rusk 

II        it 

Pacific  Council  Officers  (at- 
tachment) . 
Justice  Wm.  O.  Douglas 

S.  B.  Thomas 

V.  G.Tseng 

Geo.  J.  Beal  (2  attach.).. 

W.  L.  Holland 

Edw.  C.  Carter 


From— 


1936-1943 

1937-1943.. 

1944-1951. 

1944-1951 

All  years... _.. 

Research  Secretary. 

W.  L.  Holland 

WLH 

Research  Secretary. 

WLH 

ECC 

W.  L.  Holland 

W.  L.  Holland 

James  P.  Baxter 

W.  L.Holland 

W.  L.  Holland 

Geo.  H.  Kerr 

Chester  R.  Vail 

Philip  C.  Jessnp 

Wm.  T.  Stone 

W.  L.  Holland  

Wm.  T.  Johnstone.. 
ECC 


Date 


Oct. 


Nov. 


W.  L.  Holland. 
A.  Grajdanzev. 


W.  L.Holland 

W.  L.  Holland 

W.  L.  Holland 

W.  L.  Holland 

Edward  L.  Barlow. 


W.  L.  Holland 

Mrs.  Wilma  Fairbank. 


W.  L.  Holland. 


Schulyer _ . 

Schuyler  C.  Wallace.. 

W.  L.  Holland 

Schuyler  C.  Wallace.. 

Philip  C.  Jesup 

Irving  S.  Friedman 


W.  L.  Holland. 

Alice  B.  Foy 

W.  L.Holland 

Lt.  L.  H.  Chamberlain 

W.  L.Holland 

Louis  Dolivet 

Douglas  A.  MacLennan. 

Wm.  L.  Holland. 

PhiHp  J.  Jaffe 

Wm.  L.  Holland 

Wm.  L.  Holland 

Herbert 

E.  H.  Norman. _ 

W.  L.  Holland 

Wm.  L.  Holland 

Harondar 

Wm.  L.  Holland 


Wm.  L.  Holland. 

V.  G.  Tseng. 

Wm.  L.  Holland. 
Wm.  L.  Holland. 

Geo.  J.  Beal 

Wm.  L.  Holland 


9/26/34. 
10/1/35. 
10/4/35. 
3/28/39. 
5/10/40- 
7/.5/40... 
7/5/40... 
12/1/41. 
3/18/42., 
4/2/42... 
4/3/42... 
4/2/42... 
7/25/42.. 
7/31/42., 
9/2/42... 
7/6/42... 
7/11/42.. 
3/1/43... 


4/21/43- 
1/17/43. 
7/22/42. 


4/19/43. 
5/19/43. 
7/20/43- 
2/21/44. 
12/7/43. 
12/6/43. 
12/1/43. 
12/.3/43- 
3/2/44.-, 
3/11/44- 
2/18/44. 
3/20/44- 
3/22/44. 
3/23/44- 
4/14/44. 
4/12/44. 
4/8/44... 
3/27/44- 
4/10/44- 


5/1/44-.. 
4/12/44.. 
4/17/44.. 
4/25/44.. 
5/17/44.. 
6/19/44.- 
3/23/46-. 
3/25/46-. 
4/29/48-. 
4/30/48 -. 
1/25/50- - 
1/  5/50.- 
2/13/50- - 
4/26/50.. 
5/17/50- . 
7/  6/35  . 
9/12/.50-- 
9/16/50.- 
12/12/50- 


2/  1/50.... 

3/22/51 

4/  5/51..-- 

4/12/51 

4/10/51...   . 
8/14/51... 


Type  of  Doc- 
ument 


Original. 
Original- 


Carbon 

Carbon 

Copy 

Carbon 

Photostat. 

Carbon 

Original. .- 

Carbon 

Photostat. 

Carbon 

Carbon 

Carbon 

Original. .- 
Original... 
Photostat. 
Original. .- 

Carbon 

Original... 
Photostat. 


Carbon.. 
Original. 


Carbon 

Carbon... 
Photostat. 
Photostat. 

Carbon 

Original. -- 
Original--- 


Carbon.. 
Original- 

Carbon.. 
Carbon.. 
Original. 


Carbon.. 
Original- 
Original. 
Original- 


Photostat. 
Original... 

Carbon 

Original... 
Carbon... 
Original-.. 
Photostat. 


Cable 

Photostat- 


Carbon... 
Original... 
Carbon... 
Photostat. 


File 
Number 


131B.  11 
500.3 


105.  95 
100. 48 
100.  157 
191.  258 
191. 89 

104.  52 
100.  384 
119.  123 
131B.41 
131B.40 
i31B.40 
119.  24 
131B.  165 
119.  29 


131B.  160 


119. 15 


Exhibit 
Number 


500.4 
500.5 
191.59 
131B.3 


131B.5 
191.  57 


131B.  10 
131B.9 


191. 13 
131B.23 

131B.  23 
131B.22 

131B.21 

107.3 

109.2 

112.57 

112.51 

109.9 

109.  10 

500.6 

500.8 
101.55 
112.  50 
100.  46 
500.  10 
500.11 
100.  354 

500. 12 
500. 14 

500.15 

500. 16 


800A 
801 


802 
803 
804 
805 
806 
807 
808 
809 
810 
811 
812 
813 
814 
815 
816 
817 
818 
819 


820 
821 
822 


823 
824 
825 
826 
827 
828 
829 
830 
831 
832 
833 
834 
835 
836 
837 
838 
839 
840 
841 
842 

842A 
843 
844 
845 
846 
847 
848 
849 
850 
851 
852 
853 
854 
855 
856 
857 
859 
858 
860 

861 
862 
863 
864 
865 
866 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC   RELATIONS 


4985 


Exhibit  No.  SOO-A 


8S34S— uli — pt.  14 — —6 


4986 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 
Exhibit  No.  800-A — Continued 


INSTITUTE   OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 


4987 


Exhibit  No.  801 


Pacific  Council,  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations — Staff  members,  19S6-1943 

Note. — This  list  includes  paid  personnel  only.  No  regular  record  is  available  as  to  volunteer  assistance. 
Personnel  serving  in  clerical  capacity  for  a  few  months  only  are  not  all  listed.  Years  listed  do  not  neces- 
sarily indicate  that  individual  was  a  member  of  the  staff  during  the  entire  year. 


Began 


Name 


Years 


Position 


1933— 
1933— 

1933— 

1935— 

1929— 
1934— 
)>  Hi-.; 
1933— 

1934— 
1934— 


Edward  C.  Carter 

Hilda  Austern 

Joseph  Barber,  Jr..  

Annette  Blumenthal 

Chen  Han-seng 

Elsie  Fairfax-Cholmeley 

William  L.  Holland 

Owen  Lattimore 

Liu  Yu-wan 

Kate  L.  Mitchell 

Harriet  L.  Moore 

Catherine  Porter 

Richard  L.  Pyke 

Charlotte  Tyler 

Elizabeth  Downing 

Eleanor  Fabyan 

F.  Max 

Nagaharu  Yasuo 

Hugh  Borton 

Rilma  Buckman 

Ruth  D.  Carter 

Ch'ao-ting  Chi 

Irv  ng  S.  Friedman 

Helen  Kellogg 

Philip  E.  LiUenthal 

Elodie  Moerman 

Ehzabeth  Raymond. .- 

Jack  Shepherd 

Katrine  Parsons --. 

M.  Young 

F.  Mangahas 

Barbara  Messer 

Patricia  Glover... 

Mar jorie  Austern 

John  Leaning... 

Percy  E.  Corbett 

Vera  Dodds 

M.  Matsuo 

Michael  Minarovich 

Lillian  Pefler 

Russell  G.  Shiman 

Ellen  van  Zyll  de  Jong. 

Kurt  Bloch 

John  De  Francis 

Andrew  J.  Grajdanzev. 
Michael  Qreenberg 

C.  Y.  Hsiaug... 

Y.Y.Hsu 

Isabel  Ward 

Robert  W.  Barnett 

Winnifred  Clark 

Mary  F.  Healy 

Bruno  Lasker 

Renee  Stern 

T.  A.  Bisson  

Edith  Bykofsky 

Grace  Caravello 

Frances  Friedman    ... 

Augusta  Jay 

Harriet  Levin  thai 

Laura  Mayer 

Ehzabeth  Neal 

Betty  Skrefstad 

R.  Winslow 

Clara  Spidell 


1936,  1937,  193S,  1939,  1940,  1941,  1942,  1943_. 
1936,  1937,  1938,  1939,  1940,  1941,  1942,  1943.. 

1936 

1936,  1937,  1938,  1939,  1940,  1941,  1942 

1936,  1937,  1938,  1939 

1936,  1937,  1938,  1939 


1936,  1937,  1938,  1939,  1940,  1941,  1942,  1943. 

1936,  1937,  1938,  1939,  1940,  1941 

1936 

1936,  1937,  1938,  1939,  1940 


1936,  1937 

1936,  1937,  1938. 


1936,  1937,  1938 

19.36,  1937 

1937,  1938,  1939,  1940,  1941,  1942. 


1937 

1937 

1937,  1938,  1939,  1940 

1938,  1939 

1938 

1937,  1938  1938,  1940,  1941,  1942,  1943. 

1938,  1939,  1940 

1938,  1939 

1938 

1938,  1939,  1940,  1942 

1938,  1939,  1940,  1941,  1942 

1938,1939 

1938,  1939,  1940,  1941 

1939,  1940,  1941,  1942,  1943-.- 

1939,  1940,  1941 

19.39 

1939,  1940,  1941 

1939,  1940 

1939 

1939,  1940,  1941.. 

1940 

1940,  1941,  1942 

1940,  1941 

1940,  1941,  1942 , 

1940,  1941 

1940,  1941 

1940,  1941 

1941 

1941 

1938,  1939,  1940,  1941,  1942,  1943 

1941,  1942 


1941 

1941,  1942,  1943. 

1941,  1942 

1942 

1942,  1943 

1942,  1943 

1942,1943 

1942,  1943 

1943 

1943 

1943 

1943 

1943 

1943 

1943 

1943 

1943 

1943 

1943 


Secretary-General. 
Assistant  Treasurer. 
Publications. 
Distribution  Manager. 
Research  Associate. 
Assistant  to  Secretary- 
General. 
Research  Secretary. 
Editor,  Pacific  ASairs. 

.\ssistant  to  Secretary- 
General. 

Research  Associate. 

Managing  Editor,  Pa 
cific  ASairs. 

Publications  Secy. 

Research  Associate. 

Secretary  and  Publi- 
cations. 

Secretary. 

Research  Associate. 

Research  .Associate. 

Research  Associate. 

Secretary 

Secretary. 

Research  Associate. 

Research  Associate. 

Secretary. 

Editorialand  Research. 

Clerical. 

Secretary. 

Research  Associate. 

Secretary. 

Secretary. 

Research  Associate. 

Clerical. 

Research. 

Clerical. 

Editorial. 

Research  Associate. 

Secretary. 

Research  Associate. 

Shipping  clerk. 

Research  -Associate. 

Research  Associate. 

Research  Associate. 

Research  Associate. 

Research  Associate. 

Research  Associate. 

Managing  Editor,  Pa 
cific  Affairs. 

Research  Associate. 

Research  Associate. 

Secretary. 

Research  .\.ssociate. 

Secretary. 

Secretary. 

Research  Associate. 

Clerical. 

Research  Associate. 

Clerical. 

Clerical. 

Secretary. 

Receptionist. 

Switchboard. 

Secretary. 

Stenographer. 

Clerical. 

(?) 

Secretary. 


4988 


INSTITUTE   OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 


American  Council,  Institute  of  PacifiG  Relations — Staif  members,  1937-19^3 

[See  note  at  end  of  table] 


Began 


1929 
1929 
19.30 
1934 
1933 

1926 


1929  on 
and 
off. 

1927 


1933 

1935?... . 
1934 


Name 


Frederick  V.  Field.. . 

Helen  Wiss 

HikH  Austern 

Katlileen  Barnes 

Annette  Blumenthal. 

Elodie  Shinkle 

Mary  E.  Harrell 

Catherine  Porter 

Ernest  Hauser 

Anita  Archer 

Ruth  Earnshaw 

Bruno  Lasker 

Jeanette  Randolph... 

Joseph  Barber,  Jr 

Inez  Campbell 

Josephine  Metcalf 

J.  Murphv 

B.  P.  Schoyer 

Mrr^aret  Taylor 

Isibel  Ward 

Russell  Q.  Shiman 

William     W.     Lock- 
wood. 
Miriam  S.  Farley 

Michael  Minarovich.. 

John  Stewart. __ , 

Emily  Twaddell 

Katrine  R.  C.  Greene 
Elizabeth  Raymond.. 

Kurt  Bloch-.- 

E.  Todd 

Frances  Rifchin 

Aim  Warson 

M.  Taussig 

Robert  W.  Barnett... 

Rose  Landres 

TillieG.  Shahn 

Janet  Leifert 

Elizabeth  Downing.. 

Nancy  Wilder 

A.  Holtman 

Mary  Rolfe 

Dorothy  Borg 

Vera  Dodds 

Rose  Yardumian 

Wilson  Morris 

Rita  Zagon 

Harriet  Holmes 

Judith  Daniel. 

Theresa  Oerathy 

Mildred  Gilliam 

Harold  J.  Greenberg... 

Josephine  Owen 

Roberta  Powell _. 

J.  O.  M.  Briek.. 

Homer  H.  Dubs 

AVilya  Gdlus 

D'irothy  Israel 

Alice  Jayson  

Willi  im  C.  Johnstone 

Mildred  Klein 

Rosamund  Lee 

Harriet  Levinthal 

Dorcithy  Miyo 

Frances     Moldauer 
(until  1946,  Sharpe). 

Harriet  L.  Moore 


Years 


1937,  1938,  19.39,  1940 

1937,  193S,  1939 

19.37,  1938,  1939,  1940,  1941.. 

19.37,  1938,  1939,  1940 

1937,  1938,  1939,  1940,  1941,  1942. 


19.37,  1938 

19.37 

1937,  1938,  1939,  1940,  1941,  1942,  1943. 


1937,  1938 

1937 

1937 

1937,  1938,  1939,  1940,  1943. 


1937,  1938,  1939,  1940,  1941,  1942,  1943. 

1937 

19.37 


19.37 

1938 

19.38,  1941.  1942 

1938,  1939,  1940 

1938  1939 

1937^  1938,  'm9,'im^  'mi. 


1938,  1939,  1940,  1941,  1942,  1943. 


1937,  1938,  1939,  1940,  1941,  1942,  1943. 


1938, 
1938, 
1938, 
1939, 
19.39. 
1939, 
19.39. 
1939, 
1940, 
1940, 
1941, 
1941, 
1941, 
1941, 
1941, 


1939,  1940,  1941,  1942,  1943 

1939,  1940 

1939,1940.-  

1940,  1941,  1942,  1943 


1940,  1941,  1942. 


1940 

1941 

1941 

1942. 

1942 

1942,  1943. 

1942 

1942,  1943. 


1941,  1942,  1943.. 

1941,  1942  

1941,  1942,  1943.. 

1941,  1942 

1942,  1943 

1942,  1943 

1942 

1942,  1943 

1942,  1943 

1943 


1943. 
1943. 
1943. 
1943. 
1943- 
1943. 
1943. 
1943. 
1943. 
1943. 
1943. 

1943. 
1943. 
1943. 
1943. 
1943. 


Position 


1943. 


Executive. 

Secretary. 

Assistant  Treasurer. 

Rese-rch  associate. 

Subscription  manager,  Far 
Eastern  Survey. 

Clerk-typist. 

Secreti.ry. 

Secretary,  research  associ- 
ate editor.  Far  Eastern 
Survey. 

Research  associate. 
? 

Librarian. 
Research  associate. 


Librarian. 
Promotion. 

Secretary. 

Membership  and  radio. 

Membership  and  finance. 

Secretary. 

Editor,  Far  Eastern  Sur- 
vey. 

Research  secretary  and 
Executive. 

Research  associate  and 
pamphlet  Editor. 

Shipping  clerk. 

Research  associate. 

Secretary. 

Secretary. 

Secretary. 

Research  associate. 

Secretary. 
Secretary. 
Secretary. 
Research  associate. 
Assistant  treasurer. 
Assistant  treasurer. 
Secretary. 

Membership  and  Publica- 
tions. 
Secretary. 

Secretary. 

Education  secretary. 
Secretary. 
Secretary,  library. 
Secretary. 
Clerk-typist. 
Secretary. 

Secretary,  Washington  of- 
fice. 
Secretary,  Special  Project. 


Secretary. 
Special  project. 

Secretary. 
Secretary. 
Public  relations. 
Director,     Washington 
ofllce. 

Promotion  secretary. 
Switchboard  operator. 

Superintendent  public  dis- 
tribution (1  week  Decem- 
ber 1948  as  typist). 

Acting  Executive  Secre- 
tary. 


INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 


4989 


American  Council,  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations — Staff  members,  1937-19Jf3 — Con. 

[Se€  note  at  end  of  table] 


Began 

Name 

Years 

Position 

1934 

Frieda  Neugebauer 

S-llieOrnitz  

Maggie  Smith 

Marguerite  Stewart.. 

Elnora  Walker 

1943  -      -                              .      

Stenographer. 

1943 

1943                                                     

Secretary. 
Acting  hbrarian. 

1943 

1943                                                               .  . 

School  secretary;  adminis- 
trative secretary. 

Note.— The  above  list  includes  paid  personnel  only,  and  a  few  clerical  workers  who  served  for  1  or  2 
months  only  may  not  be  listed.  A  list  of  volunteers  is  not  available.  Years  do  not  necessarily  mean  that 
individual  worked  for  the  Institute  for  the  entire  year.  If  1  month  only,  year  is  enclosed  in  parentheses 
(    ).    Personnel  employed  locally  by  regional  offices  are  not  listed. 

American  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations 
[Staff  members,  1944-1951] 

Note. — This  list  includes  paid  personnel  only,  and  a  few  clerical  workers  who  served  for  one  or  two  months 
•only  may  not  be  listed.  A  list  of  volunteers  is  not  available.  Years  do  not  necessarily  mean  that  individual 
worked  for  the  Institute  for  the  entire  year.    If  one  month  only,  year  is  enclosed  in  parentheses  (    ) . 


Name 


Position 


Nina  Balfour 

Edythe  M.  Banks 

Beatrice  Benjuya 

Mary  .Tane  Bowen 

J.  O.  M.  Broek 

Esther  Brown 

Jewerl  Carroll 

Mi-iam  Chesman 

Lillian  Cunningham 

Raymond  Dennett 

Homer  H.  Dubs 

Miriam  S.  Farley 

Margaret  Fischl 

Wilya  Gallus 

Marie  Godby 

Josephine  Golembosti 

Rose  Oreenberg 

Dorothy  Ts'ael 

Alice  Jayson 

Louise  Jenkins 

Shirley  Jenkins 

William  C.  Johnstone 

Caroljni  A.  Kizer 

Mildred  Klein 

Beatrice  Krasnow 

Bruno  Lasker 

Eleanor  Lattimore 

Ruth  Lazarus  Turbin 

Use  Lederer  

RosatTiund  Lee 

Harriet  Levinthal 

Rhoda  Lewis 

Dorothy  S.  Ludwig 

Adrienne  Maurer 

Jean  May 

Dorothy  Mayo 

Harriet  Mills 

Frances  Sharpe  Moldauer 

Harriet  L.  Moore. 

Betty  Morita 

Marion  Morris 

HUton  Morselcy 

Frieda  Neugebauer 

Harry  A.  Nelson 

David  Soyer 

Clara  Nerenberg 

Helen  E.  Nitka 

Zelda  Ormont 

Sallie  Omitz 

Harriet  H.  Parker 

Catherine  Porter 

Ruth  Resnick..- 

Rhoda  Rothrran.. 

Laurence  E.  Salisbury 

Sophie  Schneer 

TillieO.  Shahn 

Rita  Shavelson 

Maggie  Smith 


1944 

1944,  1945,  1946.. 

1944 

1944,  1945 

1944 

(1944) 

(1944,  1945) 

1944,  1945,  1946 

(1944) 

1944,  1945,  1946 

1944... 

1944,  1945,  1946,  1948,  1949,  1950,  1951 

1944,  1945,  1946,  1947 

1944 

(1944) 

(1944) 

(1944) 

1944 

1944 

(1944) 

1944,  1945,  1946,  1947,  1948 

1944,  1945 

1944,1945 

1944 : 

1944 

1944,  1945,  1946 

1944,  1945,  1946,  1947 

1944,  1945,  1946 

(1944) 

1944,  1945 

1944,  1945,  1946 

(1944) 

1944,  1945,  1946,  1947,  1948 

(1944) 

1944 

1944 

1944,1945 

1944,  1945,  1946,  1947 

1944 

1944 

(1944) 

(1944) 

1944,  1949 

(1944) - 

1944,  1945 

1944,  1945 

(1944,  1945) 

(1944) 

1944 

1944,  1945 

1944 -. -. 

1944 

1944,  1945,  1946,  1947.. 

1944,  1945,  1946,  1947,  1948... 

1 944 

1 944,'  V945',  1946,"  1947^  1948",  1949,'  1950,  195l' 

(1944) 

1944,  1945, 1946 


(?)  Clerical. 

Stenographer. 

(?)  Clerical. 

Library  consultant  (pttime). 

Research  project. 

(?)  Cleri.  al. 

(?)  Clerical. 

Subscription  clerk. 

(?)  Clerical. 

Executive  Secretary. 

Research  (?). 

Research  Assoc;  Pamphlet 
Editor;  Ed.,  F.  E.  Survey. 

Secretary. 

Secretarv. 

(?)  Clerical. 

(?)  Clerical. 

(?)  Clerical. 

Secretary. 

Public  Relations. 

(?)  Clerical. 

Research  Assoc;  Assoc.  Ed- 
itor, F.  E.  Survey. 

Director,  Wash,  office. 

(?)  Clerical. 

(?)  Clerical. 

(?)  Clerical. 

Research  Associate. 

Research  Associate, 

Secretary. 

(?)  Clerical. 

Promotion  Secretary. 

Switchboard  operator. 

(?)  Clerical. 

Asst.  Bookkeeper. 

(?)  Clerical. 

(?)  Clerical. 

(?)  Clerical. 

Administrative  Asst. 

Publications  Distribution. 

Acting  Exec.  Secretary. 

(?)  Clerical. 

(?)  Clerical. 

(?)  Clerical. 

Stenoerapher. 

(?)  Clerical. 

Clerical  Asst. 

(?)  Clerical. 

(?)  Clerical. 

(?)  Clerical. 

Secretary. 

Secretary. 

Editor,  F.  E.  Survey. 

(?)  Clerical. 

Billing  clerk. 

Editor,  F.  E.  Survey, 

(?)  Clerical. 

Assistant  Treasurer. 

(?)  Clerical. 

Acting  Librarian. 


4990 


INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC    RELATIONS 


American  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations — Continued 
[Staff  members,  1944-1951] 


Name 


Maxim  Snyder 

Marguerite  Stewart.. 
Masha  Switzer  Wise- 
Marie  Talkington 

Frances  Tendetnick.. 

Janet  Taylor _. 

Elnora  Walker 

Henrietta  Wentholt.. 

Nancy  Wilder 

Caroline  Woods 

Rose  Yardumian 


Marguerite  E.  Bear.. 

Robert  S.  Bialos-- 

Jeanne  Chalfin 

Mike  Coffey 

Elizabeth  A.  Converse 

Salvatore  De  Leonardis 

Jean  Elson 

Ethel  E.  Ewlng 

Rita  Frucht 

Lillie  Gerber 

Rita  Kahane -  - 

Dorothea  Keil 

Hiroyo  Kiyaba 

Bernice  Kennedy 

Ellen  B.  Levy 

Miyaho  Matsuo 

Michael  E.  Minarovitch__. 

Wilson  Morris 

Eugene  Newman 

Sylvia  Rosenfeld 

Rima  S.  Rocers_ 

Jerome  Shishko 

Elizabeth  Ussachevsky 

Lola  Brice 

Ruth  D.  Carter 

Melvin  A.  Conant,  Jr 

Lillian  Covelle 

Elizabeth  Crawford 

Sonja  Dahl 

Lionel  C.  Delgado 

Helen  Dimitry - 

Elba  Aileen  Dodson 

Florence  Englander 

Dorothy  M.  Freist 

Bernice  Fischman 

Gloria  Gordon 

Renee  J.  Quthman 


Sally  R.  Hawkins 

Callie  M.  Hickey 

Sonia  Kramer 

Betty  Lee 

Sony  Lipton 

Regina  Marks 

Abe  J.  Millman 

Benjamin  Millman 

Angelina  Morrison 

Frank  Pelan 

John  A.  Pollard 

Jane  Radom 

Gwendolyn  Robertson. 

Constance  Root 

Barbara  B.  Smith 

Louise  B.  Serot 

Rhoda  Serot 

Louise  H.  Schatz 

Maxwell  S.  Stewart 

Esther  Taylor 

Yoshi  Uchida 

Dolores  Van  Buren 

Ella  S.  Waller 

Abraham  Barnett 

Pearl  C.  Christian 

Daniel  F.  Doyle 

Margaret  M.  Dunn 

Rhoda  Goldenberg 

Deborah  Grigsby. 

Marguerite  F.  Hill 

Gerard  P.  Kok 

Pao-Ch'cn  Lee 

Celestine  G.  Mott 


Years 


(1944) 

1944,  1945,  1946,  1947. 

1944,  1945,  1946 

(1944) 

(1944) 

(1944),  (1946) 

1944 

(1944) 

1944 

1944 

1944,1945 


(1945) 

(1945) 

(1945) 

(1945) 

1945,  1946,  1947,  1948,  1949,  1950, 1951. 

1945,  1946- 

(1945) 

1945,  1946,  1947 

(1945) 

1945,  1946 

(1945) 

(1945) 

1945 


(1945) 

(1945) 

(1945) 

1945,  1946. 
1945,  1946. 

1945 

(1945) 

1945 


1945 

1945,  1946 

(1946) 

1946,  1947,  1948,  1949,  1951- 
1946- 


(1946) 

1946,  1947,  1948,  1949,  1950- 

1946 

1946 

1946,  1947 

(1946) 

1946 

a9)6) 

1946,  1947 

(1946) 

1946,  1947 


1946,  1947 

1946,  1947 

1946.  1947 

(1946) 

(1940) 

1946,  1947 

1946 

1946 

(1946) 

1946,  1947 

1946 

(1946) ---- 

1946,  1947,  1948,  1949,  1950,  1951- 

1946,  1947 

1946 

(1946) 

(1946) 

1946.  1947 

1946,  1947,  1948 

1946,  1947 

1946,  1947 - 

(1946) 

(1946) 

(1947) 

1947,  1948,  1949,  1950 

(1947) 

1947,  1948... -. 

1947- 

(1947) 

(1947) — 

1947 

1947 

1947,  1948- 


Position 


(?)  Clerical. 

School  Secy.;  Admin.  Secy» 

Stenographer 

(?)  Clerical. 

(?)  Clerical. 

Stenographer. 

(?)  Clerical. 

(?)  Clerical. 

Secy;  Editorial  Asst. 

Librarian. 

Secy;       Librarian;       Secy.^ 

Washington  Office. 
Stenographer. 
Shipping  Clerk. 
(?)  Clerical. 
(?)  Clerical. 

Asst.  Editor,  F.  E.  Survey.. 
Shipping  Clerk. 
Typist. 

School  Secretary. 
(?)  Clerical. 
Stenographer. 
Stenographer. 
(?)  Clerical. 
Stenographer. 
Stenographer. 
Temporary  Secretary. 
Stenosrapher. 
Shipping  Clerk. 
Asst.  Editor-Pamphlets. 
Clerical. 
(?)  Clerical. 
Secretary. 
Clerical. 

Seev-Wasliington  Office. 
Clerk-Typist. 
Secy.;  Admin.  Asst. 
Research  .'^.ssistant. 
Washington  Office. 
Switchboard  Operator. 
Los  Angeles  Office. 
Shipping  Clerk. 
Stenographer. 
Secretary  (Wash.  Office). 
Stenographer. 
Stenographer. 
Acting  Librarian. 
Typist. 
Branch  Secretary,  "VV  ashmg- 

ton  Office. 
Secretary,  Wash.  Office. 
Secretary. 
Secretary. 
Stenographer. 
Stenograplier. 
Stenographer. 
Stenographer. 
Stenographer. 
Stenographer. 
Shipping  Clerk. 
Director.  Wash.  Office. 
Stenographer. 
Subscription  Clerk. 
Promotion  Assistant. 
Clerk-Typist. 
Secretary. 
(?)  Clerical. 
Promotion  Secretary. 
Pamphlet  Editor. 
Stenographer. 
Membership  Clerk. 
Stenographer. 
Stenographer. 
Shipping  Clerk. 
Clerk-Typist. 

Shipping  Clcik.  x 

Secretary. 
Secretary. 
Secietary. 
Secretary. 

Chinese  Language  Iiistr. 
Asst.  Chinese  Lang.  Instr.. 
Secretary  (Executive). 


INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 


4991 


American  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations — Continued 
[Staff  members,  1944-1951] 


Name 


Belzy  M.  Parker. 

Anna  Reinhold 

Marjorie  Baum 

Charles  Cherubin 

Gladys  Edwards 

Katrine  E.G.  Greene 

Rosalind  Greenwald 

Patricia  Hochschild 

Clayton  Lane 

Philip  E.  Lilienthal 

Hilda  Mayer 

Lawrence  K.  Rosinger — 
Francis  Dick  M'andermaa 

Chia-ling  Bumgardner 

Elaine  Douglas- 

Irene  Conley  Chang 

Lolita  W.  Smith 

Lucrecia  Suguitan 

Elizabeth  Yates 

Anita  Ehrlich 

"Wei-ta  Pons 

Ruth  V.  Stein.... 

Sadie  AVinston 

Betty  E.  Buchsbaum 

Robert  Hasse 

Ora  Leak 

Gladys  Nusbaum 

Leslie  Morgan 

Arm  Stopp 

Melvin  Anderson 

Robert  Bruce 

Edward  A.  Fujima 

Jack  Gerson 

George  Kawata 

Marjorie  Montana 

Edward  C.  Carter 

William  L.  Holland 


1947 --. 

(19471 

(1948) 

1948 

(1948) 

1948,  1949,  1950,  1951 

1948,  1949,  1950 

1948,  1949 

1948,  1949,  1950 

1948 

(1948,  1949) 

1948,  1949,  1950 

1948 ...-■- 

(1949,  1950) 

(1949) 

1949 

(1949) -. 

1949 

1949,  1950 

1950 

1950,  1951 

1950,  1951 

1950 

1951 

1951 

(1951) 

(1951) 

1951 

1951 

1951 

1951 

1951 

1951 

1951 

1951 

1946,1947,  1948 

1950,1951 


Position 


Stenographer. . 

Secretary. 

(?)  Clerical. 

Shipping  Clerk. 

(?)  Clerical. 

Assistant  Secretary. 

Secretary. 

Acting  Librarian. 

Executive  Secretary. 

Acting  Editor,  F.  E.  Survey. 

Clerk-typist. 

Research  Associate. 

Secretary. 

Clerk-typist. 

Clerk-typist. 

Acting  Librarian. 

Typist. 

Typist. 

Acting  Librarian. 

Clerk-typist 

Acting  Librarian. 

Secretarj^. 

Secretary. 

Secretary, 

Clerk-typist. 

Typist. 

Typist. 

Editorial  Assistant. 

Secretary. 

Shipping  clerk. 

Shipping  clerk.. 

Acting  librarian. 

Bookkeeper. 

Asst.  Librarian 

Receptionist. 

E.xecutive  Vice  Chairman. 

Executive  Vice  Chairman. 


The  above  list  includes  only  persormel  paid  by  the  national  office, 
locally  by  regional  offices. 


It  does  not  include  personnel  employed 


Pacific  Council,  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations — Staff  members,  1944-1951 

Note. — This  list  includes  paid  persoimel  only.  No  regular  record  is  available  as  to  volunteer  assistance. 
Persormel  serving  in  clerical  capacity  for  a  few  montbs  only  are  not  all  listed.  Years  listed  do  not  necessarily 
indicate  that  individual  was  a  member  of  the  staff  during  the  entire  year.  If  one  month  only,  year  is  enclosed 
in  parentheses  (    ). 


Hilda  Austem 

Horace  Belshaw... 

T.  A.  Bisson 

Joan  Bramley 

Grace  Leah  Butts 

Edith  Bykofsky 

Frances  Pietrowski  Capps. 

Grace  CaraveUo 

Edward  C.  Carter.... 

Ruth  D.  Carter 

Olga  Field 

Frances  Friedman 

Andrew  J.  Grajdanzev 

Augusta  Jay .. 

Virginia  Mack... 

William  L.  Holland 

Yung  Ying  Hsu 

WDhelmina  Masselman 

Elizabeth  Neal 

Ruth  M.  Parsons 

Rose  Pietrowski 

Laura  Rosenthal 

Florence  E.  Sanderg. 

Betty  Skrefstad 

Clara  Spidell 

Elizabeth  Ussachevsky 

Robert  Vernon,  Jr 

Nellie  Wright 

Joyce  Wagner 

Michi  Yasumura. 


1944,  1945 

1944,  1945,  1946 -. 

1944,  1945 

1944,  1945,  1946 

(1944) 

1944,  1945,  1946 

1944,1945 

1944,  1945,  1946 

1944,  1945,  1946 

1944,  1945,  1946,  1949 

1944,  1945 

1944 

1944ri"945,"l946-."lI"-I 

1944 

(1944) 

1944,  1946,  1947,  1948,  1949,  1950,  1951 

1944,  1945 

1944 

1944 

1944,  1945,  1946 

(1944) 

1944,  1945.  1946 

(1944) 

1014, 1947 

1V4-'.   1!I1- 

1944,1945  --    

1944.  1945 

1944 

1944,  1945-. 

1944,  1945 .- 


Asst.  Treasurer. 

Research  Secretary. 

Research  Associate. 

Clerical. 

Clerical,  Wash,  office. 

Subscription  clerk. 

Bookkeeping  Asst. 

Clerical. 

Secretary-General. 

Secretary. 

Research  Associate. 

Secretary. 

Research  Associate. 

Receptionist. 

Washington  office. 

Secretary-General. 

Research  Associate. 

Res. 

Stenographer. 

Secretary. 

Clerical. 

Secretary. 

Secretary. 

Clerical. 

Secretary. 

Secretary. 

Shipping  clerk. 

Clerical. 

Clerical. 

Asst.  Librarian. 


4992 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 


Pacific  Council,  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations- 
Continued 


-Staff  viembers,  19U-1951— 


Name 


Years 


Position 


Elizabeth  A.  Bates.. 

Helen  E.  Russell 

Rae  Solomon 

Elaine  Annall 

Elizabeth  Bryant 

Donald  Fine 

Mary  F.  Healy 

Anne  O.  Hooker 

Anita  Issen 

Mary  J.  Kilpatriek.- 
Philip  E.  Lilienthal. 

Ruth  Marcusson 

Gloria  Mitchell 


Helen  Schneider. 


Alice  M.  Togo 

Rose  Alflno 

Marguerite  Anderson 

Edward  Bicrman 

Thelma  Chargar 

Charles  Cherubin 

Stanley  Ferber 

Filmore  Gluck 

Martin  Gluck 

Ruth  Gorgas- 

James  Green 

Raymond  Greenberg 

Gertrude  Greenidge 

Robert  Haulsey 

Ayaka  Murota — 

Joan  St.  George 

Gladys  H.  Edward 

Rosaline  Greenwald 

Deborah  Grigsby 

Wei-ta  Pons 

TillieG.  Shahn 

Ruth  A.  Velleman 

Aminadau  Aloric 

Kazuko  Kay  Fujii 

Barbara  Harrison 

Kathr jTi  Hayes — 

Martha  T.  Henderson.. 

Frances  P .  Landau 

Chiya  Oshima 

Unsoon  Park 

Lillian  Rosberg 

Lolita  Smith 

Evelyn  M.  Darrow 

Myra  M.  Jordan 

Mary  A.  McCrimmons. 

Kazu  Oka 

Marjorie  Ota 

Albert  A.  Weidon 

Melvin  T.  Anderson 

Robert  Bruce 

Edward  A.  Fujima 

Jack  Gerson 

George  Kawata 

Marjorie  Montana 

Mary  C.  Spillum.. 


1945,  1946.  1947,  1948,  1949 

1945,  1946,  1947 

(1945) 

1946 

1946.  1947 

1946 

1946.  1947,  1948.  1949,  1950,  1951. 

1946 

1946,  1947^ 

1946,  1947 . 

1946,  1947,  1948,  1949,  1950,  1951. 

(1946) 

1946,  1947,  1948.  1949,  1950,  1951. 


1946,  1947,  1948,  1949^ 


1946 

(1947) 

1947 

(1947) 

1947,  1948.  1949 

1947.  1948,  1949,  1950. 

(1947) 

1947 

(1947) 

1947- 

(1947) 

(1947) 

1947.  1948,  1949 

(1947) 

1947 

1947,  1948 

(1948) 

(1948) 

1948,  1949 

1918 

1948,  1949,  1950,  1951. 

1948 

(1949) 

1949.  1950 

1949,  1950 

(1949) 

(1949) 

1949 

1949,  1950,  1951 

1949 

1949,  1950,  1951 

(1949) 

1950 

1950 


1950 

1950.  1951. 

(1950) 

1950.  1951- 

1951 

1951 

1951 

1951 

1951...... 

1951. 

1951 


Distribution  Mgr. 

Secretary. 

Shipping  clerk. 

Receptionist. 

Clerk-Typist. 

Shipping  Clerk. 

Publications  Secy. 

Secretary. 

Secretary. 

Assistant  Treasurer. 

Editor,  Pacific  Affairs. 

Secretary. 

Receptionist,    Bookkeeper, 

Secy. 
Business    Manager,    Pacific 

Affairs. 
Librarian. 
Secretary. 
Secretary. 
Shipping  clerk. 
Billing  clerk. 
Shipping  Clerk. 
Shipping  Clerk. 
(7). 
(?). 

Clerical. 
Shipping  Clerk. 
Shipping  Clerk. 
Clerical. 
Shipping  Clerk. 
Secretary. 
Secretary. 
Secretary. 
Secretary. 
Secretary. 
Librarian. 
Asst.  Treasurer. 
Secretary. 
Shipping  Clerk. 
Secretary. 
Secretary. 
Typist. 
Secretary. 
Secretary. 
Distribution  Mgr. 
Typist. 
Subscription  clerk. 

(?). 

Secretary. 

Secretary. 

Receptionist. 

Secretary. 

Secretary. 

Shipping  Clerk. 

Shipping  Clerk. 

Shipping  Clerk. 

Asst.  Librarian. 

Bookkeeper. 

Asst.  Librarian. 

Receptionist. 

Secretary. 


INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 


4993 


IPR  staff  members 
[Submitted  by  W.  L.  Holland,  10/10/51] 


Name 


Alflno,  Rose. 

Aloric,  Aminadau 

Anderson,  Marguerite 

Anderson,  Melvin  T 

Armall,  Elaine 

Austern,  Hilda 

Balfour,  Nina 

Banks,  Edythe  M 

Barnett,  Abraham 

Bates,  Elizabeth 

Baum,  Mariorie 

Bear,  Marguerite  E 

Belshaw,  Horace 

Belshaw,  Michael 

Benjuya,  Beatrice 

Bialos,  Roberts 

Bierman,  Edward 

Bisson,  T.  A 

Blumenthal 

Bowen,  Mary  Jane 

Bramley,  Joan _-- 

Brice,  Lola 

Broek,  J.  O.  M 

Brown,  Esther 

Bruce,  Robert 

Bryant,  Elizabeth 

Buchsbaum,  Betty  E 

Bumgardner,  Chia-Ling 

Burt,  Virginia 

Butts,  Grace  Leah 

Bykofsky,  Edith 

Capps,  Frances  Pietrowski 

Caravello,  Grace 

Carroll,  Jewerl 

Carter,  Edward  C 

Carter,  Ruth  D 


Chalfin,  Jeaime 

Chang,  Irene  Conley. 

Chargar,  Thelma 

Cherubin,  Charles.  .. 


Chesman,  Miriam 

Christian,  Pearl  C 

Clark,  Winifred  H 

CofTey 

Conant,  Melvin  A.,  Jr... 
Converse,  Elizabeth  A... 

Coville,  Lilian 

Crawford,  Elizabeth 

Cunningham 

Curtis,  Aileen 

Pahl,  Sonja 

Darrow,  Evelyn  M 

Day,  Augusta 

De  I^eonardis,  Salvatore. 
Delgado,  Lionel  C 


Dennett,  Raymond.. 
Dickinson,  Edna  C. 

Dimitry,  Helen 

Dodson,  Elba  Aileen. 

Dorglas,  Elaine. 

Doyle,  Daniel  F 

Dubs,  Homer  H 

Dimn,  Margaret  M.. 
Edward,  Gladys  H... 

Ehrlich,  Anita 

Ison,  Jean 

Englander,  Florence. 

Ewing,  Ethel 

Farley,  Miriam  S 


Ferber,  Stanlev 

Field,  Olga  -..'..... 

Fine,  Donald..' 

Fischl,  Margaret 

Fischraan,  Bemice. 
Freidman,  Frances. 
Freist,  Dorothy  M. 


Started 


2/47 

6/49 

4/47 

5/51 

4/46 

1930? 

3/44 

9/44 

7/47 

6/45 

6/48 

2/45 

9/44-12/44. 

5/46 

5/44 

11/45 

1/47 

6/43 


8/44. 
6/44. 
5/46. 
1/44. 


1/51 . . 
9/46. . 
9/51 . . 
12/49. 
11/43. 
7/44.- 


9/44 

1/44 

12/44 

1933 

1937,38-41... 

5/49-..- 

3/46 

2/51 

8/45. 

2/49 

12/47 

12/48 

12/47 

4/44 

10/47 

(?) 

1/45 

6/46. 

3/45 

1/46 

8/46 

12/44 -. 

11/43 

2/46 ---. 

4/50 

5/44 

2/44 

9/46 

12/46 

2/44 

(?) 

11/46 -. 

5/46 

5/49 

8/47 


10/47 

8/48 

1/50 

4/45 

8/46 

9/45 

11/34  to  1/46. 


7/47 

6/44-8/44. 
.■'''6  --- 

9/44 

9/46 

10/43 

9/46 


Resigned 


3/47.- -- 

7/49 

6/47- 

Present 

9/46 

11/45 

6/44 

8/46 

8/47 

6/49 -.- 

7/48 

3/45 

11/45-7/46-  — 

8/46 

9/44 

12/45- - 

2/47 

9/45 


9/45 

7/46 

6/46 — . 

5/44 

2/44--- 

Present 

6/47 

Present 

1/50 

11/43 

8/44 

4/46 

8/45 

2/46 

1/45 -.. 

2/46 

42-4/46- 

10/49 

12/49 

Present 

9/45  .- 

10/49 

4/49 -_.. 

12/48 , 

7/50 

4/46 

4/50 

1/43 

2/45 

8/46 

3/51 

3/46 

3/50- -. 

12/44 

3/44 

9/46- -. 

7/50 

8/44 , 

9/46 

12/46 

1/47 

2/46 

1/43 

8/47 

6/46 

6/49 

9/47 

6/44 

3/48 

8/48 

3/50 

4/45 --- 

9/46 

6/47 

12/48  to  pres- 
ent. 

8/47 

12/44-6/45— 

5/46 

4/47 

10/47 - 

6/44 

9/46 - 


Position 


Secretary 

Shipping  clerk -- 

Secretary 

Sh.  elk 

Recep. -typist---. 
Asst.  Treasurer- 


Stenographer 

Shipping  clerk  — 
Distribution  mgr- 


Stenographer--- 
Research  Sec'y- 
Shipping  clerk - 


Shipping  clerk 

Shipping  clerk 

Research  Associate 

Clerk-typist 

Library  consultant  part  time- 

Clk-typ -- 

Clerk -typist 

Special  research  project-- 


Sh.  elk ; 

Clerk-typ--- 

Secretary 

Clerk-typist- 


Clk-typ 

Subscrip.  clerk 

Bookkeeping  asst- 
Clerk-typist 


Sec'y  General 

Secretary 

Secretary 

Secretary 

Administrative  Ass't- 


Librarian 

Billing  clerk 

Shipping  clerk 

Shipping  clerk  --- 

Subscription  clerk 

Clerk-typist 

Temp,  secretary 

Temporary  clerk 

Research  Assistant 

Assistant  Editor  FES-. 

Washington  Office 

Switchboard  Operator. 


Clerical 

Los  Angeles  Office.  - . 

Secretary 

Receptionist 

Shipping  clerk 

Shipping  clerk 

Shipping  clerk 

Executive  Secretary. 
(?)- 


Stenogrpaher 

Secretary  (Wash.  Office) - 

Clerk-typist 

Shipping  clerk 


Secretary 

Secretary 

Clerk -typist 

Typist 

Stenographer 

School  secretary- . 

Res.    Assoc;    Pamphlet    Editor; 
Editor,  Far  Eastern  Survey. 

Sh.  elk 

Research  assoe 

Shipping  clerk 

Secretary 

Acting  librarian 

Secretary 

Stenographer 


Salary 


$20/wk. 


$30.20/wk. 


$110/mo. 


$400/mo. 


4994 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 


IPR  staff  members — Continued 
[Submitted  by  W.  L.  Holland,  10/10/51] 


Name 


Started 


Resigned 


Position 


Salary 


Frncht,  Rita 

Fujii,  Kazuke  Kay 

Fnijima.  Edward  A 

Oallus,  Wilya 

Qerber,  Lillie 

Qerson,  Jack 

Gibson,  Eulalie 

Oluck,  Filmore 

Gluck 

Oodby,  Marie 

Goldenberg,  Rhoda 

Golembosti,  Josephine. 

Gordon,  Gloria 

Qorgas,  Ruth 

Grajdanzev,  Andrew... 


Green,  James 

Greenberg,  Raymond. 

Qreenberg,  Rose 

Greene,  Katrine  R.  C_ 
Greenidge,  Gertrude.. 
Greenwald,  Ro'^alin., 
Greenwald,  Rosalind.. 
Grigs  by,  Deborah 


Qutlman,  Renee  J. 


Harrison,  Barbara 

Hasse,  Robert 

Haulsey,  Robert 

Hawkins,  Sally  R 

Hayes,  Kathryn 

Healy,  Mary 

Henderson,  Martha  T. 

Hickey,  Callie  M 

Hill,  Marguerite  F 

Hochschild,  Patrick — 
Holland,  W.  L 


Hooker,  Anne  O 

Hsu,  Ying  Yung 

Israel,  Dorothy ... 

Issen,  Anita -... 

Jayson,  Alice 

Jenkins,  Louise 

Johnstone,  William  C. 

Jordan,  Myra  M 

Kahane,  Rita 

Kawata,  George 

Keil,  Dorothea 

Kennedy,  Bernice 

Kilpatrick,  Mary  J 

Kiyaba,  Hiroyo.. 

Kizer,  Carolyn  A 

Klein,  Mildred 

Kok,  Gerard  P 

Kramer,  Sonia 

Krasnow,  Beatrice 

Landau,  Frances  P 

Lane,  Clayton 

Lasker,  Bruno 


Lattimore,  Eleanor. 


Lazarus,  Ruth  J 

(As:  Ruth  Turbin). 

Leak,  Ora 

Lederor,  Use 

Lee,  Betty 

Lee,  Pao-Ch'en 


Lee,  Rosamund 

Levinthal,  Harriet.  . 

Levy,  Ellen  B 

Lewis,  Rhoda 

Lilicnthal,  Philip  E. 


Lipton,  Sony 

Ludwig,  Dorothy  S 

Mack,  Virginia 

Marks,  Regina. 

Masselman,  Wilhelmina. 
Marcusson,  Ruth 


1045. 
8/49. 
9/51. 


12/45. 
9/51.. 
6/46.. 
4/47.. 
6/47.. 
12/44. 
1/47.. 
10/44. 
4/46.. 
10/47- 
1/43.. 
7/44.. 
1/45.. 
8/47.. 
2/47.. 
12/44. 
1/48.. 
6/47-. 
5/48.. 
8/48.. 
12/47. 
/148  ■. 
5/46. . 


1/49-1/50 

5/51 

9/47     

10/46 

1/49 

2/43-10/43.... 

4/49 

10/46.. 

4/47 

10/48 

1931-32, 1933 
1933-1944.... 

1946 

1/46 

(?) 


6/46. 


10/44. 


1/50.. 
1/45.. 
3/51 -. 
10/45. 
8/45.- 
1/46. . 
5/45.. 
10/44. 


2/47.. 
12/46. 
3/44.. 
1/49- . 
10/48. 


5/44. . 

12/44. 
1/46. . 
2/51.. 
3/44.. 
9/46- . 
2/47. . 


11/45. 
2/44- . 
10/48. 
1/46. . 
9/46. . 
3/4... 
6/44.. 
10/46. 
2/44.. 
4/46. . 


10/45 

1/50 

Present. 

9/44 

6/46 

Present . 

7/46 

6/47 

6/47 

12/44 

10/47.... 

10/44 

5/46 

12/47...- 
12/43.... 
12/44-..- 

1/46 

8/47 

3/47 

12/44.... 

1/51 

4/49 

6/48 

6/50 


7/49. 
9/47. 


9/51 

10/47 

7/47  

1/49 

4/46-present. 

4/49 

7/47 

4/47 

5/49 


Present. 

5/46 

9/45 

3/44 

4/47 

7/44 

11/44.... 
12/45.... 

5/50 

1/45 

9/51 

10/45 

4/45 

8/47 

8/45 

2/45 

4/44 

5/47 

8/47 

11/44.... 

3/49 

7/50 

9/43 

1/40 

6/47 


8/45.. 
8/46.. 
2/51.- 
4/44-- 
10/46- 
5/47. - 

11/45- 
8/46. - 
12/45. 
2/44.. 


Present. 

11/46 

4/48 

7/44 

8/47 

4/44 

5/46 


See'y 

Librarian 

Secretary 

Stenographer. 
Bookkeeper.. 
Clerk-typist.. 

(?) 

(?) - 


Secretary. 


$30.20. 


Typist- 

Clk-typ 

Research  Associate. 


Research  Associate. 

Shipi)ing  clerk 

Shipping  clerk 


Assistant  Secretary. 

Clerk 

Secretary 

Secretary 

Temporary  secretary 

Secretary 

Branch    secretary    (Washington 
Office). 

Secretary 

Shipping  clerk 

Shipping  clerk 

Secretary  (Washington  Office) 

Temp,  typ 

Publications  sec'y 

Temp,  sec'y 

Secretary 

Temporary  secretary 

Librarian . 

Research  sec'y 

Editor,  Pacific  afifairs 

Sec'y  general 

Secretary 

Res  Assoc 

Secretary 

Secretary 

Public  relations 


Director,  Washington  office. 

Secretary 

Stenographer 

Librarian 


$30.20. 


Stenographer. 

Asst.  treas 

Stenographer. 


Chinese  Language  Instructor. 
Secretary 


Secretary 

E.\ecutive  Secretary 

Research  Associate 

Research  Associate. 

Research  .\ssociate  (Washington 
Office). 

Secretary 

Secretary 

Typist 


$40/wk. 
$30.20. 


$30.20. 


Stenographer 

.4ss't  Chinese  Language  Instruc- 
tor. 

Promotion  secretary 

Switchboard  operator 

Temporary  secretary 


Editor,  Far  Eastern  Survey- 
Editor,  Pacific  Affairs 

Stenographer 

Asst.  Bookkeeper 

(?) 

Stenographer 

Res - 

Secretary -.. 


$22/wk 


INSTITUTE   OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 


4995 


IPR  staft  members — Continued 
[Submitted  by  W.  L.  Hollaud,  10/10/51] 


Name 


Matsuo,  Miyaho 

Maurer,  Adriemie 

May,  Jean 

Mayer,  Hilda 

Mayer,  Laura 

Mayo,  Dorothy 

McCrimmons,  Mary  A. 

Millman,  Abe  J 

MUlman,  Benjamin 

Mills,  Harriet 

Mitchell,  Gloria 


Minavouitch,  Michael  E,.. 
Moldauer,  Frances   (untO 
1946— Sharps). 

Montana,  Marjorle 

Moore,  Harriet  L 

Morgan,  Leslie 

Morita,  Betty 

Morris,  Marion 

Morris,  Wilson 

Morrison,  Angelina 

Morseley,  Hilton 

Mott,  Celestine  G 

Murota,  Ayaka 

Neal,  Elizabeth 

Nelson,  Harry  A 

Nerenberg,  Clara 

Neugebauer,  Frieda 

Newman,  Eugene 

Nitka,  Helen  E 

Nusbaum,  Gladys 

Oka,  Kazu 

Ormont,  Zelda 

Ornitz,  Sallie 

Oshima,  Chiye 

Ota,  Marjorie 

Park,  Unsoon 

Parker,  Belzy  M 

Parker,  Harriet  H 

Parsons,  Katrine 

Parsons,  Ruth  M 

Pelan,  Frank 

Pietrowski,  Rose 

Pollard,  John  A 

Pons,  "\Vei-ta 


Porter,  Catherine. 


Radoni,  Jane 

Reinliold,  Anna 

Resnick,  Ruth 

Robertson,  Gwendolyn- 
Rogers,  Rima  S 

Root,  Constance 

Rosberg,  Lilian 

Rosenfcld,  Sylvia 

Rosenthal,  Lanra 

Rosinger,  Lawrence  K.. 

Rothmau.  Rhoda 

Russell,  Helen  E 

St.  George,  Joan 

Salisbury,  Laurence  E.. 


Sanders,  Flarence  E- 

Sehneer,  Sophie 

Schneider,  Helen 

Sebatz,  Louise,  H__. 

Serot,  Louise  B 

Serot,  Rhoda 

Shahn,  Tillie  G 

ShavelsDn,  Rita 

Shishko,  Jerome 

Skrefstad,  Betty 


Smith,  B.irbaraB- 
Smith,  Lolita  W_. 


Smith,  Maggie 

Snyder,  Maxim 

Solomon,  Rae 

Soyer,  David 

Spidell,  Clara 

Spillum,  Mary  C 

Stein,  Ruth  V 

Stewart,  Marguerite. 


Started 


5/45. . 
3/44.. 
4/44.. 
12/48. 


7/50- . 
3/46.. 
5/46.. 
9/44.. 
1'47.- 
7/46-. 
12/45- 


3/51. 


6/51. 
8/44. 


2/45.. 
10/46- 
11/44. 
1/47.. 
4/47-. 
4/43-. 
12/44- 
9/44.. 


2/45-. 
12/44. 
3/51.. 
8/50- . 
4/44.. 


7/49.- 
4/50.. 
7/49-. 
4/47-. 
2/44-- 
(?)-.. 
9/44-- 
12/46. 
11/44- 
4/46-- 
1/48.. 
9/50.: 


1/46.- 

4/17.. 
2/44.. 
6/46-. 
2/45- . 
12/46. 
4/49.. 
1/45-- 
11/44- 
9/48. . 
3/44.. 
2/45-- 
7/47.. 
10/44- 

8/44-. 


4/46-  - 
1/46- . 
9/46.. 
10/46. 
(?)-.- 
4/44.. 
3/45-. 
11/43. 
5/47-. 
1/45- - 
7/49.- 
6/49-- 
3/44-  - 
6/44.. 
9/45. . 
6/44-. 
11/43. 
10/51. 
8/50. . 


Resigned 


4/45. 
3/44- 
9/44- 
1/49- 
9/43- 
6/44. 


5/46. . 
7/46.. 
2/45.. 
10/51. 
9/51.. 
4/46-. 
10/47. 


present - 

2/44 

present - 
12/44-.., 

1/44 

3/46 

10/46... 
12/44... 

3/48 

11/47--- 
12/44--. 
12/44. .  - 

1/45 

6/49 

6/45 

1/45 

5/51 

3/51 

4/44 

5/44 

2/51 

9/50 

9/49 

7/47 

1/45 

11/43-.. 

2/46 

8/47 

11/44--- 
7/46-.-. 
11/48... 

3/51 

4/51 


10/46 

4/47 

4/44 

present.. 

12/45 

7/47 

Present. 

1/45 

5/40 

10/50 

10/47 

2/47 

3/48 

5/48 


9/44 

10/44 

4/49 

5/47 

10/46 

12/46 

9/51 

5/44 

5/45 

11/44 

6/47 

9/46 

7/49 

7/49--.-. 

10/46 

8/44 

10/45 

6/45 

12/45 

Present. 

3/51 

5/47 


Position 


Stenographer. 


Clerk-typist- 
Typist 


Temp,  typ 

Stenographer 

Stenographer. 

Administrative  Asst 

Secy-bkpr 

.A.sst.  bookkeeper;  scty 

Shipping  clerk 

Supur.  pub.  distrib.  (1  wk.  12/48 as 
typist). 

Receptionist 

Acting  E.xec.  Secretary 

E ditorial  assist 


Assistant  Editor— Pamphlets - 
Stenographer 


Executive  secretary. 

Secretary 

Steno-type 


Stenographer 

Clerical  assistant. 


Typist- 
Sec'y... 


Secretary 

Distr.  IMgr 

Sac'y 

Temp,  typ 

Stenographer 

Secretary 

SecSy 

Secretary 

Shipoing  clerk 

Clk-typ 

Director,  Washington  Office 

Librarian 

Assistant  librarian 

Res.  Assoc;  Editor,  Far  Eastern 
Survey. 

Stenographer 

Temporary  secretary 


Salary 


Subscription  clerk 

Secretary 

Promotion  Assistant- 
Subscript,  clerk 


Secretary ■ 

Research  Associate 

Billing  clerk 

Secretary 

Secretarv 

Editor,  FAR  EASTERN 

VEY. 
Secretary 1... 


SUR- 


Bus.  Manager 

Promotion  Secretary. 
Secretary 


Asst.  Treas- 


Clerical  assistant.  . 

Clerk-typist 

Clerk-typist 

Clerk-typist 

(?) 

Temporary  typist- 
Acting  librarian.- - 


Shipping  clerk 

Clerical  asst 

Clerk 

See's 

Secretary 

School  scty;   admin,  sec'y. 


$400/mo. 


4996 


INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 


IPR  staff  memhers — Continued 
[Submitted  by  W.  L.  Holland,  10/10/51] 


Name 


Stewart,  Maxwell  S.. 

Stopp,  Ann 

Su^iitan,  Lucrecia... 
Talkington,  Marie... 
Tandetnick,  Frances. 

Taylor,  Esther 

Taylor,  Janet 


Togo,  Alice  M 

Uchida,  Yoshi 

Ussachevsky,  Elizabeth 

Van  Buren,  Dolores 

Velleman,  Ruth  A 

Vernon,  Robert  Jr 

Wagner,  Joyce 

Walker,  Elnora..  

Waller,  Ella  S 

Wanderman,  Francis  Dick- 

Weidom,  Albert  A 

Wentholt,  Henrietta 

Wilder,  Nancy 

Winston,  Sadei 

Wise,  Masha  Switzer 

Woods,  Caroline 

Wright,  Nellie 

Yardumlan,  Rose 


Yasumuva,  Michi. 
Yates,  Elizabeth... 


Started 


2/46. . 
2/51.. 
6/49. . 
1/44. . 
2/44.. 
12/46. 
10/44. 
2/46. . 
1/46- - 
9/46. . 
8/44.. 
9/45. . 
3/46. . 
4/48. . 
10/44. 
9/44.. 


9/46. 
3/48. 
8/50. 


6/50.. 
12/44. 


3/44. 
/42.. 


10/44. 
10/49. 


Resigned 


Position 


2/48 

Present. 

12/49 

2/44 

2/44 

3/47 

10/44 

3/46 

8/46 

7/47 

9/45 

9/46 

4/46 

12/48 

4/45 

8/45 

3/44 

10/46 

5/48 

1/51 

2/44 

12/44 

9/50 

7/46 

7/44 

6/44 

10/45 


9/45. 
2/50. 


Pamphlet  Editor. 

Secretary 

Typist 


Stenographer- 
Stenographer. 


Librarian 

Membership  clerk 

Secretary 

Secretary,  Washington  Office. 

Stenograriher 

Secretary 

Shi'iping  clerk 

Clerk-typist 


Stenographer. 

Secretary 

Sh.  elk 


Sec'y-'.  edit,  assistant 

Secretary 

Stenographer.. 

Librarian 

Clerical 

Sec'y.;  librarian;  sec'y.,  Washing- 
ton office. 

Asst.  librarian , 

Acting  librarian 


Salary 


Exhibit  No.  802 

September  26,  1934. 
Mr.  E.  C.  Carter, 

Institute  of  Pacific  Relations, 

129  East  52nd  Street,  New  York. 

Dear  Mr.  Carter:  I  was  greatly  interested  in  reading  a  copy  of  your  letter 
to  Wellington  Liu  inquiring  whether  there  was  any  jwsibility  of  securing  the 
services  of  Chen  Han-seng  for  permanent  work  in  the  I.  P.  R.  It  is  an  excellent 
suggestion  and  I  hope  you  will  keep  pushing  it.  Chen  is  a  first-class  researcher 
with  the  good  knowledge  of  Ru.ssian,  French,  German,  and  English  as  well  as 
one  or  two  Chinese  dialects  and  reading  knowledge  of  .Japanese.  He  is  a  hard 
worker  and  one  of  the  few  Chinese  researchers  whose  eyes  are  not  blinded  to 
the  real  conditions  of  rural  China.  While  of  course  he  could  render  great  service 
to  the  China  Council  as  a  colleague  working  with  Liu,  I  believe  from  many 
points  of  view  it  would  be  worth  your  while  appointing  him  to  the  Secretariat 
as  my  colleague.  I  shall  certainly  be  glad  to  make  drasdc  economies  in  my  own 
budget  in  order  to  secure  Chen. 

As  you  probably  know  by  now,  Chen  is  living  here  in  Tokyo  completing  a 
study  of  rural  conditions  in  South  China  and  also  working  over  some  materials 
on  Chinese  economic  history  at  the  Oriental  Library  in  Tokyo.  He  has  taken 
a  house  here  with  his  wife  and  will  return  here  again  in  December  after  making 
a  short  trip  back  to  China  in  order  to  get  field  work  started  on  his  I.  P.  R.  study 
of  standards  of  living  in  tobacco-producing  regions  in  China. 

One  reason  why  I  think  it  is  worth  your  while  to  push  the  question  still 
further  is  that  Chen's  relations  with  the  Sun  Yat-sen  Institute  and  especially 
with  Academia  Sinica  are  not  very  happy.  He  is  much  too  close  to  the  radical 
elements  in  China  to  suit  the  Nanking  authorities  and  I  understand  that  for 
the  time  being  it  is  better  for  Chen's  political  health  to  be  out  of  China.  I  shall 
be  seeing  him  in  a  day  or  two  before  he  goes  back  to  Shanghai  and  I  shall  en- 
deavour to  sound  him  out  as  discreetly  as  possible  on  his  views  about  working 
for  the  I.  P.  R. 

Sincerely  yours, 

,  Research  Secretary. 

WLH:  MI 

Copy  to  Mr.  Loomis. 

Copy  to  Mr.  Liu. 


INSTITUTE   OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  4997 

Exhibit  No.  804 
Memorandum  W.  L.  Holland  to  E.  C.  Carter 

October  4,  1935. 

With  reference  to  Harriet  Moore's  list  of  discussion  questions  of  Soviet  na- 
tional policy,  I  suggest  that  we  write  to  all  the  other  Ck)uncils  immediately  after 
the  Lee  Conference,  making  it  clear  that  "national  policy"  is  being  used  in  a 
very  different  sense  in  the  Round  Table  on  Soviet  Policy.  I  would  strongly 
support  Harriet's  plea  for  changing  the  word  from  "national"  to  "nationality." 

All  this  is  assuming  that  we  would  want  to  limit  the  Soviet  Round  Table  to  the 
two  questions  of  economic  development  and  policy  towards  minor  nationalities 
and  dependent  peoples.  There  ought  to  be  rather  careful  discussion  of  this  point 
to  make  sure  first  of  all  how  much  of  a  limitation  this  really  is,  and,  second 
whether  the  Soviet  Council  would  be  unwilling  to  broaden  the  discussion  pro- 
gram to  include  more  general  and  political  aspects  of  Soviet  policy  in  the  Far 
East. 

As  you  know,  I  would  like  to  have  the  broader  interpretation  so  that  the 
Round  Table  would  be  more  in  line  with  the  other  Round  Tables  on  Japanese, 
American,  and  Chinese  national  policy.  While  the  Soviet  policy  towards  minor 
nationiilities  in  its  Far  Eastern  territories  is  certainly  a  major  element  in  the 
total  Soviet  Far  Eastern  policy,  it  would  be  unfortunate  if  the  discussion  went 
too  deeply  into  the  details  of  cultural  autonomy,  the  language  question,  et  cetera, 
when  there  will  be  nothing  comparable  in  the  discussions  on  other  questions,  and 
when  most  of  the  other  delegates  will  no  the  in  a  position  to  participate  in  the 
discussion  for  want  of  detailed  knowledge.  (Incidentally,  I  wonder  if  you  have 
thought  of  suggesting  to  Crawford  afe  the  University  of  Hawaii  that  you  and 
Keesing  might  invite  a  Soviet  expert  to  the  Conference  on  Government  and 
Education  in  Dependent  Territories.  A  Russian  could  make  a  real  contribu- 
tion, and  would  certainly  throw  a  lot  of  monkey  wrenches  which  ought  to  be 
thrown. ) 

W.  L.  H. 


Exhibit  No.  805 

CJopy  to  F. 

129  East  52nd  Street, 
tiew  York  City,  March  28,  1939. 

Dear  Bill:  I  apologize  for  not  having  sent  you  an  earlier  answer  to  your 
letter  of  March  13th.  In  the  meantime,  however,  I  have  sent  formal  invitations 
to  Miss  Dietrich  and  Hayden  for  the  Secretariat  Inquiry  monographs.  After 
consultation  with  Carter  I  decided  to  offer  Hayden  $150  and  to  give  him  the 
opportunity  to  make  the  report  20,000  to  25,000  words.  I  have  asked  Fred  to 
send  on  to  you  copies  of  both  letters. 

I  also  took  up  with  Carter  the  question  of  having  authors'  names  printed 
on  the  cover  and  title  page  of  Inquiry  reports  and  he  has  now  agreed  to  make 
this  a  general  practice. 

I  am  glad  to  have  the  news  about  Riesenfeld  and  have  told  Fred  that  I  certainly 
approve  paying  him  the  necessary  $50.  In  fact,  I  should  be  prepared  to  pay 
$75  if  necessary.  To  avoid  complicating  our  bookkeeping  I  have  suggested  to 
Fred  that  this  amount  should  be  paid  out  of  the  available  funds  which  the 
American  Council  now  has  and  that  any  necessary  additional  payments  irom 
the  International  Research  Fund  should  be  made  later  this  year. 

In  Washington  I  had  quite  a  long  talk  with  Saugstad  who  was  extremely 
cooperative.  The  reason  for  the  slightly  mysterious  tone  in  his  letter  to 
you  was  that  the  person  he  recommends  for  the  shipping  study  is  Mr.  Henry 
L.  Deimel,  Jr.,  Assistant  Chief  in  the  Division  of  Trade  Agreements  (private 
address  4414  Macomb  Street  NW.,  Washington).  Deimel,  whom  I  met  briefly, 
has  apparently  done  a  good  deal  of  work  on  shipping  and  has  at  various  times 
worked  in  association  with  Henry  Grady  who,  incidentally,  is  his  father-in-law. 
The  reason  for  Saugstad's  mysterious  phraseology  is  that  (confidentially)  Sayre 
is  probably  being  sent  out  soon  to  the  Philippines  as  High  Commissioner,  and 
Deimel  is  being  asked  to  go  as  his  economic  advisor.  There  would  be  a  possibil- 
ity, however,  that  Deimel  would  get  leave  of  absence  for  about  four  or  five 
months  during  the  summer  before  going  out  to  Manila,  and  during  this  period 
he  would  be  willing  and  in  a  very  good  position  to  prepare  a  report  for  the 
I.  P.  R. 


4998  INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 

The  State  Department  would  raise  no  objections  to  such  a  procedure  and 
Deimel  would  also  be  willing  to  collect  additional  information  on  the  way  out  to 
Manila.  In  the  meantime  he  would  be  able  to  get  access  to  a  great  deal  of  more 
or  less  confidential  information  in  Washington. 

Deimel  impressed  me  as  a  capable  and  well  informed  person,  but  I  have  too 
little  evidence  to  judge  whether  he  is  the  best  possible  person  we  could  get.  On 
the  whole,  however,  I  am  inclined  to  offer  him  the  job  partly  because  it  might 
be  an  extremely  valuable  way  of  making  use  of  State  Department  and  other 
governmental  material,  and  incidentally  of  working  in  closely  with  the  State 
Department.  I  emphasized  to  Deimel  the  fact  that  the  report  would  have  to  be 
of  an  international  character  and  not  merely  present  American  policy  and  point 
of  view. 

In  the  meantime  I  should  be  glad  to  have  your  comments  on  the  scheme,  and 
also  any  other  information  about  Deimel  or  about  the  shipping  project  generally. 
I  shall  not  make  any  move  until  I  hear  from  you. 

Meanwhile  Hubbard  has  just  sent  you  a  copy  of  the  Imperial  Shipping  Com- 
mittee's report  on  British  Shipping  in  the  Orient  which  is  being  sent  to  you. 
It  is  better  than  I  had  expected  and  provides  a  good  deal  of  the  information  we 
should  want.  It  is  obvious,  however,  that  there  is  still  room  for  a  great  deal 
of  work  along  the  lines  of  more  systematic  analysis  of  the  problems  from  an  in- 
ternational point  of  view  and  quite  certain  that  we  should  go  ahead  with  the 
I.  P.  R.  study. 

I  did  not  call  on  Gates  in  the  Civil  Aeronautics  Commission,  chiefly  because 
Saugstad  had  already  warned  me  off  him  because  Gates  apparently,  being  a  fight- 
ing young  lawyer,  has  become  identified  with  an  anti-Pan-American  group  and 
is  interested  in  nothing  but  ways  of  reducing  the  monopolistic  power  of  Pan- 
American.  It  also  appears  that  the  State*  Department  which  has  to  handle  most 
of  the  foreign  negotiations  has  more  or  less  unconsciously  found  itself  lined  up 
against  Gates  as  an  advocate  of  Pan-American.  Saugstad  also  emphasized  the 
fact  that  the  State  Department  has  all  the  information  available  to  the  Civil 
Aeronautics  Commission,  and  in  fact  is  better  informed  on  the  international 
aspects.  His  recommendation  was,  therefore,  that  if  we  wanted  to  get  any 
profitable  cooperation  from  people  in  Washington,  it  would  be  much  better  to  do 
it  through  the  State  Department,  and  he  said  that  he  would  be  prepared  to  see 
that  we  did  get  the  necessary  cooperation.  Apparently  they  already  have  one  or 
two  capable  young  men  working  on  the  problem.  Obviously  there  is  a  little 
bureaucratic  jealously  here,  but  I  think  there  is  a  good  deal  in  what  Saugstad 
says,  and  unless  we  find  strong  evidence  to  the  contrary,  I  should  be  inclined 
to  take  his  advice.  Here,  again,  however,  I  should  be  glad  to  have  a  word  from 
you  before  I  write  again  to  Saugstad. 

With  best  regards. 
Sincerely  yours, 

,  Research  Secretary. 

W.  W.  LocKwooD  Esq. 


Exhibit  No.  806 
Institute  of  Pacific  Rbi^tions 

Amsterdam— London — Manila — Moscow — New  York — Paris — Shanghai — Sydney — Tokyo — 

Toronto — Wellington 

OFFICE  OF  THE  SECRETAKY-GENEEAL 

GiANNiNi  Foundation, 
University  of  California, 
Berkeley,  Calif.,  Mfly  10,  1940. 
ECC  from  WLH : 

I  was  somewhat  startled  to  receive  your  wire  saying  that  Andrew  Ross  was 
waiting  for  me  to  write  him  about  a  supplementary  chapter  to  Levy's  report,  but 
on  looking  through  my  files  I  find  a  slip  of  paper  with  the  name  Andrew  Roth  of 
3150  Rochambeau  Avenue,  written  on  it.  So  I  am  afraid  I  have  clearly  been 
negligent  in  forgetting  all  about  him.  I  enclose  herewith  a  note  which  you 
might  send  on  to  him  if  it  seems  suitable.  The  amount  of  writing  to  be  done 
cannot  be  very  great  and  if  Levy's  manuscript  is  only  just  going  to  the  press 
there  need  be  no  delay  in  its  final  appearance.     If  you  or  Kate  or  Jack  have 


INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC    RELATIONS  4999 

any  doubts  about  tbe  present  letter,  don't  hesitate  to  scrap  it  and  write  Roth  di- 
rectly. (Incidentally  you  had  better  find  out  whether  his  name  is  really  Ross  or 
Roth.)      I  apologize  sincerely  for  having  slipped  up  on  this  matter. 

I  should  not  think  it  was  necessary  to  get  Levy's  formal  permission  for  this 
supplementary  chapter,  but  presumably  you  ought  at  least  to  notify  him  that 
we  are  getting  it  done. 

I  note  that  no  Inquiry  funds  will  be  available  for  Lockwood's  suggested  study 
by  Quigley  on  the  Open  Door.  The  study  is  not  within  the  present  field  of  the 
International  Research  Committee  and  I  don't  think  it  would  interest  Lockwood's 
committee,  although  a  related  study  of  the  Open  Door  as  a  cardinal  factor  in 
American  policy  might.  I  would  not  regard  the  suggested  Quigley  study  as  of 
major  importance,  though  it  might  come  on  the  list  of  new  studies  to  be  under- 
taken if  we  get  additional  Inquiry  funds.  The  subject  might  be  better  treated  as 
one  chapter  of  a  larger  study  of  new  diplomatic  machinery  for  the  Far  East. 
How  would  it  be  to  consult  two  or  three  i)eople  like  Blakeslee,  Willoughby,  Horn- 
beck  and  Quincy  Wright,  as  well  as  Quigley,  about  the  possible  scope  and  impor- 
tance of  the  study?  It  might  also  be  possible  to  have  the  subject  treated  in  a 
Pacific  Affaiks  article  and  expanded  later  if  it  seemed  worthwhile. 

I  agree  with  so  much  of  what  you  say  in  your  letter  of  May  8  about  Japanese 
Trojan  Horses  in  the  bosoms  of  various  influential  people  (a  vastly  intriguing 
metaphor  when  you  consider  what  would  have  to  be  done  to  let  the  soldiers 
escape  from  the  Trojan  Horse)  that  I  don't  propose  to  do  anything  further  about 
a  possible  visit  by  Alsberg  to  Japan,  particularly  as  Galen  Fisher's  visit  will  be 
a  sufficient  goodwill  gesture. 

If  it  is  convenient  I  should  like  to  look  at  "Contemporary  International  Poli- 
tics" by  Sharp  and  Kirk,  the  latter  of  whom  is  doing  an  American  Council  study 
on  electrical  communications  in  the  Pacific.  If  it  seems  worthwhile,  I  shall 
write  a  brief  review  on  the  Far  Eastern  sections  of  the  book.  Among  your  sug- 
gested reviewers  for  Morgan  Young's  book,  "The  Rise  of  a  Pagan  State,"  I 
should  be  inclined  to  mention  Colegrove,  but  we  had  probably  better  not  bother 
him  until  he  finishes  his  present  assignment  for  us.  Would  you  also  send  me 
Lowe's  "Japan's  Economic  Offensive  in  China,"  as  I  may  want  to  review  this 
myself  or,  perhaps,  ask  George  Taylor  to  do  it. 

I  am  very  interested  to  hear  that  the  Japan  Council  have  translated  "Agrarian 
China."  I  am  delighted  that  they  have  done  so  but  so  far  as  I  remember  this, 
is  the  first  we  have  been  told  of  it,  although  it  is  a  Secretariat  book.  I  should 
like  to  have  two  of  the  copies,  if  possible.  The  book  should  be  listed  under  its 
Japanese  title  in  the  next  issue  of  Pacific  Affaiks,  but  I  don't  think  it  need  be 
reviewed  separately.  To  the  best  of  my  recollection  we  have  not  yet  reviewed 
"Agrarian  China"  in  Pacific  Affairs  but  you  might  check  on  this ;  and  if  I  am 
right  you  might  get  Wittfogel  or  Cressey  or  Rossiter  of  the  Department  of  Agri- 
culture to  write  about  300  words. 

WLH 
W.  L.  H. 


Exhibit  No.  807 

May  10,  1940. 
WLH    from    ECC: 

Jessup  rang  up  just  now  and  says  that  he  fears  it  was  you  rather  than  he  who^ 
slipped  the  cog  with  reference  to  the  Levy  supplement.  He  has  just  checked  with 
Peflfei-  and  I  have  condensed  his  message  into  the  following  Day  Letter : 

"Regarding  Levy  supplement  Jessup  says  he,  Peffer,  arranged  for  Andrew  Ross 
see  you,  that  Ross  says  you  promised  write  him.  He  is  eager  and  ready  and 
according  to  PelTer  anxious  and  qualified  to  go  ahead  and  has  been  awaiting 
daily  your  letter." 

I  explained  to  Jessup  how  terribly  rushed  you  were  with  a  million  things  just 
before  your  departure.  Under  the  circumstances,  I  assume  that  you  will  want 
to  go  ahead  and  have  Ross  go  to  work,  though  I  suppose  you  are  still  free  to 
cancel  your  tentative  proposal  to  Ross. 

Somehow  or  other  both  Jessup  and  Peffer  have  the  idea  that  Ross  saw  you 
before  you  left  New  York.  His  address  is :  care  the  Chinese  Department  at 
Columbia. 

In  the  view  of  Jessup  and  Peffer  his  knowledge  of  French  and  of  France  and 
of  the  Far  East  qualify  him  to  do  a  good  job. 


5000  INSTITUTE   OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 

Exhibit  No.  808 

Berkeley,  July  5,  1940. 

Dear  Phii-  Gaffe  :  The  Hollands  are  duly  touched  and  awed  that  our  offspring 
should  have  made  such  an  impact  on  129  E.  52nd  St.  If  you  want  to  indicate 
that  Amer  and  Asia  are  separated  by  an  ever-renewed  body  of  water,  then 
Patricia  is  certainly  an  apt  symbol.  Photographs  a  priori  and  a  posteriori  will 
be  forthcoming  soon. 

I  should  have  no  objections  to  putting  Owen's  article  in  Amerasia  and  in  some 
ways  I  think  it  would  be  better  to  print  it  immediately  rather  than  have  it 
delayed.  It's  a  difficult  topic  and  I  think  Owen  has  made  a  gallant  effort,  but  I 
have  a  slight  feeling  that  he  has  tried  to  find  too  many  historical  roots  for  the 
current,  and  obviously  important,  connection  between  Germany  and  Japan. 
Moreover  there  is  singularly  little  account  of  the  role  the  U.  S.  has  played  and 
of  the  fears  of  the  U.  S.  S.  R.  regarding  the  intentions  of  both  Germany  and 
Britain.  I  should  like  to  see  the  article  end  with  a  more  outright  plea  that  only 
by  direct  pressure  on  Japan  from  the  U.  S.  and  by  a  rapprochement  between  the 
U.  S.  and  the  U.  S.  S.  R.  can  the  Axis  powers  now  be  checked. 

I  hope  Amerasia  will  have  a  blast  against  the  latest  wave  of  appeasement 
and  Lippmannism  favouring  a  deal  with  Japan. 

My  regards  to  Kate  and  the  rest  of  the  Amerasia  bunch. 
Yours, 

W.  L.  Holland. 

Copy  to  GEE,  I  mean  ECC. 


Exhibit  No.  809 

Copy  for  ECO 

129  East  52nd  Street, 
New  York,  N.  Y.,  December  1,  1941. 
Mr.  Carl  F.  Remer, 

Office  of  the  Coordinator  of  Information, 

Library  of  Congress  Annex,  Washington,  D.  C. 
Dear  Remer;  You  have  probably  already  heard  of  this  matter  through  l^'ans 
or  Fairbank,  but  I  understand  that  the  publishers  of  the  Japanese  magazine 
Chuo  Koron  wrote  sometime  ago  that  they  had  had  to  discontinue  mailing  the 
periodical  to  the  United  States  as  the  United  States  atuhorities  had  been  con- 
fiscating it  as  propagandist  literature.  The  United  States  action  may  have  been 
quite  .justified  in  some  cases,  but  it  seems  very  probable  that  the  Customs  au- 
thorities have  acted  as  precipitately  here  as  they  did  formerly  with  important 
Soviet  magazines  which  were  urgently  needed  by  libraries  and  research  in- 
stitutions in  this  country. 

If  the  matter  has  not  alreadly  been  attended  to,  it  might  be  worth  while  for 
your  group  to  communicate,  perhaps  through  Archibald  MacLeish  or  Mortimer 
Graves,  with  the  Customs  authorities  to  see  that  confiscations  are  handled  in- 
telligently and  not  to  the  detriment  of  legitimate  research  institutions  and 
libraries. 
I  enclose  a  circular  in  Japanese  from  Chug  Koron. 
Sincerely  yours, 

W.  L.  Holland,  Research  Secretary. 


Exhibit  No.  810 

Coordinator  of  Information, 
Washington.,  D.  C,  March  18,  19^2. 
Mr.  W.  L.  Holland, 

Institute  of  Pacific  Relatione, 

129  East  52nd  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y. 
My  Dear  Mr.  Holland  :  The  research  work  of  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations 
has  been  directly  useful  to  the  OflSce  of  the  Coordinator  of  Information  in  its 
efforts  to  meet  the  urgent  demands  created  by  the  war.  Certain  unpublished 
studies  of  the  Institute  have  been  made  available  to  us  during  the  preparation 
of  reports  and  you  have,  yourself,  found  time  to  serve  as  consultant  and  adviser 
to  our  sections  dealing  with  the  British  Empire  and  the  Far  East. 


INSTITUTE   OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  5001 

I  am  sending  this  brief  acknowledgment  in  the  hope  that  it  may  be  useful  to 
you  in  making  plans  and  securing  funds  for  the  coming  year.  I  think  you  will 
agree  with  me  that  full  informal  cooperation  must  be  the  basis  of  the  effective 
use  of  the  limited  number  of  persons  with  adequate  research  training  to  deal 
with  the  Far  East.  The  OflBce  of  the  Coordinator  of  Information  is  looking 
forward  to  the  continuance  of  such  cooperation. 
Sincerely  yours, 

James  P.  Baxter,  3rd, 

Deputy  Coordinator. 


Exhibit  No  811 

(Pencilled  initials)  NLH 

129  East  52nd  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y., 

April  2nd,  1942. 
Major  G.  A.  Lincoln, 

Director  of  Orientation  Course, 

Bureau  of  PuMic  Relations,  War  Department, 

Washington,  D.  C. 

Dear  Major  Lincoln:  Since  I  have  a  certain  general  responsibility  for  the 
publication  program  of  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations,  I  have  had  occasion  to 
learn  from  Miss  Downing  your  sudden  decision  to  cancel  the  War  Department's 
order  for  10,000  copies  of  An  Atlas  of  Far  Eastern  Politics.  I  want  to  reinforce 
Miss  Downing's  reply  to  you  by  saying  that  this  Institute  has  acted  in  all  good 
faith  and  has  in  fact  gone  to  considerable  trouble  to  meet  the  request  originally 
made  by  Colonel  Beukema,  e.  g.,  in  getting  paper  especially  manufactured  and 
having  the  maps  rephotographed,  etc. 

Your  action  in  announcing  your  dissatisfaction  with  parts  of  the  book  and 
cancelling  the  order  at  this  late  date  without  giving  us  any  previous  warning 
comes  as  a  considerable  shock,  particularly  as  nothing  in  our  correspondence 
indicated  that  your  office  would  require  further  revisions.  Had  you  mentioned 
this  problem  some  weeks  ago  when  we  were  waiting  for  the  paper  to  be  manu- 
factured we  should,  of  course,  have  done  our  best  to  meet  your  wishes. 

I  therefore  hope  that  you  will  carefully  consider  Miss  Downing's  suggestion 
of  having  a  revised  edition  even  now.  If  you  cannot  accept  this  suggestion  I  hope 
that  you  will  at  least  indicate  a  procedure  whereby  we  can  be  compensated  for 
the  losses  we  shall  srffer  through  your  failure  to  notify  us  soon.  The  direct  losses 
will  probably  total  about  $1,600,  and  we  have  not  included  in  this  figure  any 
charge  for  tlie  considerable  amount  of  time  which  the  office  staff  here  has  devoted 
to  the  problem. 

We  are  genuinely  anxious  to  assist  you  in  your  important  work.     We  would 

therefore  like  to  be  given  an  opportunity  to  provide  the  kind  of  material  you 

want.     The  only  thing  we  ask  is  that  you  give  us  reasonable  notice  in  the  sudden 

changes  of  your  plans. 

Sincerely  yours, 

W.  L.  Holland. 


Exhibit  No.  812 

129  East  52nd  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y., 

April  3rd,  1H2. 

Mr.  George  H.  Kerr, 

Military  Intelligence  Division,  War  Department, 

Room  2628,  Munitions  Building,  Washington,  D.  C. 

Dear  Mr.  Kerr  :  Thank  you  for  your  letter  of  April  2nd  about  Grajdanzev's 
report  on  Formosa.  Under  separate  cover  I  am  sending  you  an  advance  copy  of 
the  book  which  is  now  being  bound.  I  have  already  sent  copies  to  Remer  in  the 
Office  of  the  Coordinator  of  Information,  and  to  Bisson  on  the  Board  of  Eco- 
nomic Warfare.  ,  .„  ,, 

Both  Grajdanzev  and  I  would  be  glad  to  have  your  comments  and  if  there  are 
any  points  which  you  think  should  definitely  be  corrected  I  would  suggest  that 
you  let  me  know  in  the  next  day  or  two  as  we  may  want  to  insert  an  errata  slip 
in  the  book.  The  book  itself  is  unfortunately  a  makeshift  piece  of  manufacturing 
because  we  had  to  work  with  an  incomplete  and  unsatisfactory  set  of  proofs. 

Sincerely  yours,  ,„  -r    ^^ 

W.  L.  Holland. 


88348— 52— pt.  14- 


5002  INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 

Exhibit  No.  813 

War  Department, 
War  Department  General   Staff, 
Military  Intelligence  Division  G-2, 

Rm  2628,  Munitions  Building, 

Washington,  Aj)ril  2,  19^2. 

Mr.  William  Holland, 

J29  East  52nd  Street,  New  York,  New  York. 

Mt  Dear  Mr.  Holland  :  I  regret  that  my  sudden  coming  to  Washington  in 
February  precluded  further  talks  with  you  about  Formosa,  to  say  nothing  of 
further  writing. 

Some  weeks  ago  there  came  to  our  M.  I.  D.  files — and  my  Formosa  section — 
a  set  of  galley  sheets  of  Dr.  Gra.idanzev's  extraordinary  good  work,  which 
I  first  saw  briefly  in  your  office  and  now  have  read  thoroughly.  No  covering 
letter  came  with  it  to  me  and  so  It  is  not  clear  whether  this  is  a  loan  or  a  final 
gift  to  our  files.  If  It  is  not  a  loan  I  shall  be  free  to  divide  it  according  to 
subjects  and  distribute  it  among  my  folders.  If  it  is  a  loan  I  shall  keep  it 
Intact  and  forward  it  to  you  as  soon  as  some  of  the  statistical  material  can  be 
digested.     We  live  very  largely  on  loans  these  days. 

Please  tell  Professor  Grajdanzev  that  it  will  give  me  great  pleasure  some 
day  to  talk  with  him.  His  work  is  certainly  excellent.  There  are  only  a  few 
minor  suggestions  I  might  make,  none  of  first  importance. 

Have  the  added  chapter  or  chapters  on  strategy  been  set  up?  I  would  not 
be  free  to  add  anything  attributable  to  my  sources  here,  but  I  would  be  glad 
to  read  through  the  chapter  again  to  make  sure  that  some  errors  in  judgment 
have  not  crept  in.     Needless  to  say,  such  checking  must  be  done  anonymously. 

With  every  goood  wish. 


My  residence  address :  2700  Wisconsin  Ave.,  NW. 


[s]     George  H.  Kerr. 
George  H.  Kerr. 


Exhibit  No.  814 

Board  of  Economic  Warfare, 
Washington,  D.  C,  July  25,  1942. 
In  reply  refer  to :  0W-6-RHS. 

Mr.  Wii  LiAM  Holland, 

129  East  52nd  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y. 
Dear  Mk.  Holland  :  Thank  you  for  sending  us  the  article  on  the  organization 
of  tlie  Chinese  Government,  which  will  be  most  useful  to  our  Far  Eastern 
Division. 

Very  sincerely  yours, 

[s]     C.  R.  Vail, 

Chester  R.  Vail, 
Acting  Chief,  Economic  Intelligence  Division. 


Exhibit  No.  815 

Joseph  P.  Chamberlain,  Chairman,  Professor  of  Public  Law  ;  Lyman  Bryson,  Professor  of 
Education  ;  Carter  Goodrich,  Professor  of  Economics,  Chairman,  Governing  Body,  I.  L.  O. ; 
Luther  H.  Gulicli,  Eaton  Profe.^sor  of  Municipal  Science  and  Administration  ;  Carlton 
J.  H.  Hayes,  Seth  Low  Professor  of  History  :  Cliarles  Cheney  Hyde,  Hamilton  Fish 
Professor  "ot  International  Law  and  Diplomacy  :  Huger  W.  Jervey,  Director,  Institute 
of  International  Affairs.  Professor  of  Comparative  Law  ;  Philip  C.  Jessup,  Professor  of 
International  Law ;  Grayson  Kirlj,  Associate  professor  of  Government ;  Arthur  W. 
Macmahon,  Professor  of  Public  Administration  ;  Wesley  C.  Mitchell,  Professor  of 
Economics  ;  Nathaniel  Pefifer,  Associate  Professor  of  International  Relations  ;  Lindsay 
Rogers,  Burger  Professor  of  I'uhlic  Law,  Assistant  Director,  I.  L.  O.  ;  J.  Kussell  »Suiith, 
Professor  of  Economic  Geography  ;  James  T.  Shotwell,  Boyce  Professor  of  the  History 
of  International  Relations 

Consultants  :  Dr.  Prank  G.  Boudreau,  Director,  Mulbank  Memorial  Fund  ;  Joseph  Hyman, 
Executive  Vice  Chairman,  Joint  Distribution  Committee ;  General  Frank  R.  McCoy, 
President,  Foreign  Policy  Association  ;  Clarence  E.  Pickett,  Executive  Secretary,  Ameri- 
can Friends  Service  Committee  :  George  L.  Warren,  Executive  Secretary,  President's 
Advisory  Committee  on  Political  Regugees 


ENTSTITUTE   OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  5003 

COLUMBIA  UNIVERSITY 

Committee  on  Emebgency  Pr<^gram  of  Tkaining  in  International 

Administration 

Professor  Schuyler  C.  Wallace,  Director 
Room  513  Fayerweather  Hall 
UNiversity  4-3200,  Ext.  188 

July  31,  1942. 

Mr.  William  Holland, 

129  Eaat  52nd  Street,  New  York,  Neiv  YorJc. 

Dear  Bill:  Our  arran.cements  for  the  course  are  coming  along.  Broek  wiU 
arrive  on  the  20th  of  August  for  the  six  weeks  period.  I  told  him  in  my  letter 
that  you  and  Lockwood  had  waived  the  I.  P.  R.  claims  for  those  six  weeks,  and 
that  arrangements  with  the  Rockefeller  people  were  feasible.  Can  you  take  the 
initiati\e  with  the  Rockefeller  people,  or  will  he  do  that,  or  can  I  help? 

Keesing  will  come  up  from  the  Offl -e  of  Strategic  Services  in  a  consultative 
capacity  one  day  a  week  for  the  first  six  weeks. 

We  want  very  much  to  have  you  come  up  for  a  few  introductory  lectures. 
What  we  thought  you  might  be  willing  to  do  would  be  to  come  on  August 
IS,  19,  and  20  to  give  three  one-hour  lectures,  which  would  do  the  following: 

1.  Provide  a  general  introductic-n  to  the  Pacific  area,  just  touching  the  high 
spots  as  to  the  divisions  of  the  region,  the  peoples,  etc.  Some  of  the  men  will  be 
well  informed,  others  may  be  quite  blank  about  it. 

2.  A  bibliography  lecture  on  materials  bearing  on  the  Pacific  and  Far  East, 
which  would  include  a  description  of  the  inquiry  series. 

3.  A  talk  on  the  available  sources  in  the  New  York  area,  so  that  the  men 
would  know  where  to  go  after  we  assigned  tliem  research  projects.  This  would 
include  an  indication  of  what  you  have  at  the  I.  P.  R.,  and  references  to  such 
other  places  as  the  American  Museum,  the  Geographical  tBociety,  etc. 

We  can  offer  you  the  modest  honorarium  of  $150.00  for  this  series  of  lectures. 

In  addition,  we  hope  that  you  would  be  willing  to  contribute  some  of  your 

time  to  sitting  in  with  a  committee  which  we  are  forming  on  the  Pacific  area, 

to  plan  out  our  whole  curriculum.     The  committee  will  include  Keesing,  Broek, 

Clare  Holt,  and  Arthur  Schiller. 

I  hope  that  we  can  count  on  your  help  in  these  ways. 
Sincerely  yours, 

[s]     Phil. 

Philip  C.  Jessltp. 
PCJ :  es. 


Exhibit  No.  816 

Board  of  Economic  Warfare, 
Washington,  D.  C,  Sep.  2,  191,2. 
Mr.  W.  L.  Holland, 

Institute  of  Pacific  Relations,  129  East  52nd  Street, 

New  York,  New  York. 

Dear  Bill:  I  think  you  will  be  interested  in  seeing  the  enclosed  copy  of  an 
article  by  the  Vice  President  on  "Economic  Warfare — The  War  Behind  the  War," 
which  appears  in  the  current  issue  of  the  Army  and  Navy  Journal.    It  is  the  first 
broad  public  statement  about  the  work  of  the  Board  of  Economic  Warfare. 
Sincerely  yours, 

[s]     Bill 

William  T.  Stone,  Assistant  Director. 
Attachment. 


Exhibit  No.  817 

July  6,  1942. 
Mr.  William  T.  Stone, 

Board  of  Econotnic  Warfare, 

Department  of  Economic  Warfare, 

Department  of  Commerce,  Washington,  D.  C. 

Dear  Bill  :  You  may  be  interested  in  these  reports  of  Stein's. 
Sincerely  yours, 

W.   L.   HOIXAND. 


5004  INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 

Exhibit  No.  818 

BoABD  OF  Economic  Warfare. 
Washington,  D.  C,  July  11,  1942. 
Mr.  W.  L.  Holland, 

Institnte  of  Pacific  Relations, 

129  East  52nd  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y. 
Dear  Bill:  Many  thanks  for  your  note  of  July  6,  enclosing  the  radio  letter 
from  Guenther  Stein.     This  service  is  most  interesting,  and  the  Board  will 
appreciate  receiving  the  reports  regularly  as  they  come  in. 
Do  look  me  up  the  next  time  you  are  in  Washington. 
Sincerely  yours, 

[s]     Bill 

William  T.  Stone,  Assistant  Director. 


Exhibit  No.  819 

March  1,  1943. 
KM  from  ECC 

The  private  document  prepared  in  Washington  on  the  Strength  of  the  Muslim 
League  has  come  into  my  hands.  It  is  not  available  for  quotations,  nor  should 
any  reference  be  made  to  it.  I  thought,  however,  that  you  might  be  interested  in 
seeing  it,  so  I  have  had  copies  made.  I  don't  think  that  it  covers  the  ground, 
but  it  does  contain  one  or  two  interesting  points. 

164/No.  4/2/1/43 
Background  information 

THE  STRENGTH  OF  THE  MUSLIM  LEAGUE  IN  INDIA 

Mr.  Jinnah's  Position 

Mr.  Jinnah,  leader  of  the  Muslim  League  has  recently  been  carrying  on  a 
vigorous  political  drive. 

His  visit  to  the  Punjab  showed  the  extent  to  which  he  has  secured  contact 
with  the  Muslim  masses.  It  can  no  longer  be  argued  that  because  at  the  General 
Elections  it  was  not  able  to  secure  a  majority  of  the  Muslim  votes  in  any  Prov- 
ince, the  Muslim  League  has  no  following  among  the  masses.  Since  1937,  ac- 
cession to  the  Muslim  League's  and  Mr.  Jinnah's  strength  has  been  tremendous. 
Almost  every  bye-election  in  Muslim  constitu.encies  has  been  won  by  the  League 
and  the  number  of  Muslim  League  members  in  the  various  Pi'ovincial  Legisla- 
tures has  increased  manifold. 

The  number  of  Muslim  Ministers  who  now  owe  allegiance  to  the  League  is 
considerable.  The  latest  accession  has  come  from  Sind.  Sir  Ghulam  Hussain 
Hidayatullah,  who  succeeded  Mr.  Allah  Bux,  has  joined  the  League  and  his 
example  lias  since  been  followed  by  all  the  Sind  Muslim  Ministers.  Here  is  a 
survey  of  the  Muslim  League  position  in  the  Muslim  majority  Provinces : 

PUNJAB 

The  total  number  of  Muslim  members  in  the  Punjab  Legislative  Assembly  is 
89.  Only  one  out  of  these  was  elected  on  Muslim  League  ticket  in  the  General 
Elections  of  1937.  The  number  of  Muslims  elected  on  Unionist  tickets  was 
77.  All  Muslim  members  of  the  Unionist  Party  are,  however,  now  members  of 
the  Muslim  League  under  what  is  known  as  the  Sikander-Jinnah  Pact  of  1938. 
The  main  terras  of  the  Pact  were  that  the  Unionist  Party's  leader,  the  late  Sir 
Sikander  Hyat  Khan,  with  all  his  Muslim  followers  in  the  Assembly  should  join 
the  League  and  promise  support  to  it  in  all  Indian  constitutional  questions.  Mr. 
Jinnah  agreed  on  his  part  that  the  Muslim  members  of  the  Unionist  Party  would 
have  freedom  in  Provincial  matters  and  would  be  free  to  pursue  the  Unionist 
Party  program. 

The  political  complexion  of  the  Punjab  made  it  necessary  for  the  late  Sir  Si- 
kander Hyat  Khan,  the  Punjab  Prime  Minister,  not  to  form  a  Muslim  League 
Government  but  a  Unionist  Government  in  coalition  with  Hindu  and  Sikh  groups. 
In  all  Provincial  matters  he  pursued  a  more  or  less  independent  line  and,  though 
professing  allegiance  to  the  League  and  ]\Ir.  Jinnah,  his  policy  on  all-Indian 
questions  was  at  times  embarrassingly  independent  of  the  League.    On  the  other 


INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  5005 

hand.  Sir  Sikander  never  openly  flouted  any  League  mandate  and  he  resigned 
from  the  National  Defence  Council  when  required  by  the  League. 

The  Civil  and  Military  Gazette  of  Lahore  recently  wrote:  "What  is  con- 
sistently ignored  is  the  fact  that  Mr.  Jinnah  and  Sir  Sikander  are  mutually 
dependent ;  their  common  fundamental  purpose  must  over-ride  differences  aris- 
ing from  the  admitted  diversity  of  their  'spheres  of  influence.'  Whatever  their 
personal  predilections,  circumstances  must  force  the  Muslim  League  President 
and  the  Premier  of  the  Punjab  (so  long  as  he  is  a  Muslim)  to  run  in  double 
harness  until  India's  future  is  hammered  out;  and  that  Constitution  may  con- 
ceivably elfect  even  closer  cooperation  between  them." 

Mr.  Jinnah's  recent  Punjab  tour  monopolised  public  attention,  not  only  be- 
cause of  his  public  utterances  on  topical  questions,  but  also  because  of  the  object 
underlying  his  visit.  Recent  attempts  made  by  the  Punjab  Premier  to  settle  the 
communal  problem  in  that  part  of  the  country  on  a  Provincial  basis  irrespective 
of  an  all-Indian  agi'eement,  must  doubtless  have  caused  anxiety  to  Mr.  Jinnah. 
The  formula  favored  by  Sir  Sikander,  according  to  most  reports  conceded  self- 
determination  to  the  Hindu  and  Sikh  minorities  in  the  event  of  a  Muslim  plebi- 
scite deciding  in  favor  of  secession  in  a  post  war  settlement.  The  minorities 
may  form  a  sepaiate  State  or  join  the  main  Indian  Union.  Negotiations  went 
on  for  some  time  amongst  the  various  parties  but  ultimately  broke  down  or  were 
adiourned  because  it  was  said  that  he  Hindus  wished  to  consult  the  Mahasabha. 

Soon  after,  Mr.  Jinnah  arrived  in  the  Punjab  and  in  his  first  public  utterance 
made  a  pointed  reference  to  the  main  basis  of  the  scheme  without  naming  it  and 
condemned  the  move  to  give  the  right  of  self-determination  to  "Sub-National" 
groups  like  the  Hindus  and  the  Sikhs  in  the  Punjab  and  the  Muslims  in  the 
United  Provinces.  He  further  tried  to  win  over  the  Sikhs  to  his  conception  of 
Pakistan  by  reassuring  them  that  their  interests  would  be  safe  under  a  Muslim 
State.  This  failed,  but  Mr.  Jinnah  succeeded  in  scotching  the  "mischievious 
idea,  as  he  described  it,  of  a  purely  Provincial  settlement  of  the  communal 
problem  and  laid  down  that  "no  settlement  is  worth  the  paper  on  which  it  is 
written  either  in  the  Punjab  or  elsewhere,  so  far  as  Muslims  are  concerned,  ex- 
cept with  the  Muslim  League." 

Later,  Mr.  Jinnah  in  another  speech  said  that  he  had  not  referred  to  the 
Sikander  formula,  which  he  had  not  even  studied  in  his  earlier  speech.  This 
enabled  Sir  Sikander  Hyat  Khan  to  make  a  rapprochement  with  Mr.  Jinnah 
and  declare  himself  to  be  a  loyal  supporter  of  the  Muslim  League.  If  there  were 
any  differences  between  Sir  Sikander  and  Mr.  Jinnah,  it  was  explained,  they 
related  more  to  the  method  than  to  the  policy  and  program  of  the  Muslim 
League  and  were  intended  soley  to  further  its  aims  and  ideals. 

Attempts  have  lately  been  made  to  show  that  the  Sikander  formula  is  in 
accordance  with  the  League's  resolution  on  Pakistan  which  visualised  territorial 
adjustments.  The  formula  allowed  this  in  accordance  with  the  desires  of  the 
communities  concerned  and  to  that  extent  unintentionally  conceded  the  right  of 
self-determination  to  the  Hindues  and  the  Sikhs.  However,  the  problem  is  no 
more  a  live  issue.  Mr.  Jinnah  has  applied  the  damper  and  as  a  result  of  his  visit 
to  the  Punjab  he  is  back  again  in  the  position  he  occupied  prior  to  Sir  Sikander's 
attempt. 

The  death  of  Sir  Sikander  Hyat  Khan  on  December  26th  was  regarded  by  the 
New  York  Times  correspondent  (N.  T.  T.,  Dec.  29)  as  considerably  strengthen- 
ing Mr.  Jinnah's  position  by  removing  the  only  Muslim  figure  important  enough 
to  challenge  him. 

BENGAL 

Out  of  a  total  of  123  Muslim  members  in  the  Bengal  Assembly  and  30  in  the 
Legislative  Council,  43  and  11  members,  respectively,  follow  the  Muslim  League. 

Mr.  Fazlul  Haq.  the  Premier  of  Bengal,  who  had  been  a  member  of  the  Muslim 
League  since  1918,  resigned  in  1940  when  disciplinary  action  was  threatened 
against  him  for  accepting  membership  of  the  National  Defence  Council,  from 
which,  however,  he  resigned.  The  Muslim  League  expelled  him  on  Desember  11, 
1941,  for  having  formed  a  coalition  Ministry  in  Bengal  without  its  sanction. 

Some  unconfirmed  reports  have  appeared  in  the  press  that  Mr.  Fazlul  Haq 
had  met  Mr.  .Jinnah  recently  in  Delhi.  Another  report  said  that  Mr.  Haq  had 
rejoined  the  Muslim  League.  On  this  the  Bengal  Premier  made  the  following 
statement:  "The  news  published  by  Independent  India  (Mr.  M.  N.  Roy's  Delhi 
paper)  about  my  rejoining  the  Muslim  League  raises  an  irrelevant  issue.  I 
maintain  I  was  never  out  of  the  League,  I  am  still  in  the  League.     Therefore, 


5006 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 


the  question  of  my  rejoining  does  not  arise.  As  regards  Mr.  Jinnah,  I  have  never 
been  at  war  with  him,  nor  do  I  intend  to  be  so.  I  am  not  at  war  with  anybody. 
I  am  at  war  with  untruths." 

BIND 

Out  of  35  Muslim  members  in  the  Sind  Assembly,  only  13  were  elected  on 
Muslim  League  ticket.  With  the  return  of  Sir  Ghulam  Hussain  Hidayatullah  as 
Premier  of  the  Province  in  October  last,  a  number  of  M.  L.  A.'s  have  joined  the 
League.  Sir  Ghulam  and  all  his  Muslim  Ministers  are  now  members  of  the 
League,  and  the  strength  of  the  League  party  is  now  26  out  of  35. 

Sir  Ghulam  resigned  from  the  Muslim  League  when  Mr.  Allah  Bux  took  him 
into  his  Cabinet  two  years  ago.  His  rejoining  the  League  has  been  prompted 
by  a  desire  to  strengthen  the  Ministry  that  he  formed  on  Mr,  AUah  Bus's 
dismissal. 

ASSAM 

Out  of  34  Muslim  members  in  the  Assam  Assembly,  originally  only  3  were 
elected  on  Muslim  League  ticket.  But,  a  few  months  after  the  General  Elections 
30  members  signed  on  as  a  Muslim  League  Party.  The  Premier,  Sir  Mohammad 
Saadullah  Khan,  has  been  strictly  following  Muslim  League  discipline.  He  re- 
signed from  the  National  Defence  Council  when  required  by  the  League  to  do 
so.  On  recently  assuming  office  he  claimed  that  his  Cabinet  was  representative 
of  Assam's  people.  No  mention  was  made  of  the  party  affiliations  of  the  Muslim 
members  of  his  Cabinet.  In  all  his  public  utterances  since  assuming  office,  he 
has  refrained  from  mentioning  the  Muslim  League. 

THE  NOBTH-WEST  FKONTIEE  PROVINCE 

Out  of  38  members  in  the  N.-W.F.  Province  Legislative  Assembly,  only  12 
belong  to  the  League  Party.  The  only  sign  of  a  weakening  of  the  Congress 
Party  in  the  Province  has  been  the  resignation  of  Arbab  Alidul  Ghafoor  Khan, 
M.  L.  A.,  ex-Parliamentary  Secretary,  from  the  Congress  Party  and  the  Red  Shirts, 
but  he  did  not  join  the  Muslim  League.  He  formed  a  new  organisation  called 
the  Pashtoon  Jirga.  It  aims  at  an  independent  Pathan  State,  run  in  accordance 
with  the  laws  of  the  Shariat.  In  a  statement,  Arbab  Abdul  Ghafoor  Khan  said 
that  an  alliance  with  the  Congress  was  harmful  as  the  Pathans  were  gradually 
losing  their  identity  and  drifting  away  from  religion. 


Total   Muslim 
Members  of  leg- 
islatures 

Total  Muslim 
League  members 

Punjab      

89 

U23 

2  30 

35 

34 

78 

Bengal 

'43 

Sind                                  .                              -. 

26 

Assam  ....      .  . .  .. 

30 

North  West                                                       

Frontier  Province      ..  .  .         .         .  .  

38 

12 

Totals 

349 

211 

Percent 

CO.  45 

'  Lower  House. 
« Upper  House. 

IMPORTANT  NOTE. — It  is  important  to  remember  in  using  the  above  figures 
that  they  show  the  strength  of  the  Muslim  League  among  the  Muslim  members 
of  the  Legislatures  of  Muslim  majority  provinces ;  they  do  not  show  Muslim 
League  strength  in  Hindu  majority  provinces  (these  figures  will  be  released  later 
when  available). 
JH :  MC. 


INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  5007 

Exhibit  No.  820 

(Pencilled  note)     Same  letter  to  Bisson,  Moser,  Shoemaker,  Bloch,  Orchard, 
Kemer,  Fahs. 

Dr.  Hugh  Borton, 

Department  of  State,  Washington,  D.  C. 
Dear  Hugh  :  Under  separate  cover  I  am  sending  you  a  copy  of  "Korean  Indus- 
try and  Transport"  by  Grajdanzev.    We  would  appreciate  having  your  comments 
on  this. 

Sincerely  yours, 

W.  L.  Holland. 


Exhibit  No.  821 

(Handwritten  letter.) 

Grajdanzev,  Sunday,  Jan.  17,  1943. 

Dear  Mr.  Holland:  Since  Tuesday  I  am  working  in  the  B.  of  E.  W.  on 
Japanese  materials  and  will  finish  work  on  Tuesday,  5 :  30  p.  m.,  so  that  I  shall 
be  back  in  the  office  Wednesday  morning.  I  believe  that  my  stay  here  is  useful, 
because  I  think  I  shall  be  able  to  prepare  3  articles — 

(1)  Japan  after  December  7,  political 

(2)  Japan  after  December  7,  economic 

(3)  Japanese  policy  in  the  occupied  areas. 

Of  course,  the  picture  is  far  from  complete,  but  I  believe  that  those  who  do 
not  have  access  to  special  sources  of  information  will  be  glad  to  read  my  story. 
Whether  you  will  approve  all  these  three  articles  and  whether  to  publish  them 
in  the  F.  E.  fe.  or  elsewhere — it  will  be,  of  course,  up  to  you.  I  shall  prepare 
the  articles  in  the  shortest  possible  time,  let  us  say — the  first  one  may  be  ready 
in  one  week  after  my  return. 
Yours  sincerely, 

[s]     A.  Grajdanzev. 

P.  S.     But  I  may  stay  here  even  Wednesday,  if  not  all  will  be  finished. 


(Handwritten  letter) 

Exhibit  No.  822 

A.  Grajdanzev, 

July  22,  1942. 
To  the  Secretary  of  Research, 
I.  P.  R., 
W.  L.  Holland 

Dear  IMr.  Holland  :  I  read  the  letter  of  Mr.  Norman's  and  the  outline  of  the 
research  project  on  industrialization  of  the  Soviet  Asia,  prepared  by  A.  Yugon. 

I  have  to  make  the  following  comments  on  this  project. 

(1)  I  do  not  know  whether  it  is  good  for  the  Institute  to  finance  the  work  of  a 
person  who  is  a  noted  political  figure,  so  long  as  the  Institute  has  the  Soviet 
Union  council  as  a  member  and  so  long  as  the  Soviet  Union  government  is  not 
over  thrown  by  German  and  Japanese  arms. 

As  you  may  see  from  the  curriculum  Vital  he  was  the  editor  and  head  of  the 
ec.  department  of  Sotsialistichemyi  vestnik  since  1923 — a  magazine  of  Russian 
Men'sheviki,  published  abroad,  and  his  part,  so  far  as  I  know,  was  larger  than 
that.  The  Soviet  representatives  may  not  protest  now,  when  they  are  hard 
pressed  ;  but  they  may  have  a  certain  feeling  about  that. 

If  the  Institute  finds  that  such  work  is  a  necessity,  why  not  entrust  it  to  such 
a  person  as,  say,  Mandel  of  the  A.  R.  I.,  who  is  able,  acquainted  with  Russian 
literature  and  language,  and,  probably,  would  be  acceptable  for  the  Soviet  and 
American  circles? 

(2)1  have  no  honor  of  being  acquainted  with  Mr.  Yugon ;  but  I  read  his  books 
and  I  think  that  all  of  them  are  superficial,  including  his  last  one,  Russia's  Eco- 
nomic Front  for  AVar  and  Peace.  Of  course,  this  is  my  personal  opinion  and 
it  is  worth  just  so  much. 

(3)  I  was  of  the  opinion  that  we  have  no  materials  and  studies  enough  for 
a  serious  book  on  the  Soviet  Asiatic  regions.  I  am  of  the  same  opinion  now. 
But  in  so  far  as  many  stupid  and  empty  books  on  this  or  other  regions  are 


5008  INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 

written  (an  example,  "Russia  and  Japan,"  by  Maurice  Hindus )^  I  think  a  fairly 
tolerable  booli  of  that  type  can  be  written  and  be  reasonably  informative. 

(4)  The  sources  presented  by  Mr.  Yugon  are  not  new  to  those  who  study 
Russia ;  it  is  clear  that  they  do  not  go  much  beyond  1937  or  even  1936,  though  the 
chief  ec.  development  took  place  in  Siberia  after  that  date. 

(5)  Some  of  the  points  of  the  outline  are  bordering  on  nonsense. 

"(a)  Superindustrialization  as  the  fundamental  idea  of  the  Five-year 
plan."  Superindustrialization  was  not  the  fundamental  idea  of  any  of  the 
Five-year  plans. 

B  4,  c — "Forest  industries  of  Buryat-Mongolia."  That  is  the  only  place 
in  outline  on  Western  and  Eastern  Siberia  where  forest  industries  are  men- 
tioned, though  it  is  not  in  Buryat-Mongolia  primarily  (which  contains  so 
much  of  the  steppe)  that  forest  industry  is  developed  in  Siberia. 

B  5,  f — "Hunting  of  fur-bearing  animals"  under  the  general  title  the  indus- 
trialization of  Soviet  Asia ! 

(6)  Distortion  and  mutilations  of  Russian  words  go  beyond  the  permissible 
misprints.  Could  not  Mr.  Yugon  spend  a  few  minutes  in  going  over  these  names 
and  giving  us  something  actual  instead  of  mythical  "Sahalimsk"  and  many  other 
places  like  that? 

(7)  In  the  sources  I  see  many  books  included  presumably  for  the  increase  of 
the  number  of  titles. 

What  relation  can  have  "Stenographic  Report  of  the  Shakhtinskyi  trial,  1935"? 
The  trial  was  related  to  Don.  Cas.  production,  and  not  to  Siberia.  Why  then 
are  omitted  recent  trials? 

What  is  there  useful  for  this  book  in  Tugan-Bavanovsky,  The  Russian  Factory, 
where  there  is  nothing  about  Siberia, 

The  hook  of  Kabo  about  Tannu-Tuva  republic?  , 

Miller's  History  of  Siberia,  which  ends,  as  far  as  I  remember,  in  the  seventeenth 
or  eighteenth  century? 

Shulpin — Sea  hunting? 

Sergeyer,  The  Soviet  Pacific  Islands? 

Gapanovich,  Russia  in  Northeast  Asia? 

Burthold,  Turkestan  Down  to  the  Mongol  Invasion,  bibliography ! ! ! 
and  other  not  less  striking  examples. 

The  decision  is,  of  course,  up  to  you.    I  only  point  out  to  certain  things  which 
deserve  your  attention. 
Yours  sincerely, 

[s]     A.  Geajdanzbv. 


ExHiBrr  No.  823 
Free  Distribution  List  for  "Korean  Industry  and  Transport"  by  AJG 

For  Comment  (with  the  Compliments  of  WLH)  : 

Hugb  Borton,  Department  of  State,  Washington,  D.  C. 

T.  a.  Bisson,  353  Willard  Avenue,  Chevy  Chase,  Maryland 

Dr.  C.  K.  Moser,  Department  of  Commerce,  Washington,  D.  C.  (Far  Eastern 
Section) 

James  Shoemaker,  Board  of  Economic  Warfare.  Washington,  D.  C. 

Kurt  Bloch.  Fortune  Magazine,  Time  and  Life  Bldg.,  Rockefeller  Center,  N.  Y. 

Mrs.  Dorothy  Orchard,  Board  of  Economic  Warfare,  Walshington,  D.  C. 

Carl  Remer,  Office  of  Strategic  Services,  Library  of  Congress  Annex,  Wash- 
ington 

Charles  B.  Fahs,  Office  of  Strategic  Services,  Library  of  Congress  Annex, 
Washington 
With  the  Compliments  of  WLH : 

G.  Nye  Steiger,  Simmons  College,  Boston,  Mass. 

George  Taylor,  Room  3313,  Social  Security  Bldg.,  4th  &  Independence  Ave., 
Washington 

Owen  Lattimore,  Office  of  War  Information,  111  Sutter  Street,  San  Fran- 
cisco, Calif. 

American  Council  (3  copies) 

Margaret  Cleeve,  Chatham  House,  10  St.  James's  Square,  London,  S.  W.  1, 
England  (2  copies) 

W.  D.  Berrie,  Australian  Institute  of  International  Affairs,  369  George  Street, 
Sydney 


INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  5009 

F.  L(.  W.  Wood,  Victoria  University  College,  Wellington,  W.  1,  New  Zealand 
Carnegie  Endowment  for  International  Peace,  700  Jackson  Place,  Washing- 
ton, D.  C. 

Kilsoo  Haan 

Food  Research  Institute,  Stanford  University,  California 

Ben  Dorfman,  Tariff  Commission,  Washington,  D.  C. 

Mrs.  Vera  M.  Dean,  Foreign  Policy  Association,  22  East  38th  Street,  New 

York 
Col.  M.  W.  Pettigrew,  Chief,  Far  Eastern  Unit,  Military  Intelligence  Service, 

War  Department,  Washington 
J.  B.  Condliffe,  Carnegie  Endowment,  405  West  117th  Street,  New  York 
League  of  Nations  Secretariat,  Institute  for  Advanced  Study,  Princeton,  N.  J. 
International  Labor  Office,  3480  University  Street,  Montreal,  Canada 

G.  E.  Voitinsky,  Institute  of  World  Economics  &  Politics,  Academy  of  Science, 
Moscow,  U.  S.  S.  R. 

Sir  George  Sansom,  British  Embassy,  Washington 

Douglas  MacLennan,  Canadian  Institute  for  International  Affairs,  230  Bloor 

St.,  West  Toronto,  Canada 
Dr.  Stanley  K.  Hornbeck,  Department  of  State,  Washington,  D.  C. 
Shannon  McCune,  BEW,  2501  Q  Street  NW.,  Washington,  D.  C. 


ExHiBrr  No.  824 


PREFACE 


This  preliminary  report  is  part  of  a  lai-ger  study  on  Modern  Korea  to  be 
published  later  by  the  International  Secretariat  of  the  IPR.  Other  sections  of 
this  book  were  submitted  as  documents  for  the  Mont  Tremblant  Conference  of 
the  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations  in  December  1942,  one  entitled  "Memorandum 
on  Korea's  Agriculture  and  Resources"  and  the  other  "Memorandum  on  Politics 
and  Government  in  Korea." 

The  author  and  the  IPR  Secretariat  will  welcome  readers'  comments  and 
suggestions  for  improvements  to  be  made  in  the  final  version  of  the  book.  The 
author  alone  is  responsible  for  statements  of  fact  or  opinion  expressed  in  this 
report. 

For  convenience  in  following  the  author's  references  herein  to  other  chapters 
in  the  hook,  some  of  which  are  included  in  the  above-mentioned  memoranda 
and  some  are  still  only  in  manuscript,  the  following  table  of  contents  of  the  whole 
book  may  be  useful. 

I.  Introduction  (partly  included  in  Agriculture  and  Resources) 
II.  General  Information  (partly  included  herein) 

III.  Historical    Sketch 

IV.  Population  (included  in  AgTiculture  and  Resources) 
V.  Agriculture  (included  in  Agriculture  and  Resources) 

VI.  Forestry  and  Fishing  (included  in  Agriculture  and  Resources) 

VII.  Power  and  Mineral  Resources   (included  in  Agriculture  and  Resources) 
VIII.  Industry   (included  herein) 

IX.  Communications  and  Transport  (included  herein) 
X.  Money  and  Banking 

XI.  Public   Finance 
XII.  External  Trade 

XIII.  Government  (included  in  Politics  and  Government) 

XIV.  Courts,  Prisons,  and  Police 
XV.  Health,  Education,  and  Religion 

XVI.  Problems  of  Korean  Independence  (Included  in  Politics  and  Government) 
Statistical  Appendix  Bibliography 

W.  L.  Holland, 
Research  Secretary. 
New  York,  April  1943 


5010  INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 

Exhibit  No.  825 

May  19,  1943. 
Miss  Hilda  Austern, 

Assistant  Treasurer's  Office. 
Dear  Hilda:  This  will  be  .vour  authority  to  remit  the  sum  of  $183  by  cable 
through  the  bank  of  China  to  Mr.  Guenther  Stein  in  Chungking  (c/o  Press 
Hostel).  This  is  an  advance  payment  for  reports  he  is  to  send  by  radio  and  mail 
on  current  developments  in  Free  China.  This  should  be  charged  under  the  above 
title  to  reserve  fund  in  the  current  International  Research  Budget. 
Sincerely  yours, 

W.  L.  Holland. 


Exhibit  No.  826 

July  20,  1943. 
Mr.  Owen  Lattimore, 

Office  of  War  Information, 

111  Sutter  Street,  New  York  City. 

Dear  Owen  :  The  enclosed  extract  from  my  letter  to  Norine  about  his  book 
on  Sinkiang  is  self-explanatory.  I  would  greatly  appreciate  it  if  you  would  do 
what  you  can  to  interest  the  University  of  California  Press  in  publishing  it  for  us. 

I  was  sorry  that  you  could  not  find  time  to  do  the  review  of  the  Russian  book, 
but  I  realize  that  it  is  a  considerable  chore.  We  will  definitely  count  on  it  for 
our  December  issue,  and  I  suggest  that  you  make  it  into  a  review  article  in 
essay  form.  I  hope  you  can  complete  the  job  by  the  middle  of  September  at 
the  latest. 

What  do  you  think  about  Bisson's  article  on  China  in  the  current  Far  Eastern 
Survey?  As  you  can  imagine,  it  has  caused  a  considerable  storm  among  some  of 
the  official  Chinese  here.  While  I  disagree  with  some  of  Bisson's  terminology 
I  think  the  article  is  fundamentally  sound  and  says  a  lot  of  things  that  many 
people  feel  ought  to  have  been  said  before  this.  I  suspect  it  would  have  been 
better  tactics  to  emphasize  the  possibilities  of  reform  within  the  Kuomintang 
and  under  the  leadership  of  the  Generalissimo  and  the  younger  members  of  the 
party  rather  than  to  play  up  the  contrast  with  the  Communist  areas.  C.  L.  Hsia 
is  of  course  very  angry  and  says  it  will  seriously  harm  the  IPR  both  here  and  in 
China.  We  have  offered  them  an  opportunity  to  reply  or  submit  another  article, 
but  I  am  not  sure  whether  they  will  accept. 

Carter  and  I  have  been  told  to  be  ready  to  leave  around  the  end  of  this  month, 
although  there  is  still  no  assurance  that  we  will  get  our  priorities.  If  you  are 
going  to  be  in  Washington  about  that  time,  please  be  sure  to  let  us  know,  as  we 
would  both  very  much  like  to  get  your  advice  on  whom  to  see  and  how  generally 
to  behave  in  China. 

All  the  best. 

Sincerely  yours, 

W.  L.  Holland. 


Exhibit  No.  827 

February  21,  1944. 
Mrs.  Wilma  Fatrbank, 

Division  of  Cultural  Relations, 

Department  of  State,  Washington,  D.  C. 

De/h  Wilma:  Under  separate  cover  and  at  John's  request,  I  am  sending  you 
a  package  of  Chinese  manuscripts  which  were  erroneously  sent  here  with  some 
other  materia!  which  John  brought  back  from  China.  They  seem  to  have  been 
sent  by  Lowdermilk  for  somebody  in  the  library  of  Congress.  I  told  John 
about  them  on  Friday  and  he  asked  me  to  return  them  to  you. 

\^'ith  reference  to  your  note  to  Art  Bisson  with  reference  to  Chien's  article 
on  local  government  in  China,  you  have  probably  noticed  that  it  was  published 
in  the  December  1943  issue  of  Pacific  Affairs.  At  Chien's  instructions,  I  have 
paid  the  fee  to  Professor  Pei  in  this  country  together  with  an  additional  $200 
representing  part  payment  for  the  larger  study  of  China's  Government  and 
Politics  which  Chien  is  now  doing  for  us.  I  am  anxious  to  find  some  way  of 
remitting  another  $400  to  him  during  the  next  few  months.     I  would  greatly 


INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  5011 

appreciate  it  if  you  could  suggest  some  way  of  doing  this.  I  have  already  sent 
a  message  to  Bob  Darnett  requesting  his  help,  but  I  doubt  if  he  can  manage  more 
than  about  $200  for  the  present.  Incidentally,  I  should  greatly  appreciate  if  it 
you  could  let  me  know  privately,  perhaps  through  Rose  Yardumian  at  our  Wash- 
ington office,  when  John  Da  vies  is  likely  to  be  going  back.  I  have  one  or  two 
pei-sonal  messages  which  I  should  like  him  to  take. 
Best  wishes. 


Sincerely  yours, 


W.  L.  Holland. 


Exhibit  No.  828 

KKA 

December  7,  1943. 

Dr.  William  T.  Holland, 

Rcscarcli  Director  of  the  International  Council  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations, 
1  East  5I,t1i  Street,  Neiv  York,  N.  Y. 
Dear  Dr.  Holland  :  The  material  which  you  were  so  kind  as  to  loan  to  this 
office  has  been  most  helpful.     Thank  you  for  putting  it  at  our  disposal  for  the 
last  week. 

The  address  by  Chou  En  Lai  at  Yenan,  the  disposition  of  Japanese  and  puppet 
troops  in  China,  and  the  Report  from  Yenan  on  Communist  and  Kuomintang 
effiti-t  in  the  War  are  being  returned  at  this  time.  The  "Situation  in  China" 
and  An  Answer  to  Chinese  Comments,  by  V.  Rogev  are  being  used  at  the  present 
time.     They  will  be  returned  to  you  this  week  if  that  is  agreeable  to  you. 

Thank  you  again  for  allowing  this  office  to  make  use  of  the  timely  and  valuable 
reports  listed  above. 

[s]     E  L  Barlow, 

Edward  L.  Barlow, 
Lt.  Colonel,  O.  S.  C,  Chief,  NY  Office,  MID. 


Exhibit  No.  829 

8th  Floor 

1270  Sixth  Avenue 

New  York,  N.  Y. 

Telephone:  Circle  6-4250 

December  6,  1943. 
In  reply  refer  to :  KKA  :sms 

Dr.  William  T.  Holland, 

Research  Director,  International  Council,  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations, 
1  East  5-'ith  Street,  Fourth  Floor,  New  York,  N.  Y. 

Dear  Mk.  Holland:  The  enclosed  report  on  "The  Situation  in  China,"  by  Mr. 
V.  Rogev,  has  aided  the  work  of  this  office.  Thank  you  for  your  cooperation  in 
making  this  report  available. 

"The  Situation  in  China"  and  "An  Answer  to  Chinese  Criticisms",  by  Mr.  V. 
Rogev,  are  being  returned  at  this  time. 

[s]     E.  L.  Barlow, 

Edward  L.  Barlow, 
Lt.  Col,  G.  8.  C,  Chief,  N.  Y.  Office,  MID. 
Enclosures :  2  Reports 


5012  INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 

Exhibit  No.  830 

8th  Floor 

1270  Sixth  Avenue 

New  York,  N.  Y. 
Telephone:  Circle  6-4250 
In  reply  refer  to :  AAL :  med  December  1,  1943. 

Dr.  William  T.  Holland, 

Research  Director  of  the  International  Council,  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations, 
1  East  5/f  Street,  New  York,  N.  T. 
Dear  Mr.  Holland  :  This  is  to  acknowledge  receipt  of  material,  which  you 
turned  over  to  Miss  Francis  of  this  office,  as  follows : 

1.  "Situation  in  China."    By  V.  Rogev.     (Translation  from  the  Russian  journal 
War  and  the  Working  Class.) 

2.  Answer  to  Chinese  Comments.    By  V.  Rogev.    (Translation  from  the  Russian 
journal  War  and  the  Working  Class,  September  1943.) 

3.  Address  by  Chou  En  Lai  at  Yenan. 

4.  Disposition  of  Japanese  and  puppet  troops  in  China.     (Original  with  some 
Chinese  characters  and  partial  carbon  copy  without  Chinese  characters.) 

5.  Report  from  Yenan  on  Communist  and  Kuomiutang  effort  in  the  war. 
This  material  will  be  returned  to  you  at  the  end  of  this  week. 

Thank  you  for  your  assistance  in  making  these  documents  available  to  this 

office. 

[s]     E.  L.  Barlow,  , 

Edward  L.  Barlow, 
Lt.  Colonel,  G.  8.  C,  Chief,  N.  Y.  Office,  MID. 


Exhibit  No.  831 

8th  Floor 

New  York,  N.  Y. 

1270  Sixth  Avenue 
In  Reply  Telephone  :  Circle  6-4250 


Refer  To 


December  3,  1943. 


Mr.  William  Holland, 

1  East  54th  Street,  New  York  City,  N.  Y. 

Dear  Mr.  Holland  :  We  are  returning  herewith  the  following  material  which 
you  so  kindly  loaned  to  this  office : 

The  Progress  of  Indian  Industries  during  the  War,  by  D.  N.  Ghose,  No.  10295. 

2  Issues  of  the  People's  War,  newspaper  of  Indian  Communist  Party,  No.  10295. 

2  Issues   of  The   Student,   journal   of   the   All   India    Students'    Federation, 

No.  10295. 

2  Pamphlets  from  Oxford  Pamphlets  on  Indian  Affairs,  series.  No.  10295. 

4  Pamphlets,  publ.  by  Peoples  Publishing  House,  Bombay,  No.  10295. 

5  Pamphlets,  publ.  by  the  New  Inflia  Planning  Groups,  No.  10295. 

Your  kind  cooperation  and  interest  in  making  this  available  is  greatly  appre- 
ciated. 

Sincerely  yours, 

/s/    E.  L.  Barlow, 

Edward  L.  Barlow, 

Lt.  Colonel,  G.  S.  C. 

By  hand 
1(5  items 
edm 


INSTITUTE   OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  5013 

Exhibit  No.  832 

Makch  2, 1944. 

Dr.  Laughlin  Currie, 

The  White  House,  Washington,  D.  C. 

Dear  Dr.  Currie  :  This  is  just  to  let  you  know  that  I  have  filed  my  application 
for  final  citizenship  papers.  The  application  is  dated  March  1  and  the  Serial 
Number  of  my  first  papers  (Declaration  of  Intention)  is  D22-108175.  The  appli- 
cation has  been  filed  at  the  Immigration  and  Naturalization  Service,  70  Columbus 
Avenue,  Neve  York  23. 

Admiral  Yarnell  has  written  my  draft  board  supporting  Carter's  application 
for  my  deferment  on  occupational  grounds.  Apparently  President  Wilbur,  of 
Stanford,  and  President  Sproul,  of  the  University  of  California,  have  also  written 
in  similar  vein.  I  have  told  Carter,  however,  that  even  if  he  gets  deferment  for 
me  I  shall  want  to  take  a  Government  job  which  is  more  directly  connected  with 
the  war,  and  that  I  shall  stay  on  only  for  three  or  four  months  until  Carter  can 
find  a  successor  to  me. 

At  the  moment  the  most  promising  openings  in  Washington  seem  to  be  a  Navy 
job  in  the  Bureau  of  Occupied  Areas,  where  there  seems  to  be  some  hope  of  my 
getting  a  Commission,  or  a  job  in  O.  S.  S.  The  latter  would  probably  be  more  to 
my  taste,  as  it  would  be  concerned  with  the  India-China-Burma  theater.  How- 
ever, it  is  almost  impossible  to  get  a  deferment  for  a  civilian  job  in  O.  S.  S.,  and 
it  is  therefore  a  question  of  whether  O.  S.  S.  can  also  get  a  Navy  commission  for 
me,  since  Army  commissions  are  now  practically  unobtainable. 

I  should  be  most  grateful  if  you  cnn  do  anything  to  speed  up  my  naturalization, 
I  apologize  for  inflicting  this  chore  on  you  when  you  are  so  busy,  but  I  don't 
know  anyone  else  who  would  be  in  a  position  to  help  me  in  this  way. 

Best  wishes. 
Yours, 

W.  L.  Holland. 


Exhibit  No.  883 

Department  of  State, 
Washington,  March  11, 194^. 
Informal 

Mr.  William  Holland, 

Institute  of  Pacific  Relations, 

1  East  54  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y. 
Dear  Mr.  Holland  :  With  reference  to  your  letter  of  February  21,  1944,  I  am 
glad  to  hear  that  Chien's  article  on  Local  Government  in  China  was  published 
in  the  December  1943  issue  of  Pacific  AlTairs.  For  my  records,  and  because  the 
manuscript  was  transmitted  through  the  Department,  would  you  let  me  know 
what  the  fee  on  this  was  and  to  whom  it  was  paid  [penciled:  Yes  $100.]  (Chou, 
Pei-yuan?)  Are  there  reprints  of  this  article  for  Chien?  We  might  be  able  to 
send  two  or  three  to  him  by  pouch.  In  the  case  of  other  manuscripts  placed 
here  through  our  office  we  have  also  offered  to  distribute  reprints  to  a  list  of 
persons  in  this  country  to  be  designated  by  the  author. 

I  trust  that  Rose  gave  you  my  message  regarding  John  Davies'  departure  and 
the  transmission  of  funds. 
Sincerely  yours,   • 

Wilma  Fairbank. 
(Mrs.)  Wilma  Fairbank. 


Exhibit  No.  834 

Department  of  State, 
Washington,  February  18, 1944- 
Informal 
Mr.  T.  A.  Bisson. 

American  Council, 

Institute  of  Pacific  Relations, 

129  East  Fifty-second  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y. 
Dear  Art:    On  October  19,  1943  I  wrote  to  you  about  T.  S.  Chien's  article 
Wartime  Local  Government  in  China  which  Harriet  had  told  me  would  probably 
appear  in  the  December  issue  of  Pacific  Affairs. 


5014  INSTITUTE   OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 

Can  you  tell  me  whether  the  article  has  appeared,  If  there  is  any  honorarium, 
and  if  tliere  will  be  any  reprints  for  him? 
With  best  regards. 


Sincerely  yours. 


/s/  Wilmn  F. 
(Mrs.)   WiLMA  Fairbank. 


Exhibit  No.  835 

1  East  54  Stbeet,  March  20,  19U. 
Mrs.  Welma  Fairbank, 

Division  of  Cultural  Relations 

Department  of  State,  Washington,  D.  C. 
Dear  Wii.ma  :  With  reference  to  your  l«4ter  of  March  11,  I  confirm  the  fact 
that  we  paid  Professor  Chien  $100  for  his  article  on  Local  Goveinment  in  China. 
Ihis  was  in  accordance  with  the  arrangement  I  had  made  with  him  when  I  re- 
quested the  article  several  months  earlier.  On  Chien's  request,  the  payment  was 
made  to  Professor  Chou  in  this  country.  We  are  not  supplying  reprints  of 
articles,  but  I  am  sending  you  two  copies  of  the  majiazine  in  the  hope  tlmt  you 
can  either  send  these  complete  to  Chien  or  tear  out  the  pages  containing  his 
article. 

Incidentally,  if  you  ever  have  promising  articles  on  China's  social,  political,  or 
economic  pioblems,  please  let  me  know  as  we  may  occasionally  be  able  to  use 
them  in  Pacific  Affairs.  As  a  general  rule,  we  don't  pay  for  articles  and  the 
payment  to  Cliien  was  regarded  as  an  advance  payment  on  the  larger  book  he  is 
doing  for  us.  However,  we  sometimes  are  able  to  make  modest  payments  in 
special  cases. 

Sincerely  yours, 

W.  L.  Holland. 


Exhibit  No.  836 

March  22,  1944. 
Professor  Schuyler  Wallace 
Coltimbin   Universiti/, 

JfSl  West  in  Street,  New  York  27,  N.  Y. 

Dear  Schuyler  :  As  you  may  know,  Andrew  J.  Grajdanzev,  one  of  our  Research 
Associates  and  our  principal  expei't  in  the  Japanese  language,  is  temporarily  on 
leave  getting  some  teaching  experience  at  Oregon  State  College.  We  hope  to 
get  him  back  heie  in  the  summer,  but  Carter  and  I  have  promised  to  find  a  part- 
time  academic  post  for  him  in  or  near  New  York.  Because  of  your  possible  need 
for  people  who  are  pretty  well-informed  on  Japanese  laniiuape  sources  and  on  the 
economic  and  social  problems  of  Japan,  Ivorea  and  Formosa,  I  wonder  whether 
there  is  any  likelihood  of  your  using  him  on  a  part-time  basis  at  the  Navy  School. 

As  you  may  know  from  Phil  Jessup  and  Nat  Pt  ffer,  Giajdanzev  is  apt  to  be 
excessively  polemical.  Moreover,  his  spoken  English,  though  fluent  and  pungent, 
is  not  always  elegant  or  idiomatic.  I  am  certain,  however,  that  bis  expeiience 
in  teaching  will  have  greatly  diminished  these  two  faults.  He  would  be  particu- 
larly useful  in  lectures  to  seminars  on  rather  specific  and  even  technical  problems 
relating  to  industry,  trade,  transport,  shipping,  banking  and  agriculture  in  the 
Japanese  empire.  He  is  perhaps  more  intimately  acquainted  than  any  other 
research  worker  outside  Washington  with  the  Ja]  auese  materials  on  these  topics. 
We  shall  shortly  be  publishing  his  big  book  on  Modern  Korea  and  be  is  now  work- 
ing on  a  detailed  study  of  Japanese  Agriculture.  As  you  probably  know,  he  took 
his  Ph.  I),  in  E onomics  at  Columbia  and  the  K'rea  book  was  submitted  as  the 
dissertation.  I'effer  was  rightly  ciitical  of  the  lantiuage  and  aggressive  style  of 
much  of  it,  but  we  are  editing  it  pretty  severely  for  publication. 

Gra.idanzev  will  probably  come  back  in  June  and  I  imagine  he  would  be  pre- 
paivd  to  do  some  teaching  during  the  summer  if  necessary.  He  is  an  Assistant 
Professor  at  the  moment.     Let  me  know  if  you  see  any  prospect  of  using  him. 

As  you  may  have  heard,  my  draft  boa  id  relented  and  gave  me  a  six-month 
deierment,  only  till  about  the  end  of  .August.     I  may  take  a  part-time  Government 
job  before  that  time  but  my  main  job  will  still  be  here. 
Sincerely  yours, 

W.  L.  Holland. 


INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  5015 

Exhibit  No,  837 

Columbia  Univeksity  in  the  City  of  New  York, 
Naval  School  of  Military  Government  and  Administration, 

March  23,  WU- 

Mr.  William  L.  Holland, 

Institute  of  Pacific  Relations, 

1  East  54th  Street,  'New  York,  New  York. 

Dear  Bill:  Could  I  hold  off  giving  you  a  definite  answer  on  Grajdanzev  for 
another  week  or  two  insofar  as  summer  work  is  concerned.  I  am  quite  sure  that 
we  will  be  very  much  interested  in  making  use  of  him  on  a  part-time  basis  in 
the  fall. 

I  am  deliffhted  indeed  that  your  draft  board  has  given  you  a  six  months' 
deferment  and  definitely  hope  that  they  will  renew  it  at  a  later  period.  It  seems 
uttei-ly  ridiculous  to  force  you  into  uniform  when  you  are  doing  more  effective 
work  where  you  are. 

Cordially  yours, 

SCHUYLES. 

ECC  (handwritten)  Encouraging,  ECC. 


Exhibit  No.  838 

Columbia  University  in  the  City  of  New  York, 

April  IJf,  19U' 
Mr.  William  Holland, 

Institute  of  Pacific  Relations, 

1  East  5!,tli  Street,  New  York  22,  Neic  York. 
Dear  Bill  :  We  are  scheduling  your  lectures  for  Tuesday  mornings  beginning 
with  May  2nd  as  you  suggest. 

1  am  leaving  in  about  an  hour  for  a  two  weeks'  holiday  and  have  not  yet  begun 
to  \xnrk  on  tie  summer  schedule.  The  moi-e  I  think  about  it,  I  doubt  very  much 
whether  we  will  want  to  have  Mr.  Grajdanzev  do  any  lecturing  during  the 
suinmer.  We  niis/lit  conceivably  use  hiui  as  a  consultant  in  connection  with  some 
of  the  projects  if  he  can  be  cleared  by  the  Office  of  Naval  Intelligence.  I  will 
leave  a  note  asking  .Jessup  to  start  the  machinery  going  to  get  such  clearance  if 
Mr.  Grajdanzev  is  willing  to  have  the  investigation  started  on  the  basis  of  a 
possibility,  not  a  certainty. 
Cordially  yours,    . 

Schuyler. 

Schuyler  C.  Wallace. 


Exhibit  No.  839 

April  12,  1944. 
Prof.  SCHUYI.ER  C.  Wallace, 
Coliimhin  JJiiivcrsit}/, 

JiSl  West  in  Street,  New  York  27,  N.  Y. 

Dear  Schuyler:  Thanks  for  your  note  of  April  8.    If  it's  not  inconvenient,  I 
should  prefer  Tuesday  morning  presumably  beginning  May  2. 

Is  there  any  likelihood  of  your  beinii  able  to  reach  and  decision  in  the  near 
future  about  employing  Andrew  Gi'ajdnn/.ev?     May  we  assume  that   you  will 
certainly  not  require  his  services  for  the  Summer  Session?    I  ask  simply  because 
he  has  asked  us  to  arrange  some  lectures  before  he  returns  from  Oregon. 
Sincerely  yours, 

W.  L.  Holland. 


5016  INSTITUTE   OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 

Exhibit  No.  840 

Columbia  University  in  the  Citt  of  New  Yokk, 
Naval  School  of  Military  Government  and  Administration, 

New  York  27,  N.  Y.,  April  8,  19U. 
Mr.  William  Holland, 

Institute  of  Pacific  Relations, 

1  East  SJfth  Street,  New  York,  New  York. 
Dear  Bill  :   After  lookins  over  the  schedule  it  appears  that  we  can  run  your 
series  of  lectures  on  either  Monday  or  Tuesday  a.  m.  or  Monday  at  4 :  00  p.  m.    It 
does  not  make  much  difference  to  us  which  hour  you  prefer.    If  anything,  I  think 
Monday  morning  would  be  slightly  preferable,  but  only  slightly  so. 
Cordially  yours, 

Schuler, 

Schuyler  C.  Wallace. 


Exhibit  No.  841 

Columbia  University 
in  the  City  of  New  York, 
Department  op  Public  Law  and  Government, 

March  27,  19U- 
Mr.  W.  L.  Holland, 

Institute  of  Pacific  Relations, 

1  East  54th  Street,  New  York  22,  N.  Y. 

Dear  Bill  :  Since  you  say  so,  I  agree  that  I  undertook  to  draft  some  outline 
for  the  Far  East  security  organization  but  I  am  appalled  at  the  thought.  There 
are  dozens  of  schemes  running  around  and  I  have  been  participating  in  one  or 
two  groups  that  have  been  dealing  with  some  of  them.  I  think  the  one  to  which 
Bill  Johnstone  refers  must  be  that  which  is  being  developed  by  a  little  committee 
tinder  Phil  Nash.  I  have  a  recent  text  of  their  draft.  There  is  also  a  draft 
prepared  by  the  former  League  of  Nations  group  in  London  which  I  also  have. 
I  am  not  sure  whether  at  this  stage  any  particular  draft  should  be  selected  for 
the  kind  of  criticism  you  suggest  unless  it  be  the  London  draft  which  has  a 
certain  authority  because  of  its  signatories.  I  shall  turn  the  matter  over  in  my 
mind  and  we  can  talk  about  it  a  little  later. 

I  shall  keep  in  touch  with  you  about  the  question  of  your  taking  another  job. 
Sincerely  yours, 

Phil. 

Philip  C.  Jessup. 


Exhibit  No.  842 

Washington,  D.  C,  April  10,  1944- 
Mr.  W.  L.  Holland, 

Pacific  Affairs, 

1  East  54  Street,  Neiv  York,  Neiv  York. 

Dear  Bill:  I  am  inclosing  for  the  information  of  yourself  and  Mr.  Carter 
excerpt  from  letter  which  I  have  just  received  from  Adler. 

I  would  appreciate,  for  obvious  reasons,  your  not  showing  this  around  and 
your  not  disclosing  your  source  of  this  information. 
Sincerely, 

Irving. 

Irving  S.  Friedman. 
Enclosure. 

Do  you  see  the  I.  P.  R  crowd  no\vada>s?  If  you  do,  you  might  inform  them 
that  they  have  completely  bafflod  decent  people  here  by  appointing  Wellington 
Liu  to  the  Secretariat  of  the  forthcoming  I.  P.  R.  Conference  and  by  allotting 
him  US$10,000  for  research?  For  scmie  reason  or  other  they  don't  want  to- 
believe  what  is  common  knowledge  here,  namely  that  Liu  is  a  pretty  highly 
placed  member  of  Tai  Li's  outfit.  I  had  a  talk  with  Holland  on  the  subject 
last  summer  and  he  se<^med  to  require  written  evidence  to  establish  Liu's  mem- 
bership in  the  Secret  Service.  Since  then  I  have  received  further  evidence — 
not  written  but  satisfactory  to  anyone  but  an  ostrich — that  such  is  the  case. 
Of  course  he  will  be  very  well  placed  from  his  point  of  view  in  the  I.  P.  R. 
Secretariat. 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC   RELATIONS  5017 

Exhibit  No.  842-A 

May  1,  1944. 
Mr.  Irving  Friedman, 

United  States  Treasury,  Washington,  D.  C. 

Dear  Irving  :  I  have  been  meaning  to  call  on  you  in  Washington  to  acknowledge 
your  note  of  April  10  with  the  excei'pt  from  Adler's  letter  but  1  don't  seem  able 
to  escape  from  O.  S.  S.  where  I  am  now  working  every  Thursday. 

I  appreciate  knowing  about  Adler's  comment  although  it  contains  nothing  new. 
Adler  has  got  things  a  bit  twisted  about  the  I.  P.  R.  research  grant,  most  of  which 
is  to  be  kept  here  for  publication  purposes.  Another  grant  of  US.$10,000  was 
made  by  a  Chinese  in  New  York  partly  for  the  relief  of  selected  Chinese  scholars. 

Adler's  account  of  my  alleged  blindness  to  Liu's  connections  with  Tai  is  not 
very  fair.  I  talked  about  the  matter  with  him  at  some  length  in  Calcutta.  I 
would  rather  you  did  not  pass  the  information  on  but  the  situation  is  that  Liu 
has  a  number  of  personal  friends  in  Tai's  organization  and  he  came  to  the  atten- 
ton  of  Tai  himself  some  years  ago  because  of  his  friendship  for  a  Shanghai 
engineer  who  unsuccessfully  tried  to  assassinate  Wang  Ching-wei.  Liu  has 
talked  to  me  really  frankly  about  the  whole  business  and  gave  a  very  convincing 
story  though  I  have  no  means,  of  course,  of  proving  it.  Liu  says  he  had  been 
repeatedly  asked  by  Tai  Li  to  work  for  him  but  has  always  refused  largely 
because  his  wife  and  friends  have  urged  him  not  to  accept.  One  of  Liu's  closest 
friends  in  this  country  says  he  is  quite  certain  that  Liu  is  not  working  for  Tai. 

Even  if  the  allegation  were  true,  there  is  not  much  that  Carter  or  I  could  do 
about  it  as  Liu  is  employed  by  the  China  I.  P.  R.,  not  by  us.  He  is  probably 
coming  to  New  York  this  summer  to  put  a  number  of  research  reports  through 
the  press  in  preparation  for  our  January  conference. 

One  of  the  incidental  advantages  of  the  rumors  of  Liu's  connection  with  Tai 
is  that  it  has  thus  far  saved  the  China  I.  P.  R.  from  suffering  the  fate  of  all 
similar  organizations  in  China,  namely  being  swallowed  up  by  Kung.  To  the 
best  of  my  belief,  the  funds  which  the  China  I.  P.  R.  has  recently  succeeded  in 
raising  have  been  obtained  because  of  the  personal  interest  expressed  by  the 
Generalissimo.  What  bank  or  agency  actually  turned  over  the  funds  I  don't 
know  but  I  am  pretty  sure  it  was  not  the  usual  handout  from  Kung. 

Let's  try  to  have  lunch  sometime  soon.     There  are  several  things  I  want  to 
discuss  with  you. 
Yours, 

W.  L.  Holland. 


Exhibit  No.  843 

Office  of  Strategic  Services, 
Washington,  D.  C,  12  April  1944- 
Mr.  William  L.  Holland, 

Institute  of  Pacific  Relations, 

1  East  Fifty-fourth  Street,  Netv  York,  N.  Y. 
Dear  Mr.  Holland  :  Will  you  be  good  enough  to  fill  out  the  enclosed  form  and 
return  it  to  me.     We  have  put  through  a  request  for  your  appointment  as  a  WOC 
Consultant.     You  will  get  $10  per  diem  in  lieu  of  subsistence,  and  your  railroad 
fare.    I  have  told  Personnel  that  you  will  be  here  on  April  20. 
Sincerely, 

/s/    Alice  B.  Foy 
Alice  B.  Foy, 
Administrative  Office,  Planning  Staff. 

88348^52— pt.  14 8 


5018  INSTITUTE   OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 

Exhibit  No.  844 

April  17,  1944. 
Miss  Alice  B.  Foy, 

Office  of  Strategic  Services, 

Washington,  D.  C. 

Dear  Miss  Foy:  Thank  you  for  your  letter  of  April  12  enclosing  the  Federal 
Employment  form  which  I  return  herewith.  You  will  see  that  I  have  filled  out 
only  some  of  the  questions.  Having  wasted  a  great  deal  of  time  already  filling 
in  a  twelve  ptige  application  form  for  O.  S.  S.,  I  am  not  disposed  to  repeat  the 
process.  Your  office  is  at  liberty  to  answer  the  remaining  questions  on  the  basis 
of  what  I  have  already  submitted.  If  this  is  done,  I  should  be  prepared  to  con- 
sider signing  tlie  application  form, 

If  this  procedure  is  likely  to  prevent  your  office  from  employing  me  on  April 
20,  perhaps  you  would  be  good  enough  to  let  me  and  also  Dr.  Norman  Brown  know. 
1  am  sorry  to  appear  uncooperative  but  there  is  a  limit  to  the  number  of  forms  I 
can  bring  myself  to  fill  in  for  the  Government. 
Sincerely  yours, 

W.  L.  Holland. 
enc. 


Exhibit  No.  845 

Columbia  University  in  the  City  of  New  York, 
Naval  School  of  Military  Government  and  Administration, 

New  York  21,  N.  Y.,  April  25,  19U- 
Mr.  Wm  L.  Holland, 

Institute  of  Pacific  Relations, 

1  East  Fifty-fourth  Street,  New  York,  New  York. 

Dear  Mr.  Holland  :  As  you  perhaps  know,  Mr.  AVallace  has  been  out  of  town 
for  a  few  days.  Before  his  departure,  he  indicated  that  you  had  requested  that 
if  possible,  your  class  be  scheduled  on  Tuesday  mornings.  Accordingly,  we  have 
made  the  following  arrangements: 

Your  lecture  series  on  South  East  Asia  will  come  on  May  2,  9,  16  and  23rd, 
from  9  to  11  in  the  morning,  in  Room  302,  Fayerweather  Hall. 
I  hope  that  this  arrangement  is  satisfactory. 
Very  truly  yours, 

L.  H.  Chamberlain 
L.  H.  Chamberlain, 
Lieut,  (jg)  VSNR,  Academic  Aide. 


Exhibit  No.  846 

May  17,  1944. 
Mrs.  Eleanor  Lattimore, 

Institvfe  of  Pacific  Relations, 

7Jf.'/  Jackson  Place,  N.  W.,  Washington,  D.  C. 
Dear  Eleanor  :  I  enclose  three  letters  to  people  in  Chungking  which  I  should 
very  much  like  to  have  delivered  by  Owen  if  it's  not  too  inconvenient  for  him.  I 
know  it's  a  bit  of  an  imposition  as  he  will  probably  be  asked  to  cari-y  dozens 
of  other  messages,  but  if  he  can  manage  to  take  them  I  shall  be  extremely 
grateful.  I  certainly  wish  I  were  going  along.  It  will  be  a  most  interesting 
and  probably  critical  time  in  Chungking. 

I   am  just  starting  to  read  the  first  draft  of  the  Wallace  pamphlet  which 
looks  like  a  very  interesting  job. 

I  am  glad  you  can  review  the  book  on  the  Gobi  desert. 
Yours, 

"W.  L.  Holland. 
encs.  3. 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC   RELATIONS  5019 

Exhibit  No.  847 

FREE  WORLD 

Free  World  House,  144  Bleeckeb  St.,  New  York  12,  N.  Y. 
Telephone  :  ALgonqdin  4-0722.     Cable  Address  :  FREEWORLD  NEWYORK 

June  19,  1944. 
Mr.  William  L.  Holland, 

Institute  of  Pacific  Relations, 

1  East  o.'iih  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y. 

Dear  Mr.  Holland  :  It  gives  me  great  pleasure  to  send  you  under  separate 
cover,  a  copy  of  the  April  1944  issue  of  our  Mexican  edition,  Mundo  Libue. 

In  this  edition  is  a  reprint  of  the  Round  Table  Conference,  "What   to  do 
with  Japan,"  in   which  you   participated  and  which  was  originally  published 
in  the  March  1944  edition  of  Free  World  magazine. 
Very  sincerely  yours, 

Louis  DoLI^'ET. 
Louis  Dolivet. 
LD:  NB. 


Exhibit  No.  848 

Canadian  Institute  of  International  Affairs, 

National  Secretariat, 
230  Bloor  Street  West,  Toronto  5,  March  23,  1946. 
W.  L.  Holland,  Esq., 

Secretary-General,  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations, 
1  East  5J,th  Street,  New  York  22,  N.  Y. 
Dear  Bill:  You  may  not  have  heard  that  Fred  Poland  has  been  held  for 
weeks  in  connection  with  the  spy  round-up  in  Ottawa.     I  enclose  a  page  from  the 
local  morning  paper. 

The  C.  1.  I.  A.  is  ignoring  the  publicity ;  our  stand  is  that  our  membership 
includes  all  political  parties  for  purposes  of  good  discussion  at  meetings,  and  that 
the  branches  can  enlist  any  persons  they  wish. 

Poland  has  been  held  without  benetlt  of  counsel  and  his  wife  is  seeking  habeas 
corpus.  We  have  no  idea  of  whether  Fred  is  guilty ;  I  have  known  about  his 
being  held  since  the  third  day  after  the  story  broke,  or  thereabouts  but  I  had 
no  proof  to  substantiate  my  suspicions  until  the  recent  announcement  (under- 
line is  pencilled). 


Yours  sincerely, 

DAM :  bm 

Copy  to  Mr.  E.  C.  Carter. 


Douglas  A.  MacLennan,  National  Secretary. 


Exhibit  No.  849 

25th  March  1946. 
Douglas  MacLennan,  Esq., 

Canadian  Institute  of  Intei'national  Affairs, 
230  Bloor  Street,  West,  Toronto  5. 

Dear  Douglas  :  I  am  grateful  to  you  for  your  note  of  March  23rd  enclosing  the 
clipping  on  Fred  Poland.  I  had  seen  a  brief  reference  to  the  matter  in  the 
New  York  Times  and  got  the  impression  that  the  habeas  corpus  request  would 
probably  succeed.  The  whole  procedure  adopted  by  the  goverimient  seems  very 
curious  and  I  should  imagine  there  may  be  a  considerable  protest  about  it  in 
Parliament.  I  should  appreciate  it  if  you  would  keep  me  informed  of  what 
develops  and  particularly  of  any  further  references  to  the  Canadian  Institute 
or  the  I  PR. 

You  may  be  interested  to  know  that  Dr.  Chen  Nan-sang  and  his  wife  have  just 
arrived  here  from  India.  Chen  will  be  teaching  for  the  next  few  months  at  the 
University  of  Washington  and  during  the  summer  may  be  doing  some  work  for 
the  II'R.  For  the  past  three  years  he  has  been  working  in  New  Delhi  at  the 
British  Ministry  of  Information  and  during  the  past  four  months  has  travelled 


5020  INSTITUTE   OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 

widely  in  India  studying  tlie  agricultural  situation.  Although  there  will  not 
be  time  for  him  to  visit  Canada  before  he  goes  to  Seattle,  it  occurs  to  me  that 
your  Victoria  and  Vancouver  branches  might  want  to  invite  him  to  speak  before 
them  during  the  next  few  months. 

J.  P.  Simon  of  your  Victoria  branch  has  asked  Carter  or  me  to  participate  in 
the  annual  joint  conference  of  the  IPR  and  the  Canadian  Institute  in  Victoria 
on  May  10  to  12.  I  am  inclined  to  accept  this  invitation  as  I  may  have  to  visit 
the  Pacific  coast  about  that  time.  If  so  I  would  probably  plan  to  visit  Vancouver 
as  well. 

With  best  wishes, 
Sincerely  yours, 

WiixiAM  L.  Holland, 

Secretary-General. 


Exhibit  No.  850 

Philip  J.  Jaffe, 
225  Fifth  Avenue,  New  York  10,  N.  Y.,  April  29,  1948. 
Mr.  W.  L.  Holland, 

Acting  Executive  Vice  Chairman,  American  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations, 
1  East  5/,th  Street,  New  York  22,  N.  Y. 
Dear  Mr.  Holland  :  For  some  time  now,  I  bave  been  one  of  those  that  believed' 
that  in  the  coming  years  the  most  important  area  in  the  Far  East  will  be  Japan. 
Up  to  the  present,  no  detailed  study  of  developments  in  postwar  Japan  has 
appeared  in  print.  I  feel  strongly  that  such  a  study  is  needed,  and  that  the 
Institute  of  Pacific  Relations  is  the  appropriate  organization  to  direct  it.  If  you 
feel  that  this  is  the  right  time  to  undertake  such  a  study,  and  if  you  have  a 
competent  person  available  for  this  project,  I  would  be  very  happy  to  make  a 
financial  contribution  towards  that  end. 

"Would  you  be  kind  enough  to  let  me  know  whether  you  feel  that  this  project 
is  worthwhile  and  whether  you  have  the  right  person  available  for  it ;  and,  if  so, 
approximately  how  large  a  contribution  would  be  required  from  me  to  make  it 
possible? 

Cordially  yours, 

PhtLip  J.  Jaffe. 
(signed)     Philip  J.  Jaffe. 


Exhibit  No.  851 

Amekican  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations,  Inc., 
Honolulu,  Los  Angeles,  New  York,  San  Francisco,  Seattle,  Washington,  D.  C, 

1  East  54th  Street,  New  York  22,  N.  Y.,  30th  April,  194S. 
ELdorado  5-1759 
Mr.  Edward  C.  Carter, 

Consultant,  ECAFE  Secretariat, 

106  Whangpoo  Road,  Shanghai,  China. 
Dear  Mr.  Carter  :  With  reference  to  the  attached  letter  from  Jaffe  of  April  29, 
I  miglit  add  that  he  has  now  decided  it  would  be  better  for  Bisson  to  continue 
working  on  his  research  project  under  IPR  auspices  and  hopes  that  the  American 
IPR  will  be  willing  to  receive  a  donation  of  $3,000  which  can  be  used  to  pay 
Bisson  for  a  continuation  of  his  current  IPR  research  project  on  the  impact  of 
SCAP  on  Japanese  life.  We  trust  tlie  Executive  Committee  will  not  object  to 
receiving  the  money.  It  will  ease  Phil's  tax  problem. 
Sincerely, 

Bill, 

William  L.  Holland, 
Acting  Executive  Vice  Chairman. 

P.  S. — C.  D.  Jackson  of  Time,  Inc.,  phoned  Emeny  this  morning  to  check  on 
the  IPR.  Jackson  is  a  member  of  the  Board  of  Independent  Aid,  and  apparently 
the  Board  is  seriously  considering  the  IPR's  appeal.  Emeny  took  the  opportunity 
to  inquire  of  Jackson  what  the  possibilities  of  a  renewal  of  Time's  contribution 
would  be,  and  apparently  didn't  get  a  negative  response.  So  we  shall  wait  and 
see. 

(Penciled:)  Rec'd,  May  7,  1948. 

(Penciled:)  Brooks  has  now  retracted  his  earlier  strong  criticism  of  Ros- 
singer  and  now  recommends  him  to  me  in  the  most  glowing  terms. 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS  5021 

Exhibit  No.  852 

Institute  of  Pacific  Relations, 
1  East  54th  Street,  Neiv  York  22,  New  York,  January  25,  1950. 
Dr.  E.  Herbert  Noraian, 

Canadidn  Liajaon  Mission,  c/o  Foreign  Liaison  Section  0-2, 

GHQ,  AFPAC,  APO  500,  c/o  Postmaster,  San  Francisco,  California. 

Dear  Herb  :  I  was  delighted  to  find  your  letter  of  January  5th  awaiting  me 
on  my  return  to  New  York  and  even  more  pleased  to  see  a  copy  of  your  book. 
It  is  an  excellent  production  job  despite  the  unattractive  cover  and  title  page.  I 
took  the  liberty  of  sending  it  immediately  to  Sansom,  who  tells  me  that  he  is 
reading  it  with  very  great  interest  and  admiration — so  much  so  that  he  is  going 
to  write  you  directly  about  a  number  of  specific  points  including  probably  some 
disagreements.  He  has  also  agreed  to  review  it  for  Pacific  Affairs,  comment- 
ing mainly  on  the  broader  social  and  economic  implications  of  your  analysis  of 
Japanese  feudalism.  At  a  later  date  he  is  keen  to  write  a  more  detailed  and 
longer  review  for  one  of  the  professional  .iournals,  such  as  the  Far  Eastern 
Quarterly.  I  shall  try  to  send  you  a  copy  of  his  Pacific  Affairs  review  as  soon 
as  we  receive  the  manuscript,  probably  some  time  within  the  next  three  or  four 
weeks. 

If  you  have  another  copy  to  spare,  I  do  hope  you  will  send  it  to  Miriam  Farley 
for  review  in  the  Far  Eastern  Survey.  I  know  she  would  appreciate  seeing  it. 
She  has  just  written  a  rather  long  and  interesting  review  article  on  Sansom's 
book,  The  Western  World  and  Japan,  which  we  may  print  in  the  next  Pacific 
Affairs. 

Mary  Healy  has  sent  yon  a  copy  of  Sansom's  book  which  I  hope  you  will  ad- 
mii'e  as  much  as  I  do.  Won't  you  try  to  write  a  review  of  it  for  one  of  the  Eng- 
lish-language publications  in  Japan  and  let  me  have  a  copy  of  your  manuscript. 

I  think  there  is  a  good  chance  that  under  the  joint  auspices  of  the  Japan  IPR 
and  the  Tokyo  National  University  and  with  some  Rockefeller  Foundation  help 
Sansom  will  be  able  to  visit  Japan  next  fall  and  give  a  series  of  eight  or  ten 
lectures,  which  will  subsequently  form  the  basis  for  a  book  to  be  published 
under  IPR  auspices.  In  many  ways  I  think  it  is  likely  to  be  a  kind  of  projec- 
tion of  the  ideas  in  his  present  book  into  the  problems  of  contempoi-ary  Japan. 
Sansom  tells  me  that  he  is  now  planning  to  work  on  his  "swan  song",  a  rather 
general  book  on  eighteenth  century  Japan  with  numerous  incidental  compari- 
sons with  eighteenth  century  Europe. 

I  do  hope  you  are  making  some  headway  on  your  volume,  "Essays  on  Japanese 
Politics  and  Society."  Knowing  how  you  are  apt  to  be  interrupted  by  the  pres- 
sure of  other  work  I  hope  you  will  try  to  finish  each  chapter  one  by  one  and 
send  along  the  revised  manuscript  as  soon  as  possible  rather  than  keeping  the 
whole  book  until  all  the  revisions  and  additional  chapters  have  been  completed. 
Why  not  make  a  start  with  the  principal  chapters  in  the  earlier  mimeographed 
report?  Incidentally  let  me  know  if  it  would  facilitate  things  if  I  can  send  you 
an  advance  payment  of  say  $200.00,  which  you  can  use  to  cover  incidental  clerical 
or  research  expenses. 

You  may  be  interested  to  know  that  Bob  Fearey,  who  is  still  in  the  Northeast 
Asia  Division  of  the  State  Department,  has  just  completed  a  50,000  word  supple- 
ment to  Ed  Martin's  earlier  IPR  book.  The  Allied  Occupation  of  Japan.  We 
hope  to  produce  the  revised  and  enlarged  edition  within  the  next  four  months 
or  so. 

I  would  be  most  grateful  to  have  any  news  from  you  on  research  developments 
in  the  Japan  IPR.  Perhaps  you  can  get  Okubo  to  tell  you  what  is  happening 
and  also  to  remind  Matsuo  to  write  me  soon  about  the  new  projects  which  I 
discussed  with  the  Japan  IPR  people. 

All  good  wishes  to  Irene  and  yourself. 
Yours, 

William  L.  Holland,  Secretary-General. 

cc:  PEL. 
MFH. 


5022  INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 

Exhibit  No.  853 

Canadian  Liaison  Mission, 

Tokyo,  5th  January,  1950. 
W.  L.  Holland,  Esq., 

Sc&y,  Pacific  Council,  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations,  1  East  54th  Street, 
New  York  2,  N.  Y. 

Dear  Bill  :  I  presume  you  have  returned  to  New  York  by  now  from  your  world 
jaunt.  I  would  very  much  like  to  have  an  opportunity  of  seeing  some  of  your 
observations  on  the  countries  you  visited.  I  trust  that  you  will  write  up  some 
aspects  of  your  trip  in  one  of  the  I.  P.  R.  publications. 

I  am  sending  you  by  the  same  mail  a  copy  of  my  work  on  Ando  Shoeki,  which 
was  finally  published  last  month.  I  think  Kenkyusha  did  a  respectable  job 
oi  printing,  although  I  must  say  that  the  Asiatic  Society  format  is  not  the  most 
attractive  in  the  world.  On  the  first  day  after  publication,  I  hastily  picked  up 
some  of  the  misprints  I  noticed  and  the  printer  obligingly  struck  off  a  page  of 
errata,  which  is  enclosed  with  the  copy.  One  or  two  which  I  missed  I  shall 
take  the  liberty  of  correcting  marginally.  The  work,  I  fear,  shows  signs  of  com- 
position at  different  periods  of  time  but,  since  it  is  after  all  a  rather  enlarged 
essay,  it  may  not  affect  the  argument  too  seriously.  I  know  I  shall  be  open  to 
the  criticism  that  I  have  magnified  the  subject  out  of  its  proper  proportion  making 
Shoeki  appear  a  more  orginial  or  incisive  figure  than  some  might  think  he  de- 
serves. I  should  be  happy  to  have  your  frank  opinion  on  this  subject  and  on- 
any  other  feature  of  the  work  on  which  you  feel  like  commenting.  Although 
I  am  sending  this  book  to  you  personally,  I  should  be  grateful  if  you  would 
make  use  of  it  by  reviewing  it  yourself  or,  if  you  are  too  busy,  have  someone- 
else  on  yrur  staff  review  it  for  an  I.  P  .R.  publication — preferable  Pacific  Affairs. 
I  am  asking  the  editor  of  the  Asiatic  Society,  who  is  for  the  current  year  Doa 
Brown,  Civil  Information  and  Education  Section,  General  Headquarters,  to  mail 
a  few  copies  to  the  institutions  or  publications  on  Far  Eastern  subjects. 

As  you  may  have  noticed,  our  Secretary  of  State  for  External  Affairs,  Mr. 
Pearson,  is  coming  with  a  large  delegation  to  Japan  at  the  end  of  this  month 
after  the  Cole  mbo  Conference  and  will  stay  for  about  four  days.  Naturally, 
things  will  be  quite  hectic  for  a  while  before  and  after  the  visit  but,  unless  I  am 
in  the  very  near  future  given  another  assignment,  which  is  always  possible 
after  the  length  of  time  I  have  been  here,  I  intend  to  get  down  to  some  work  on 
the  series  of  essays  which  we  discussed  on  Japanese  political  and  biographical 
subjects. 

With  all  good  wishes  for  the  coming  year  to  both  Doreen  and  you, 
Yours  sincerely, 

Hebbeet. 


Exhibit  No.  854 

Canadian  Liaison  Mission, 

Tokyo,  February  13,  1950. 
Mr.  W.  L.  Holland, 

Secretary-Oeneral,  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations, 

1  E.  5Jfth  Street,  New  York  22,  New  York. 
Deiar  Bill  :  Many  thanks  for  your  letter  of  January  25  in  which  you  acknowl- 
edge receipt  of  my  book.  I  am  delighted,  of  course,  to  know  that  Sansom  is  re- 
viewing it  and  he  wrote  me  a  very  kind  letter  about  it.  I  still  have  not  received 
his  book,  "The  Western  World  and  Japan,"  but  am  naturally  looking  forward  to 
it  keenly.  I  would  be  honoured  to  review  it,  although  I  would  like  to  take  my 
time  and  do  as  thorough  a  job  as  possible. 

I  must  confess  that  I  haven't  made  much  headway  on  my  "Essays  on  Japanese 
politics  and  society,"  except  to  continue  accumulating  fresh  material  for  other 
sections.  It  is  very  thoughtful  of  you  to  suggest  making  an  advance  of  $200  to 
assist  in  clerical  and  research  expenses.  For  the  present,  I  think  I  had  better 
decline  this  kind  offer,  but  may  I  take  a  rain  check  on  it  so  that,  when  I  feel  the 
work  is  making  real  progress,  then  I  would  have  less  scruples  about  taking  it? 
At  the  present,  that  time  is  a  little  remote  although  my  intention  to  go  on  is 
Still  as  strong  as  ever. 

I  have  remembered  you  to  the  IPR  people  here. 
With  kind  regards  from  both  Irene  and  myself. 
Yours  sincerely, 

Herbert. 

E.  H.  Norman. 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC   RELATIONS  5023 

Exhibit  No.  853 

April  26,  1950. 
Mr.  Charles  Loomis, 

American  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations,  Dillingham  Building  Annex, 
Halekamvila  Street,  Honolulu  16,  T.  H. 

Dear  Charles  :  Thanks  for  your  personal  note  of  April  24  enclosing  a  copy  of 
your  note  to  Clayton  Lane.  Needless  to  say  there  are  bound  to  be  some  adverse 
effects  on  the  IPR  from  all  the  McCarthy  and  Budenz  charges.  On  the  other 
hand,  it  seems  pretty  clear  from  the  categorical  refutations  of  Budenz  which 
Bella  Dodd  and  Browder  are  making  that  the  myth  about  the  IPR  as  a  communist 
organization  will  be  pretty  well  exploded.  While  the  next  2  months  are  going  to 
be  very  difficult  for  the  American  IPR,  I  am  confident  that  it  will  weather  the 
storm  and  that  the  IPR's  prospects  will  then  be  pretty  bright.  For  your  strictly 
confidential  information,  I  may  tell  you  that  the  Rockefeller  Foundation  ofiicers 
are  going  to  recommend  that  a  special  and  very  exceptional  grant  be  made  to 
both  the  American  IPR  and  the  Pacific  Council  at  the  June  meeting  of  the 
Foundation.  Again  for  your  personal  information  alone,  I  can  tell  you  that 
there  is  a  good  prospect  that  the  Ford  Foundation  (which  officially  has  not  yet 
begun  to  operate)  will  make  a  special  preliminary  grant  to  the  Pacific  Council 
for  research  on  Southeast  Asia.  I  know  that  our  appeal  to  the  Ford  Foundation 
has  had  the  specific  and  enthusiastic  backing  of  Arthur  Bean,  Sir  George  San- 
som,  Phil  Jessup,  Dean  Rusk,  and  Huntington  Gilchrist. 

As  you  probably  know  we  have  had  some  excellent  publicity,  notably  in  the 
Washington  Post,  where  Alfred  Friendly  ran  a  very  long  article  exposing  Kohl- 
berg  and  enthusiastically  supporting  the  IPR  (Sunday  issue  of  April  23). 

There  is  always,  of  course,  the  chance  that  Foundation  trustees  may  be 
panicked  by  some  new  spectacular  development,  but  my  own  guess  is  that  this 
will  not  happen  and  that  there  is  a  good  chance  that  the  IPR  can  even  benefit  in 
the  long  run  from  the  present  attacks  upon  it.  So  I  certainly  hope  you  will  go 
ahead  vigorously  with  your  Pacific  House  scheme.  I  think  it  is  wonderful  that 
you  have  been  able  to  put  this  over  so  well  at  a  time  like  this,  and  I  only  wish 
the  New  York  office  could  point  to  an  achievement  like  yours. 

All  good  wishes. 

Yours  sincerely, 

William  L.  Holland, 

Secret  ary-Oeneral. 


Exhibit  No.  856 

May  17,  1950 
Sir  George  Sanson, 

Chnndos  Lodge,  Eye,  Suffolk,  England. 

Dear  Sir  George  :  As  you  know,  the  various  charges  by  Senator  McCarthy  and 
Louis  Budens  against  Owen  Lattimore  have  included  references  to  the  I.  P.  R. 
as  a  pro-communist  organization  or  as  harboring  a  communist  "cell"  in  past 
years.  Despite  the  statements  issued  by  Lane,  President  Raymond  Allen,  myself 
and  others,  these  insinuations  are  likely  to  continue  as  long  as  the  attack  on 
the  State  Department's  Far  Eastern  policy  is  kept  up.  They  are  being  made 
continually  by  certain  newspaper  columnists,  notably  George  Sokolsky  in  the 
Hearst  press.  The  latest  blast  comes  from  a  sheet  called  "Counterattack"  which 
asserts  that  the  IPR  is  still  employing  communists  and  publishing  communist 
reports.  Specifically  they  complain  about  the  following  items  in  our  current 
international  research  program:  "The  Impact  of  SCAP  on  Japanese  Life"  by 
T.  A.  Bisson  ;  "Documents  on  Soviet  Far  Eastern  Policy  Since  Yalta"  by  William 
Mandel ;  "Philippine  Nationalism"  by  Abraham  Chapman ;  "Notes  on  Labor 
Problems  in  Nationalist  China  During  the  War"  by  Israel  Epstein  (this  last 
having  been  published  in  mimeographed  form  last  year). 

These  studies  are  all  under  the  auspices  of  the  International  Secretariat, 
not  the  American  IPR.  Two  of  them,  those  by  Epstein  and  by  Chapman,  were 
originally  started  (in  1943  and  1946)  by  the  American  IPR  with  funds  given 
by  the  American  People's  Fund  (Fred  Field's  money).  After  the  American 
IPR  Executive  Committee,  on  my  recommendation,  had  appointed  Clayton 
Lane  to  be  Executive  Secretary,  I  explained  the  background  of  these  two  projects 
to  him.  Because  the  projects  did  not  directly  concern  American  policy,  and 
because  I  wanted  him  to  be  free  to  operate  as  he  wished  without  being  hampered 


5024  INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 

by  any  past  commitments  involving  such  a  controversial  figure  as  Field,  I 
suggested  that  the  two  studies  be  put  under  the  auspices  of  the  International 
Secretariat.  This  was  done  and  the  unspent  portion  of  the  funds  was  returned 
to  Field. 

After  some  delay  Epstein  completed  his  manuscript.  After  being  read  and 
criticized  by  Lattimore,  Fairbank  and  me,  it  was  edited  and  somewhat  shortened 
by  Lillienthal  and  then  issued  in  mineographed  form  last  year.  It's  a  factual 
study  of  limited  historical  interest  and  has  not  aroused  criticism  from  reviewers. 
Any  way  it's  over  the  dam. 

The  Chapman  study  has  also  been  delayed.  He  promised  to  submit  the  com- 
plete manuscript  at  the  end  of  1949.  I  phoned  him  the  other  day  and  he  told 
me  that  the  report  is  about  90  percent  finished  and  that  he  will  definitely  submit 
the  whole  manuscript  before  the  middle  of  Jvme.  It's  quality  is  hard  to  predict 
but  I  expect  it  will  contain  (besides  historical  background)  a  great  deal  of 
accurate  and  hitherto  not  generally  available  information  on  Philippine  politics 
and  parties.    He  knows  a  lot  about  the  Philippine  political  situation. 

Chapman  is  under  attack  because,  as  he  readily  states,  he  was  elected  In  1945 
as  a  member  of  the  New  York  State  Committee  of  the  Communist  Party.  I  think 
it  is  almost  certain  that  he  is  still  a  communist.  As  far  as  I  know  this  is  the 
only  case  in  the  IPR  research  program  involving  a  study  by  a  communist  party 
member.  It  thus  constitutes  a  good  test  case  of  whether  we  should  follow  our 
traditional  practice  of  judging  a  study  on  its  merits,  in  the  light  of  comments 
from  qualified  critics,  or  of  deciding  in  advance  whether  to  accept  or  reject  it  in 
the  light  of  the  author's  communist  party  membership.  My  own  past  policy,  and 
the  one  I  would  still  recommend  despite  its  unpopularity  these  days,  is  to  decide 
on  the  basis  of  the  manuscript.  I've  .so  informed  Chapman  and  have  also  told 
him  that  the  manuscript  will  undoubtedly  be  read  with  a  very  critical  eye  and 
that  I  can  give  him  no  assurance  it  will  be  accepted  for  publication.  To  me  it 
would  seem  absurd  and  cowardly  at  this  late  date  for  us  to  disown  the  study  in 
advance  after  it's  been  on  our  lists  for  several  years. 

My  idea  would  be  to  have  the  manuscript  read  by  such  people  as  Claude  Buss 
(Stanford  University),  Laurence  Salisbury,  one  person  on  the  Philippine  desk 
in  the  Research  Division  of  the  State  Department,  one  qualified  Filipino,  and  one 
qualified  businessman  with  knowledge  of  the  contemporary  Philippine  scene.  If 
the  comments  are  generally  adverse,  and  if  on  the  basis  of  them  I  conclude  that 
it  would  not  be  feasible  to  get  the  study  satisfactorily  revised,  I  presume  we  shall 
drop  any  idea  of  publication.  If  the  comments  are  generally  favorable,  then  I 
would  like  your  advice  on  how  to  proceed.  One  possibility  would  be  to  go  ahead 
with  such  editorial  revision  as  seems  justified  in  the  light  of  the  readers'  com- 
ments but  to  postpone  final  publication  arrangements  until  the  matter  of  policy 
has  been  decided  by  the  International  Research  Committee  and  the  Pacific  Coun- 
cil at  the  Lucknow  Conference.  Another  possibility  would  be  to  issue  the  study 
in  a  mimeographed  edition  for  restricted  circulation  to  national  councils  and 
research  institutions,  with  a  preface  mentioning  the  author's  communist  party 
membership,  and  perhaps  including  the  comments  of  those  who  read  the  first 
draft. 

Admittedly  it  will  be  easier  to  form  an  opinion  on  this  after  we  see  a  few 
sample  chapters,  which  I  may  receive  in  about  two  weeks.  However,  the  ques- 
tion is  complicated  by  the  fact  that  last  January,  the  American  I.  P.  R.  at  Clay- 
ton Lane's  strong  insistence  rejected  (but  paid  for)  an  article  by  Chapman  on 
Philippine  politics  today,  which  had  previously  been  requested  by  the  editor 
of  the  Far  Eastern  Survey,  and  which  in  quality  and  essential  accuracy  was 
judged  by  all  who  read  it,  including  Mr.  Lane,  as  acceptable.  The  ground  given 
for  rejection,  was  Chapman's  membership  on  the  executive  committee  of  the 
Committee  for  a  Democratic  Far  Eastern  Policy,  New  York,  an  organization 
which  was  listed  as  "subversive"  last  year  by  the  Attorney  General.  The  Survey 
editor  was  unaware  of  this  fact  when  she  originally  requested  the  article.  The 
American  I.  P.  R.  Executive  Committee  which  was  asked  to  rule  on  this  point 
of  policy  was  divided  in  its  views,  but  left  it  to  Mr.  Lane  to  decide. 

Mr.  Lane  still  feels  that  no  manuscript  should  be  accepted  by  the  I.  P.  R. 
(either  American  or  International  Secretariat)  from  a  writer  who  is  a  Commu- 
nist or  a  member  of  a  policy  committee  of  an  organization  listed  as  subversive 
by  the  Attorney  General.  (The  list  is  a  very  extensive  one,  including  the  Amer- 
ican-Russian Institute  of  which  Mr.  Carter  and  Harriet  Moore  Gelfan  have  been 
leading  members,  but  not  the  American  I.  P.  R.).  Undoubtedly  several  other 
members  of  the  American  I.  P.  R.  Board  of  Trustees  share  Mr.  Lane's  view, 


INSTITUTE   OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  5025 

though  the  matter  has  never  been  put  to  a  vote.  Mr.  Lane  and  they  would  of 
course  respect  the  views  of  the  international  officers  and  other  members  of  the 
Pacific  Council,  but  would  probably  point  out  that  since  Chapman  is  an  Amer- 
ican, and  since  the  study  began  under  American  I.  P.  R.  auspices  with  a  grant 
from  Field's  American  People's  Fund,  the  publication  of  the  report,  even  under 
International  Secretariat  auspices,  would  provide  further  ammunition  to  those 
who  are  already  attacking  the  I.  P.  R.  On  the  other  hand  it  seems  to  me  un- 
likely that  cancellation  of  the  project  now  and  suppression  of  the  report  would 
do  much  to  make  our  critics  end  their  attacks,  especially  when  the  project  has 
been  included  on  our  lists  for  the  last  five  years,  and  when  both  Pacific  Affairs 
and  Far  Eastern  Survey  have  previously  (in  1946)  published  articles  by  Chap- 
man. 

As  for  Bisson,  he  is  now  teaching  at  the  University  of  California  and  carrying 
on  his  study  of  industrial  deconcentration  in  Japan  with  the  aid  of  a  direct  grant 
from  the  Rockefeller  Foundation.  He  is  not  receiving  any  grant  from  the  I.  P.  R. 
but  we  are  committed  to  helping  in  the  eventual  publication  of  his  book.  To  sug- 
gest that,  after  publishing  several  of  his  earlier  books  and  making  several  grants 
to  him  over  the  past  ten  years,  we  should  now  become  apologetic  about  him  or 
try  to  dissociate  ourselves  from  him  would  be  ridiculous. 

Mandel's  project  is  simply  a  collection  of  official  Soviet  diplomatic  documents 
and  Soviet  editorial  comments.  It  is  now  almost  finished  and  in  order  to  make 
it  more  useful,  I've  written  to  Max  Beloff  at  Oxford  asking  if  he  would  write  an 
introductory  chapter  analyzing  Soviet  Far  Eastern  policy  since  1945,  largely 
by  expanding  the  excellent  article  he  has  written  on  this  topic  for  the  June  issue 
of  Pacific  Affairs.  Mandel,  you  will  recall,  is  the  author  of  the  Inquiry  Series 
volume  on  The  Soviet  Far  East  and  Central  Asia. 

I'm  sorry  to  inflict  all  this  on  you.  If  it  were  not  for  the  fact  that  the  Amer- 
ican I.  P.  R.,  in  the  public  mind,  is  almost  indistinguishable  from  the  Interna- 
tional Secretariat,  I  would  say  that  we  should  proceed  in  our  traditional  way, 
judging  the  research  manuscrips  on  their  merits,  and  pay  no  attention  to  the 
McCarthy  and  similar  attacks.  What  do  you  advise?  I  shall  await  your  reply 
before  sending  copies  of  the  correspondence  to  Gilchrist  and  other  Pacific  Council 
officers. 

All  good  wishes. 
Yours, 

WnxiAM  L.  Holland, 

Secretary-General. 


3  Moskou  2720  28  5  17  10  CHO 
Holland  Inspacrel  Tokyo 


Exhibit  No.   857 
[Cablegram] 


Motylev  cabled  Carter  suggesting  meet  you  Vladivostock  July  eighteenth  Stop 
No  reply  Stop  Cable  whether  coming ;  if  yes,  which  Soviet  consulate  to  issue 
visa. 

Hakondar 

Jul.  6  AM  5  54. 


Exhibit  No.  858 

W.  L.  Holland, 
1  East  54th  St.  {5th  floor),  Neio  York  22,  N.  T., 

Sevtetnber  12,  1950   [6.S0  p.  m.]. 
Night  letter. 

Dean  Rusk, 

Department  of  State,  Washington,  D.  C. 

Urgent  could  you  kindly  cable  Supreme  Commander  urging  him  favorably 
consider  permitting  Japanese  delegation  attend  IPR  conference  Lucknow  Octo- 
ber third  to  fifteenth?  I  am  advised  that  influential  Washington  recommenda- 
tion is  needed  to  assure  clearances.  Please  phone  or  wire  me  collect  if  you 
wish.  Is  there  anything  more  I  can  do  regarding  Kahins  passport?  Urgently 
need  him  at  Lucknow.  Can  you  now  give  me  names  of  special  American  dele- 
gates you  would  like  attend  Lucknow? 

William  L.  Holland. 


5026  INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 

Exhibit  No.  859 

September  16,  1950. 
Personal 

The  Hon.  Dean  Rusk, 

Department  of  State,  Washington,  D.  C. 

Dear  De:.\n  :  I  was  sorry  not  to  reach  you  on  the  phone  in  New  York  as  I 
wanted  to  ask  whether  you  had  found  any  well  qualified  Americans  whom  you 
might  especially  wish  to  attend  the  Lucknow  conference  of  the  IPR  as  members 
of  the  American  delegation.  I  do  hoi>e  you'll  let  me  know  soon  if  you  have  any 
special  candidates.  I'm  sorry  that  Sen.  Graham  couldn't  accept  our  invitation, 
but  I'm  hoping  now  that  W.  W.  Waymack  will  accept  the  offer  of  a  grant  from  the 
Carnegie  Endowment  to  enable  him  to  go  to  Lucknow. 

Ordinarily  we  don't  include  government  officials  in  the  American  delegation 
to  an  IPR  conference,  but  Lane  previously  wrote  Loy  Henderson  asking  him  to 
consider  sending  someone  not  in  a  policy-making  position  and  preferably  not 
a  regular  foreign  service  officer.  Henderson  declined,  saying  that  he  disliked 
making  any  such  distinctions  in  his  staff.  I've  told  him,  however,  that  I'd  like 
to  discuss  the  matter  further  with  him  in  New  Delhi,  as  it  might  be  possible  for 
us  to  include  one  or  two  specialists,  such  as  cultural  or  agricultural  or  informa- 
tion officers  of  the  Embassy  in  the  delegation  if  you  thought  it  desirable.  I'd 
like  your  advice  on  the  matter,  as  it  sometimes  raises  touchy  questions  with  the 
other  delegations.  In  spite  of  all  we  say,  I  suspect  that  the  Indian  delegation, 
and  possibly  some  of  the  other  groups  too,  may  include  people  who  are  at  least 
mainly  if  not  wholly  government  officials. 

May  I  make  an  urgent  and  probably  irregular  appeal  to  you  to  lend  your 
weightiest  support  to  the  double  IPR  financial  appeal  which  is  to  be  considered 
by  the  Rockefeller  Foundation  on  September  22.  As  a  Foundation  trustee,  you 
probably  know  better  than  I  that  one  or  two  members  of  the  Foundation's 
Executive  Committee  have  been  worried  about  all  the  McCarthy  and  Budenz 
charges  against  the  IPR.  The  officers  of  the  Foundation  have  given  us  very 
solid  support,  but  it  has  been  suggested  to  me  that  in  this  abnormal  situotion, 
their  hand  would  be  strengthened  if  an  impressive  body  of  outside  testimony 
and  recommendations  wei-e  sent  to  President  Barnard,  including  letters  from 
former  Foundations  officers  and  trustees.  I  have  accordingly  asked  such  people 
as  Raymond  Fosdick,  Robert  G.  Sproul,  Stacy  May  and  Sydnor  Walker  if  they 
would  submit  letters,  and  have  also  asked  General  Marshall,  as  an  IPR  trustee, 
to  do  likewise  if  possible  before  he  officially  assumes  his  new  job.  Your  own 
position  in  this  question  is  peculiarly  important  and  Mr.  Swope  and  I  would 
therefore  appreciate  it  greatly  if  you  could  see  your  way  to  indicate  your  belief 
in  the  importance  of  the  IPR  at  this  time.  Your  words  of  support  for  us  to  the 
Ford  Foundation  were  very  influential,  even  though  action  on  that  grant  has 
been  postponed  pending  the  forthcoming  appointment  of  a  director  for  the 
foundation 
Yours, 

W.  L.  Holland. 


Exhibit  No.  860 


12-12-50 — Pacific  Council  Officers 

Chairman — Arthur  H.  Dean,  partner,  Sullivan  &  Cromwell,  attorneys.  New  York. 
Vice-Chairmen — Edgar  Mclnnis   (Canada),  Professor  of  History,  University  of 
Toi'onto. 
Paul  Emile  Naggiar   (France),  former  French  Ambassador  to 

the  United  States. 
S.  Kitadai  (Japan),  former  President,  Reconstruction  Finance 

Bank. 
A.  B.  A.  Haleem  (Pakistan) ,  President,  Sind  University. 
Manuel  Elizalde  (Philippines),  Elizalde  &,  Co.,  Manila. 
Chairman,    Research    Committee — Sir    George    Sanson,    Director,    East    Asian 

Institute,  Columbia  University,  New  York. 
Chairman,  Finance  Committee — Laurence  Heyworth,  Lever  Brothers,  London. 
Chairman,  Program  Committee — D.  R.  Gadgil,  Director,  Gokhale  Institute  of 

Economics  and  Politics,  Poona. 
Secretary  General — W.  L.  Holland. 


INSTITUTE   OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 
National  Councils 


5027 


I'ACmC  COUNCIL  MEMBERS  NATIONAL  SECRETABIES 

Australian  Institute  of  International  Affairs 

369  George  Street,  Sydney,  Australia 

Norman  Cowper  George  Caiger 

Canadian  Institute  of  International  Affairs 

230  Bloor  Street  West,  Toronto  5,  Canada 

R.  G.  Cavell  Douglas  MacLennan 

Comite  d'Etudes  des  Problemes  du  Pacifique 

54  rue  de  Varenne,  Paris  VII,  France 


Paul  Emile  Naggiar 


H.  N.  Kunzru 

S.  Kitadai 

R.  O.  McGechan 
A.  B.  A.  Haleem 
Manuel  Elizalde 
Eugene  Zhukov 


Indian  Council  of  World  Affairs 

Kashi  House,  Connaught  Place 

New  Delhi,  India 


Roger  Levy 


A.  Appadorai 


Nihon  Taiheiyo  Mondai  Chosakai 

Room  602,  Mitsui  Sango  Kan 

No.  1,  2-chome,  Muromachi 

Nihombaslii,  Chuo-ku,  Tokyo,  Japan 

M.  Matsuo 
New  Zealand  Institute  of  International  Affairs 
9  Himalaya  Crescent,  Khandallah 
Wellington,  New  Zealand 

J.  F.  Northey 
Pakistan  Institute  of  International  Affairs 
Frere  Hall,  Karachi,  Pakistan 

K.  Sarwar  Hasan 
Philippine  Council,  I.  P.  R. 
State  Building,  Rizal  Avenue,  Manila,  P.  I. 

Quirino  Gregorio 
U.  S.  S.  R.  Council  of  the  I.  P.  R. 
Volhonka  14,  Moscow,  U.  S.  S.  R. 


Arthur  Creech  Jones 


Royal  Institute  of  International  Affairs 

10,  St.  Jame's  Square 

London,  S.  W.  1,  England 


Edward  C.  Carter 


American  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations 

1  East  54th  Street 

New  York  22,  N.  Y.,  U.  S.  A. 


Ivison  S.  Macadam 


K.  R.  C.  Greene 

Asst.  Secretary 


INTEBNATIONAL    SECEETAJEHAT,    INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS,    1    EAST    54    ST., 

New  York,  N.  Y. 


Exhibit  No.   861 

1  February  1951. 
Justice  William  O.  Douglas, 
Supreme  Court, 

Washington,  D.  C. 

Dear  Justice  Douglas  :  I  am  sending  you  an  advance  copy  of  a  preliminary 
report  on  the  Lucknow  Conference,  entitled :  Asian  Nationalism  and  Western 
Policies,  containing  the  rapporteurs'  summaries  of  the  discussions  and  the 
opening  speech  by  Prime  Minister  Nehru.  I  think  you  will  be  interested  in  many 
of  the  points  brought  out  in  the  discussions. 

In  view  of  the  widespread  publicity  which  the  Lucknow  Conference  evoked  in 
the  press  of  India,  Pakistan,  Japan,  Canada,  the  United  Kingdom,  France,  and 
the  United  States,  you  will  be  interested  to  see  the  enclosed  copy  of  some  of 
the  Soviet  news  dispatches  and  radio  broadcasts  on  the  Conference. 

The  IPR  is  now  also  distributing  copies  of  the  recently  published  volume 
Indian-American  Relations  which  summarizes  the  discussions  at  the  India- 
America  Conference  held  in  Delhi  in  December  1949  under  the  auspices  of  the 
American   Institute  of   Pacific  Relations   and   the   Indian   Council   of   World 


5028  INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 

Affairs.     Many  passages  in  this  volume  have  an  important  bearing  on  the  present 
day  relationships  between  India  and  the  United  States.     The  volume  also  pro- 
vides a  useful  companion  study  to  the  American  IPR's  previously  published  book, 
India  and  the  United  States  by  L.  K.  Rosinger. 
Sincerely  yours, 

William  L.  Holland, 
Executive  Vice  Chairman. 


Exhibit  No.   862 

Ref.  PA132 

(Penciled:)  WLH 

Foreign  Languages  Press, 
26,  Kuo  Hui  Chieh,  Peking,  China,  Mar.  22,  1951. 
Mr.  S.  B.  Thomas, 

Institute  of  Pacific  Relations, 

1  E  5/fth  St.,  New  York  22,  U.  8.  A. 
Dear  Sir:  Your  letter  addressed  to  the  China  Information  Bureau  has  been 
forwarded  to  this  Press.     We  noted  that  you  asked  for  quite  a  voluminious  set 
of  documentary  materials  pertaining  to  the  local  administration  of  the  Republic 
of  China,  and  also  its  people's  representative  organs.     As  you  probably  know, 
this  Press  has  published  a  lot  of  those  documents  in  English  and  other  foreign 
languages  and  your  library  has  acquired  a  copy  of  more  of  each  of  these  publica- 
tions.    Undoubtedly  these  cannot  meet  all  your  requirements ;  but  we  can  hardly 
contribute  anything  more  from  our  own  sources.     Of  course  we  will  be  glad 
to  help  you  in  this  connection,  but  we  have  to  be  furnished  first  with  an  official 
letter  from  your  Institute  signed  by  the  Secretary-General  with  which  we  can 
more  conveniently  approach  other  organisations  on  your  behalf. 
Hoping  to  hear  from  you  again, 
Yours  sincerely, 

V.  G.  Tseng, 
V.  G.  Tseng, 
Circulation  Department,  Foreign  Languages  Press. 


Exhibit  No.  863 

The  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations, 
1  East  54th  Street,  New  York  22,  N.  Y.,  April  5,  1951. 
Mr.  V.  G.  Tseng, 

Circulation  Department,  Foreign  Languages  Press, 

26,  Kuo  Hui  Chieh,  Peking,  China. 

Dear  Mr.  Tseng  :  In  reference  to  your  letter  of  March  22  to  Mr.  S.  B.  Thomas,^ 
of  the  staff  of  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations,  I  would  like  to  repeat  his  request 
for  documentary  material  on  local  government  in  the  People's  Republic  of  China. 
I  would  be  most  grateful  if  you  could  arrange  to  send  us  the  texts  of  important 
documents  (other  than  those  contained  in  the  publications  you  have  already 
sent  us)  on  the  organization,  status,  and  function  of  organs  of  local  govern- 
ment on  the  county,  municipal,  and  provincial  level. 

If  the  relevant  documents  have  been  translated  into  English  or  one  of  the 
other  western  languages,  we  would  of  course  be  happy  to  secure  the  translated 
version,  but,  if  not,  would  very  much  appreciate  procuring  the  Chinese  texts. 

Thank  you  very  much  for  your  assistance. 
Very  sincerely  yours, 

Wiluam  L.  Holland, 

WLH  :abs  Secretary  General. 


INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  5029 

Exhibit  No.  864 

April  12,  1951. 
Mr.  George  J.  Beal, 

Office  of  the  Comptroller,  The  Rockefeller  Foundation, 

49  West  J,9th  Street,  New  York  20,  N.  Y. 
Deab  Mb.  Beal:    This  is  to  acknowledge  with  cordial  thanks  your  letter  of 
April  10  enclosing  a  check  for  $10,000  for  the  budget  of  the  Pacific  Council  of 
the  I.  P.  R. 

In  accordance  with  your  request  I  am  enclosing  a  budget  for  the  American 
I.  P.  R.  for  the  period  October  1,  1950,  to  September  30,  1951.  Since  tlie 
American  I.  P.  R.  budget  is  normally  made  up  on  a  calendar  year  basis,  you  will 
understand  that  we  have  had  to  estimate  the  enclosed  statement  by  taking  the 
actual  figures  for  the  last  three  months  of  1950  and  combining  them  with  pro 
rated  budget  figures  for  the  first  nine  months  of  1951. 
"Very  truly  yours, 

William  L.  Holland, 

Secretary  General. 
WLH  :abs 
Enc.  2 

American  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations,  Inc. 

Budget — Calendar  Year  1951 

Cash  Balance,  January  1,  1951 $16,  330.  93 

Receipts: 

Foundations 22, 500.  00 

Membership  Contributions 44,  394.  00 

Other  Income 400.  00 

Far  Eastern  Survey,  subscriptions 7,  000.  00 

Royalties 500.00 

Total $91, 124.  93 

Expenditures: 

Administration $26,  202.  00 

Grant  to  Pacific  Council 9,  000.  00 

Far  Eastern  Survey 18,  885.  00 

Library 1,  650.  00 

Research 6,  400.  00 

Publications 5, 150.  00 

Conferences  &  Meetings 3,  900.  00 

Services  to  Members - 4,  435.  00 

Promotion 2,  000.  00 

Total $77,  622.  00 

Balance  to  be  carried  forward  12/31/51 13,  502.  93 


$91, 124.  93 


5030 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 


American  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations,  Inc. 
Budget — Receipts  and  Expenditures,  October  1, 1950-8eptemier  SO,  1951** 


Rec  &  Exp 

Oct-Dee 

1950 


Budget  Jan- 
Sept  1951 


Tot9l  re- 
ceipts &  Ex- 
penditures 


Cash  Balance,  October  1,  1950 

Receipts: 

Foundations..  - 

Membership  contributions 

Other  Income 

Far  Eastern  Survey,  subscriptions- 
Royalties  - 


$5, 946.  51 

»15, 000. 00 

10, 635.  00 

10.05 

2,  374.  42 

164.  38 


$16, 875. 00 

33,  295  50 

300.  00 

5,  250. 00 

375.  00 


$5, 946.  51 

31,875.00 

43,  930.  50 

310  05 

7, 624. 42 

539.  38 


Total. 


,$34, 130.  36 


$56, 095.  50 


$90, 225. 86 


Disbursements: 

Administration 

Grand  to  Pacific  Council - 

Research 

Conferences  &  Meetings.. 

Library .  

Services  to  Members 

Publications    

Far  Eastern  Survey 

Promotion 


$5, 844.  62 

4,  000.  00 

1,644.73 

1,  285.  07 

325  02 

739.  56 

155.  00 

3, 751.  76 

53.67 


$19,651.50 
6,  750.  00 
4, 800. 00 
2,  925.  00 
1,  237.  50 
3, 326.  25 
3, 862.  50 
14, 163.  75 
1,500,00 


$25,  496. 12 
10, 750. 00 
6,  444.  73 
4,210.07 
1,  562,  52 
4, 065, 81 
4. 017.  50 
17,915.51 
1,  ,553.  67 


Cash  Balance,  December  31,  1950 

Septembei  30,  1951  (to  be  carried  forward)  . 

Total 


$17, 799,  43 
*16,  330.  93 


$58, 216.  50 


$76, 015. 93 
""l4,209,93 


$34, 130. 36 


$58,  216.  50 


0, 225, 86 


•$7,500  of  this  amount  earmarked  for  1951. 

**Oct.  1,  19.50 -December  31,  1950,  receipts  and  expenditures  based  on  actual  figures. 
Jan.  1,  1951-Sept.  30,  1951  prorated  on  basis  of  budget  for  the  year  1951. 


Exhibit  No.  865 

The  Rockefeller  Foundation, 
49  West  49th  Street,  Netv  York  20,  April  10, 1951. 
Mr.  William  L.  Holland, 

Secretary  General,  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations, 
One  East  54th  Street,  New  York  22,  New  York. 
Dear  Mr.  Holland  :  We  are  enclosing  herewith  our  check  for  $10,000,  cover- 
ing the  balance  available  for  the  period  ending  December  31,  1951,  under  appro- 
priation RF  50092  to  the  Pacific  Council  of  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations, 
toward  the  general  budget. 

We  note  that  the  budget  for  the  year  1951  under  our  appropriation  RF  50090 
to  the  American  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations  totals  $77,622.00.  Before  making 
further  payments  under  this  grant,  we  would  appreciate  receiving  a  budget  for 
the  year  beginning  October  1,  1950.  In  connection  with  your  requirements  for 
this  period,  a  check  in  the  amount  of  $15,000  was  forwarded  to  you  in  accordance 
with  the  request  in  your  letter  of  October  3, 1950, 
Very  truly  yours, 

George  J.  Beal. 

fg 

Enclosure — 1  Check 


Exhibit  No.  866 

August  14,  1951. 
Mr.  Edward  C.  Carter, 
The  Dodge  Hotel, 

20  E  Street  NW.,  Washington,  D.  C. 
Dear  Mr.  (  'arter  :  To  refresh  your  memory  for  the  hearing  on  Thursday,  here 
is  my  recollection  of  the  memo  I  wrote  you  on  September  1940  from  Berkeley 
about  Phil's  forthcoming  trip  to  Shanghai.  The  Phil,  of  course,  is  Phil  Lilien- 
thal,  at  that  time  my  research  assistant  working  with  me  in  Berkeley.  We  sent 
him  out  to  Shanghai  to  supervise  the  publication  of  a  large  number  of  IPR 


INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 


5031 


studies  which  we  planned  to  have  printed  in  Shanghai  by  Kelly  &  Walsh.  In 
my  memo,  I  was  obviously  telling  you  about  the  manuscripts  he  would  be  taking 
with  him. 

Morris  possibly  thinks  Phil  is  either  Jessup  or  JafCe, 

If  you  are  asked  why  I  said  secret  messages  should  be  sent  to  Lilienthal  in 
care  of  Herb  Norman  in  Tokyo,  I  hope  you  will  say  it  was  a  perfectly  normal 
thing  and  meant  only  that  there  might  be  some  question  (e.  g.,  relating  to  the 
China  IPR  or  to  the  Inquiry  Series)  which  we  didn't  want  to  come  to  the 
attention  of  the  Japanese  IPR  office,  which  was  Lilienthal's  ordinary  mailing 
address  in  Tokyo.  At  that  time,  the  Japanese  were  opposing  our  plan  to  go  ahead 
with  the  Inquiry  Series  and  were  also  criticizing  the  Secretariat  as  being  too 
pro-Chinese. 
Yours, 

William  L.  Holland, 
Executive  Vice  Chairman. 
WLH :  abs 


Exhibit  No.  889 


js. 


State  of  New  York, 
County  of  New  York,  ss: 

I  have  examined  the  documents  described  in  the  list  annexed  hereto  as 
Exhibit  Z.  While  I  have  a  present  recollection  of  only  a  few  of  them,  I  am 
satisfied  that  these  documents,  subject  to  the  comments  noted  below,  are  letters 
or  memoranda  received  by  me  or  photostatic  copies  thereof,  or  copies  of  letters 
or  memoranda  sent  by  me  to  others  or  photostatic  copies  of  such  copies : 


Document 

Atomic  Energy  and  U.  S.  Int. 
Policy.  Summary  of  a  Round- 
table  Conf.  under  joint  auspices 
of  IPR  and  S.  F.  International 
Center.  JAN.  1946.  File  No. 
122.41. 

Harriet  Moore,  Edward  C.  Carter. 
March  2,  1943.     File  No.  500.38. 


9.  W.  L.  Holland,  Edward  C.  Carter. 
March  26, 1943.     File  No.  100.402. 

16.  Invitation  list  of  May  8  meeting 

46.  Raymond     Dennett     (Return     to). 

Report  on  Washington  Office  Dec. 
1943-March  1945.  File  No. 
122.37. 

47.  MAS  RY   (Report)     April  16,  1945. 

File  No.  122.37. 


Comment 
was  not  present  at  the  meeting  de- 
scribed  in  this  document,   nor   do   I 
know   by   whom   this    document   was 
prepared. 


The  second  page  of  this  document  is  a 
memorandum  to  me  from  HM.  This 
memorandum  appears  to  have  no  re- 
lation to  the  first  page  of  this  docu- 
ment. 

The  second  memorandum  set  forth  on 
this  document  appears  to  be  incom- 
plete. 

The  date  of  the  meeting  referred  to  is 
May  6. 

I  do  not  know  whether  or  not  I  have 
seen  these  documents  before.  Neither 
of  them  was  prepared  by  me  or  ad- 
dressed to  me. 


Edward  C.  Carter. 

Sworn  to  before  me  this  9th  day  of  May,  1952. 

[seal]  Irene  R.  Donohue, 

Notary  Public,  State  of  New  York. 

Qualified  in  Queens  County  No.  41-6061300.  Certs,  filed  with  Queens,  Kings, 
New  York,  and  Bronx  County  Clerks  and  Regs.  Offices,  Westchester  &  Nassau 
Co.  Clerks  Offices.     Commission  Expires  March  30,  1954. 

(The  documents  referred  to  by  Mr.  Carter  are  exhibits  Xos.  901, 
907,  909,  916,  946,  and  947.) 


5032 


INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 


Exhibit  No.  900 


To— 


From- 


Date 


File 
1m  umber 


Exhibit 
Number 


Atomic  Energy  and  U.  S.  Int.  Policy. 
Summary  of  a  Roundtable  Conf.  under 
joint  auspices  of  IPR  and  S.  F.  Inter- 
national Center. 

Frederick  V.  Field 

Edgar  J.  Tarr 

W.  L.  Holland  and  Background  informa- 
tion "The  Strength  of  the  Muslim 
League  in  India." 

Misses  Carter 

Harriet  Moore 

W.  L.  Holland 

W.  L.  Holland 

Mabel  Carter 

Richard  J.  Walsh 

Henry  C.  Alexander 

E.  C.  Carter 

E.  C.  Carter 

■Capt.  John  L.  Christian 

Invitation  list  of  May  8  meeting 

E.  C.  Carter 

E.  C.  Carter 

E.  C.  Carter 

Col.  Truman  M.  Martin 

W.  W.  Lockwood 

E.  C.  Carter 

Mortimer  Graves 

Lauchlin  Currie 

Lauchlin  Currie 

Invitation  list  of  3rd  Collective  Security 
Meeting  in  the  Paciflc  and  Far  East 
and  list  of  those  invited  with  notations. 

Milo  Perkins 

E.  C.  Carter 

Milo  Perkins — draft  to 

Lauchlin  Currie 

Constantine  Oumansky 

Constantino  Oumansky 

John  A.  Carter 

Mr.  &  Mrs.  Constantine  Oumansky 

Mrs.  Maxim  Litvinofl 

Eugene  D.  Kisselev _ 

Lauchlin  Currie 

Lauchlin  Currie 

E.  C.  Carter 

William  D.  Carter 

Dr.  Robt.  J.  Kerner 

Misses  Carter 

Andrew  Grajdanzev 

John  Carter 

Kate  Mitchell 

Raymond  Dennett  (Return  to  Report  on 
Washington  Office,  Dec.  1943-March 
1945.) 

MAS 

Andrews  J.  Grajdanzev 

Secretary,  Lithuanian  Legation 

E.  C.  Carter 

Selective  Service  Board  #53 

Notes  for  Cleveland  Speech 

Speech  "Soviet  Russia's  Contribution  to 
Peace." 

E.  C.  Carter 

Owen  Lattimore 

Owen  Lattimore . 

E.  C.  Carter 

Owen  Lattimore.. 

E.  C.  Carter 

Ray  Dennett 

Ray  Dennett 

Notes  on  Mr.  Carter's  finances  of  trip 

E.  C.  Carter 


E.  C.  Carter. 
E.  C.  Carter. 
E.  C.  Carter. 


E.  C.  Carter 

E.  C.  Carter 

E.  C.  Carter 

E.  C.  Carter 

E.  C.  Carter 

E.  C.  Carter 

E.  C.  Carter 

John  L.  Christian. 
M.  W.  Pettigrew.. 
E.  C.  Carter 


M.  W.  Pettigrew 

Alger  Hiss. 

Truman  M.  Martin. 

E.  C.  Carter 

E.  C.  Carter 

Wm.  C.  Johnstone.. 

E.  C.  Carter 

E.  C.  Carter 

E.  C.  Carter 


E.  C.  Carter. 
MOo  Perkins. 


E.  C.  Carter 

E.  C.  Carter 

E.  C.  Carter 

E.  C.  Carter 

E.  C.  Carter 

E.  C.  Carter 

E.  C.  Carter.. 

E.  C.  Carter's  secretary. 

E.  C.  Carter.. 

W.  D."Bill"  Carter.... 

E.  C.  Carter 

E.  C.  Carter 

E.  C.  Carter 

E.  C.  Carter 

E.  C.  Carter 

E.  C.  Carter 


RY  (Report). 
E.  C.  Carter. 
E.  C.  Carter. 

K.  C.  Li 

K.  C.  Li 

Carter 

Carter 


Ray  Dennett 

E.  C.  Carter 

E.  C.  Carter 

Ray  Dennett 

E.  C.  Carter 

Owen  Lattimore. 

E.  C.  Carter 

RDC 


Ray  Dennett. 


Jan. 1946 


1/29/43 
2/  3/43 
3/  1/43 


3/  1/43 
3/  2/43 
3/18/43 
3/26/43 
4/  1/43 
4/12/43 
4/12/43 
4/13/43 
4/  1/43 
4/- 5/43 


4/29/43 
4/30/43 
5/  1/43 
5/  4/43 
5/10/43 
5/21/43 
6/  7/43 
6/  9/43 
6/15/43 
6/17/43 


5/26/42 
6/20/42 


6/28/43 

7/14/43 

6/30/43 

7/18/43 

7/20/43 

7/20/43 

7/20/43 

8/  4/43 

8/  1/43 

8/23/43 

10/15/43 

11/  4/43 

11/  8/43 

11/13/43 

11/15/43 

11/15/43 


4/16/45 
12/13/43 
12/22/43 
3/  7/44 
3/  7/44 
3/31/44 
4/14/44 

1/  7/45 
2/10/45 
6/  6/45 
6/18/45 
6/20/45 
6/25/45 
9/13/45 
9/26/45 
10/19/45 
11/19/45 


122. 41 


500. 34 

500.35 

131B.43 


100. 186 
500. 38 
119.  78 
100.  402 
119.83 
107.  55 
100.  183 
131B.  29 


131B.32 
191.  263 
131B.31 
131B.30 
119.  151 
191.25 
100. 164 
119.118 
500. 39 
119.8 


119.  70 
500.  40 
500.  42 
100.  187 
500.  43 
500.  44 
500.  45 
119.  68 


119. 30 

119.76 
105. 174 
100.  185 
100  163 
100.  188 
131B.161 
122. 37 


122  37 
100. 162 
100.  202 
119.  28 


100  302 
100.  289 

122.  40 
102.  43 
102.  42 
500. 36 
102. 39 
500. 41 
122. 38 

'ioo.  283' 
119.  135 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS  5033 

Exhibit  No.  901 
ATOMIC  ENERGY  AND  UNITED  STATES  INTERNATIONAL  POLICY 

SUMMART  OF  A  ROUND-TaBLE  CONFERENCE 

Under  joint  auspices  of  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations,  417  Market  Street,  San 
Francisco  5,  YUkon  1570;  and  San  Francisco  International  Center,  68  Post 
Street,  San  Francisco  4,  DOuglas  2273.     January  1946 

(On  December  29,  1945.  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations  and  the  San 
I'l-ancisco  International  Center  held  a  round-table  conference  running 
through  the  day  on  atomic  energy  and  its  international  implications. 
Attending  the  conference  were  physical  scientists,  some  of  whom  had 
contributed  to  the  development  of  the  atomic  bomb ;  social  scientists, 
journalists;  officers  of  the  United  States  armed  services;  and  persons 
active  in  women's  groups,  labor  groups,  and  groups  interested  in  inter- 
national relations.  The  agenda  and  a  list  of  participants  appear  at  the 
end  of  this  summary.) 

THE  facts  about  THE  BOMB 

The  moderator  opened  the  discussion  by  asking  whether  the  scientists  present 
were  agreed  on  the  following  five  points  which  seemed  to  him  to  emerge  from 
what  the  public  had  heard  about  the  atomic  bomb:  (1)  that  the  bomb  in  its 
present  state  of  development  was  capable  of  enormous  destruction  and  that 
"improvements"  in  the  future  would  almost  certainly  make  it  very  much  more 
destriictive ;  (2)  that  secrecy  at  best  was  only  a  temporary  protection  for  the 
United  States  because  other  countries  would  probably  develop  atomic  bombs 
shortly;  (3)  that  the  raw  materials  necessary  for  atomic  bomb  production  were 
readily  available  to  all  great  powers  and  many  smaller  powers  ;  (4)  that  the  cost 
was  not  prohibitive;  and  (5)  that  no  adequate  defense  against  atomic  bombs 
existed  at  present  or  was  likely  to  be  found  soon. 

Recently,  however,  the  moderator  had  read  statements  attributed  to  a  high 
military  authority  that  cast  doubt  on  some  of  these  conclusions.  The  talk  about 
a  push-button  war,  according  to  these  statements,  was  exaggerated.  The  people 
of  this  country  had  no  need  to  fear  being  atomized  by  a  hostile  power.  Wash- 
ington, D.  C,  would  not  be  bombed  during  the  lifetime  of  most  people  now  living 
because  the  United  States  had  the  production  and  engineering  know-how  to 
build  the  bomb,  which  other  countries  lacked.  These  factors  were  just  as  essen- 
tial in  the  making  of  the  bomb  as  the  scientific  contributions.  The  military 
authority  was  said  to  have  declared  that  the  scientists  were  not  engineering  ex- 
perts and  therefore  were  not  qualified  to  judge  the  time  required  for  other  nations 
to  produce  the  bomb. 

A  scientist  who  had  contributed  to  the  development  of  the  bomb  declared  that 
he  agreed  with  the  five  points  put  forward  by  the  moderator.  The  bomb  had 
tremendous  destructive  power  at  present  and  was  susceptible  of  great  develop- 
ment. He  suggested  the  possibility  that  in  the  future  atomic  energy  would  have 
other  wartime  applications  than  its  original  use  in  blasting  Japanese  cities. 
Radioactive  materials  might  be  used,  for  example,  against  personnel  and  agri- 
culture. To  keep  the  scientific  principles  behind  the  bomb  from  being  known  in 
other  nations  was  impossible.  Moreover,  these  principles  were  the  critical  ele- 
ments in  its  making.  The  scientists  themselves  had  suggested  much  of  the  en- 
gineering that  went  into  the  making  of  the  bomb.  And,  since  the  need  for  speed 
was  paramount,  practically  all  of  the  devices  and  techniques  used  were  taken 
from  other  operating  industries.  Any  advanced  industrial  nation  could  get  the 
raw  materials— uranium  and  thorium  were  well  scattered  over  the  world — and 
make  a  bomb  in  reasonable  time.  No  effective  defense  exists  now  nor  seems  likely 
in  future. 

A  second  scientist  who  had  contributed  to  the  making  of  the  bomb  agreed.  In 
his  opinion,  quite  possibly  the  present  state  of  the  bomb  was  to  its  future  develop- 
ment as  the  muzzle-loading  cannon  was  to  present-day  artillery.  A  policy  of 
secrecy  would  only  spur  on  development  of  the  bomb  in  other  countries,  now  that 
the  United  States  had  proved  its  production  feasible.  For  the  fundamental 
secret  was  released  when  the  bomb  was  dropped — namely,  that  atomic  energy 
could  be  harnessed  for  destruction.  Much  additional  information  was  contained 
in  the  oflicial  Smyth  report.  Several  different  methods  were  available  at  each 
stage  of  the  bomb's  manufacture,  and  foreign  nations  would  probably  not  be 

SS34S — 52— pt.  14 — — n 


5034  INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC   RELATIONS 

forced  to  make  the  same  mistakes  we  did  in  its  hurried  development  in  wartime. 
Another  scientist  suggested  that  in  peacetime  the  development  of  the  bomb 
might  go  on  faster  in  the  Soviet  Union  than  in  the  United  States.  P'or  the 
U.  S.  S.  R.  seems  to  support  its  scientists  more  wholeheartedly  than  this  nation 
does.  Money  was  no  object  on  a  state-supported  project,  the  scientists  being 
given  everything  they  needed  to  produce  the  desired  results.  As  for  secrecy, 
that  was  a  hope  unjustified  by  the  facts  of  scientific  life. 

THE   STATE   OF   PUBLIC   OPINION 

What  is  the  state  of  American  public  opinion  about  the  bomb?  the  moderator 
questioned.  Are  the  people  fully  and  accurately  informed  about  the  matter,  and 
are  they  reacting  in  a  way  that  will  eventuate  in  reaching  rational  solutions  to 
the  problems  of  the  new  atomic  age? 

One  word  describes  the  present  public  mind  about  atomic  energy,  a  journalist 
replied,  and  that  word  is  fear.  The  public  may  have  a  fuzzy  hope  that  interna-  • 
tional  peace  can  be  obtained  by  international  agreement,  but  that  feeling  is  sec- 
ondary to  an  almost  universal  fear — a  fear  that  otlier  powers  will  get  the  bomb 
and  will  use  it.  And  out  of  that  fear  comes  an  instinctive  reaction  on  the  part 
of  the  public  that  we  can  and  should  keep  the  bomb  a  secret,  and  through  its 
possession  write  the  world  ticket  for  the  future.  One  of  the  greatest  needs  of  the 
hour,  he  continued,  is  for  a  great  amount  of  public  education  and  information, 
and  that  as  rapidly  as  possible. 

Will  public  opinion  support  the  cession  of  a  part  of  our  sovereignty  in  order  to 
make  international  control  of  atomic  power  possible?  a  scientist  asked.  There 
is  no  indication,  a  journalist  answered,  that  the  public  today  has  even  the  fog- 
giest notion  of  what  such  regulation  will  do  to  our  sovereignty.  Without  that 
understanding,  bow  can  the  people  answer  the  question  of  whether  they  would 
be  willing  to  surrender  a  part  of  it?  A  physicist  commented  that,  unfortunately, 
with  such  a  state  of  public  opinion,  some  of  our  better  Senators,  who  are  con- 
stantly asking  how  much  of  the  wise  and  decent  thing  they  can  "get  away  with," 
will  not  feel  constrained  to  fight  very  hard  for  intelligent  action. 

A  social  scientist  observed  that  at  a  closed  meeting  of  business  men  in  New 
York  recently  a  high  official  of  the  army  argued  for  keeping  the  bomb  as  a  power 
instrument  and  the  audience  had  seemed  to  agree  with  his  arguments.  A  labor 
educator  queried  whetlier  the  May-Johnson  bill  with  its  reactionary  insistence  on 
secrecy  and  tight  national  control  was  still  the  official  policy  of  the  military.  Or 
are  the  armed  forces  willing  to  follow  the  Moscow  agreement,  which  alters  the 
May- Johnson  concepts?  There  has  not  been  and  is  not  now  an  official  military 
policy,  an  officer  of  the  armed  services  replied.  That  is  a  matter  for  the  people 
of  the  United  States  to  decide.  Another  officer  concurred.  And  to  aid  the  people 
to  decide  intelligently,  it  was  generally  agreed  by  all  present,  an  immediate  na- 
tional campaign  of  education  on  the  facts  of  the  bomb  and  its  implications  for  the 
future  was  vitally  needed. 

THE  STATE  OF  FOREIGN   OPINION 

The  moderator  read  a  newspaper  dispatch  from  Moscow  giving  "man  in  the 
street"  interviews  on  the  atomic  bomb.  A  38-y?ar-old  woman,  a  dressmaker,  had 
said  she  wished  the  bomb  had  never  been  invented.  She  was  afraid  that  the 
attempt  of  the  United  States  to  monopolize  it  would  not  be  in  the  interests  of 
the  people  of  the  world.  And,  she  added,  she  hoped  the  inventors  of  the  bomb 
would  find  no  peace  on  this  earth !  Was  this  typical  of  foreign  opinion,  asked  the 
moderator? 

An  educator  recently  back  from  a  United  Nations  meeting  replied  that  he  was 
afraid  it  was.  All  over  the  world  there  was  a  sweeping  feeling  that  peoples  and 
nations  must  cooperate  culturally,  politically,  and  in  every  way  if  civilization 
were  to  continue.  I'eople  felt  that  it  was  impossible  to  keep  the  atomic  bomb  the 
secret  possession  of  the  United  States,  and  that  it  would  be  undesirable  if  it  were 
possible.  For  that  would  lead  to  suspicion  and  armed  competition,  which  would 
be  the  final  disaster.  All  during  the  war  Europe  has  been  socially  as  well  as 
politically  isolated.  We  should  take  immediate  advantage  ol'  this  emotional 
desire  by  removing  all  obstructions  from  the  free  interchange  of  technical,  po- 
litical, artistic  and  literary  ide;is.  A  scientist  agreed  that  one  of  the  most  imme- 
diate needs  was  the  launching  of  such  a  widespread  intercultural  program  to 
encourage  free  interchange  of  all  types  of  information,  including  information 
related  to  potential  military  weapons. 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS  5035 

CONTROL    OF    ATOMIC    WEAPONS 

A  labor  member  stated  that  he  understood  we  were  continuing  to  make  atomic 
bombs.  Why  are  we  still  making  them,  and  against  whom  are  we  planning  to 
use  them,  he  queried?  Is  this  not  a  threat  to  all  other  nations  and  to  the  suc- 
cessful construction  of  a  working  international  organization? 

A  scientist  replied  that  it  would  be  a  fine  thing  if  we  stopped  making  them 
immediately.  But  a  college  otticial  disagreed.  As  long  as  we  maintain  an  army 
for  future  wars  that  army  should  be  as  efficient  as  possible  and  shovild  have  the- 
best  tools  of  destruction  available.  He  remembered  that  he  personally  had  been 
against  the  fortification  of  Guam  before  the  recent  war  and  had  lived  to  regret 
deeply  his  stand.  Only  with  effective  international  control  and  policemen  would 
he  be  willing  to  see  this  nation  disarm  atomically. 

An  officer  of  the  armed  services  observed  that  perhaps  international  control 
was  not  the  only  solution  to  the  problem.  He  suggested  that  the  United  States 
could  possibly  stop  future  wars  by  maintaining  its  superiority  in  atomic  re- 
search and  by  building  up  such  an  overwhelming  stockpile  of  atomic  bombs  that 
it  would  be  foolhardy  for  another  nation  to  attack  us.  One  of  the  principal 
reasons  why  gas  was  not  used  against  us  in  the  recent  war,  he  observed,  was  that 
we  had  more  of  it  than  the  Germans  did. 

Disagreeing,  a  scientist  replied  that  we  could  not  be  at  all  sure  that  we  could 
continue  our  sui>eriority  in  either  the  research  for,  or  the  production  of,  atomic 
bombs.  The  development  of  science  is  one  of  the  most  unpredictable  things  on 
this  earth.  But  even  if  we  did  remain  superior,  this  policy  would  lead  straight 
to  an  armaments  race  and  catastrophe. 

A  second  officer  of  the  armed  services  added  that  if  atomic  bombs  were  still 
being  manufactured  it  should  be  remembered  that  they  were  being  made  with  the 
explicit  approval  of  the  President,  who  was  in  a  much  better  position  to  know 
about  our  po.ssible  future  military  needs  than  anyone  sitting  in  this  room.  Ap- 
parently, a  journalist  added,  the  President  is  supported  by  public  opinion.  For 
the  public  obviously  believes  that  another  war  is  not  only  possible  but  probable, 
and  because  of  that  conviction  it  demands  that  we  have  the  best  engines  of 
destruction  in  the  world. 

Whether  this  nation  should  stop  making  atomic  bombs  immediately  or  only 
after  international  control  has  been  evolved  was  a  moot  question  as  was  the  ques- 
tion of  revealing  or  not  revealing  such  "secrets"  as  we  still  possess.  But  there 
was  little  doubt  in  the  majority  of  minds  about  the  need  for  ijositive  and  immedi- 
ate action  in  organizing  some  type  of  workable  international  control.  As  one 
social  scientist  put  it,  this  is  a  time  of  tragic  urgency.  Unless  we  solve  this 
in-oblem  now,  we  shall  inevitably  drift  into  an  atomic  arms  race,  the  catastrophic 
effects  of  which  are  all  too  foreseeable.  Agreed  to  also  was  the  remark  of  a 
physicist  that  the  war  just  ended  was  the  "last  victory"  on  this  earth.  In  any 
future  major  war  the  great  cities  on  both  sides  will  be  destroyed  and  millions  of 
people  will  be  anniiiilated.  "Victory"  will  be  a  purely  relative  matter,  of  who 
has  the  most  survivors  and  the  greatest  capacity  and  will  to  fight  on. 

INSPECTION 

Granted  some  form  of  world  organization,  is  intei-national  control  of  atomic 
energy,  backed  by  an  etfective  inspection  system,  technically  possible,  the  mod- 
erator questioned? 

A  scientist  replied  that  he  had  no  doubt  about  it,  if  the  participating  countries 
honestly  attempted  to  enforce  it.  Atomic  bombs  cannot  be  made  in  an  abandoned 
cellar.  Their  manufacture  requires  elaborate  machinery  and  laboratory  equip- 
menr,  whii  h  are  readily  detectable.  But,  a  journalist  added,  inspection  of  atomic 
energy  was  not  enough.  The  world  Is  now  in  a  feverish  race,  not  alone  in  atomic 
weapons  but  in  all  types  of  new  and  deadly  armaments.  Jet  planes,  gas  turbines, 
supersonic  speeds  and  push-button  rockets  are  all  being  developed.  Consequently, 
there  would  have  to  be  inspection  of  all  tj'pes  of  armament.  The  fundamental 
problem  was  to  stop  the  outbreak  of  war.  For  once  hostilities  started,  and  in- 
ternational control  was  abandoned,  the  atom  bomb  could  be  made  by  any  major 
nation  and  would  undoubtedly  be  used. 

A  social  scientist,  who  had  worked  for  a  number  of  years  with  the  League 
of  Nations,  was  of  the  opinion  that  the  technical  problem  of  inspection  would 
uoc  be  too  difficult,  judging  from  the  experience  with  the  control  of  opium.  One 
possible  safeguard,  for  example,  was  a  free  interchange  of  information.  The 
refusal  of  any  country  to  make  evidence  available  could  be  construed  as  prima 


5036  INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 

facie  evidence  of  something  wrong.  The  problem  was  really  political,  not 
technical.  But  because  it  was  political  it  was  perhaps  more  dilficult  to  solve. 
Certainly,  a  tremendous  revolution  in  our  ways  of  thought  and  action  would 
have  to  precede  or  accompany  the  adoption  of  a  genuine  inspection  system. 
For  that  would  mean  opening  every  industrial  laboratory  and  every  factory 
door  in  the  world  to  the  official  inspectors.  It  was  obvious  that  our  concepts 
of  secrecy  by  competitive  industries  and  our  theory  of  patents  might  offer 
obstacles  to  such  a  development. 

A  scientist  interjected  that  efficient  inspection  would  have  to  be  in  some 
instances  by  visit  and  search.  We  could  no  longer  rely  on  the  negative  safe- 
guard of  a  scientist's  desire  to  publish.  Most  of  the  research  done  in  this 
country  today  was  done  not  in  the  university  laboratory  where  publication 
always  had  been  and  is  automatic,  except  where  the  government  steepped  in. 
But  rather  it  was  done  in  industrial  laboratories  where  the  emphasis  was  upon 
withholding  information  from  possible  competitors.  In  some  instances  that 
condition  had  greatly  changed  the  traditional  concept  of  freedom  in  science. 

Would  the  various  nations  of  the  world,  for  example  the  U.  S.  S.  R.,  accept 
international  inspection,  the  moderator  asked? 

A  member  who  had  devoted  particular  study  to  the  U.  S.  S.  R.  replied  that 
in  the  first  international  meeting  of  scientists  since  the  war  the  Russians  held 
nothing  bacli.  The  desire  of  the  U.  S.  S.  R.  for  secrecy  is  commensurate  with 
tlieir  feeling  of  insecurity.  Once  the  U.  S.  S.  R.  feels  secure  from  military  in- 
vasion, he  thought,  it  will  be  completely  willing  to  exchange  any  and  all 
information. 

But  would  not  a  system  of  thoroughgoing  international  inspection  mean  a 
drastic  change  in  the  Russian  way  of  doing  things  and  be  harder  for  them  to 
accept  than  for  us,  a  scientist  queried? 

A  military  officer  thought  not.  Once  the  Russian  government  accepted  it,  the 
whole  nation  would  accept  it  .  For  the  Russians  are  accustomed  to  such 
inspection  from  above.  Private  industry  in  the  United  States,  on  the  contrary, 
is  not.  Even  if  our  government  did  officially  accept  such  a  system,  it  would 
meet  with  great  opposition  in  practice  by  private  corporations  throughout  the 
country. 

A  journalist  agreed.  If  the  General  Motors  Corporation  will  not  open  its 
books  to  a  government  committee  on  prices  and  wages,  it  is  probable  that  it 
will  object  strenuously  to  opening  its  laboratories  and  factories  to  foreign 
inspectors.  International  inspection  clearly  means  a  sweeping  change  in  our 
ideas  about  private  enterprise  and  private  gain  through  the  use  of  private 
information. 

But,  several  members  interposed,  the  information  obtained  could  be  held  con- 
fidential by  the  international  inspectors.  After  all,  we  have  had  inspection  by 
income  tax  authorities  and  various  government  enforcement  agencies  for  a  long 
time.  The  Department  of  Commerce  regularly  gets  statistical  information  from 
business  firms  which  it  agrees  not  to  publish  except  as  industry  totals. 

Should  not  the  United  Nations  Organization  run  some  atomic  laboratories  of 
its  own,  the  moderator  asked?  It  could  invite  all  the  world's  leading  scientists 
to  work  in  these  laboratories  from  time  to  time.  In  that  way  the  UNO  would 
know  more  about  atomic  energy  than  any  single  nation  in  the  world,  and  full 
disclosure  and  interchange  of  new  developments  would  be  more  assured. 

There  seems  to  be  no  intention  to  do  that,  replied  an  educator  just  returned 
from  a  UNO  meeting.  For  one  thing,  it  would  cost  too  much,  and  the  resulting 
huge  budget  would  imperil  the  life  of  the  entire  organization.  No,  the  answer 
lies  in  world  control  and  inspection.  And  our  willingness,  or  lack  of  it,  to  accept 
inspection  will  be  a  test  of  whether  we  are  acting  in  entire  good  faith  in  our 
efforts  to  build  a  world  dedicated  to  amity  and  security  for  all  peoples. 

We  should  be  extremely  careful  about  vetoing  any  proposition  aiding  control 
and  inspection,  even  though  it  concerns  what  we  believe  to  be  our  own  business, 
a  social  scientist  added,  or  it  may  set  a  precedent  we  might  live  to  regret.  New 
Zealand  objected  to  a  League  committee  investigating  a  local  squabble  with  the 
natives  in  one  of  their  mandated  territories.  On  tlie  basis  of  that  precedent  the 
League  was  barred  from  investigating  the  state  of  things  in  the  Japanese  man- 
dated islands  of  the  Pacific. 

I  am  ready  to  accept  whatever  changes  in  our  life  effective  control  of  atomic 
power  necessitates,  a  journalist  stated.  I  would  much  rather  welcome  a  Russian 
inspector  representing  the  United  Nations,  than  a  Russian  atomic  bomb. 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC   RELATIONS  5037 

THE  PREVENTION  OF  WAR  AND  THE  UNITB3)  NATIONS   ORGANIZATION 

The  next  question  the  moderator  posed  was  whether  the  present  structure  of 
the  United  Nations  Organization  was  adequate  to  fulfill  its  mission  in  an  atomic 
world.  Should  the  veto  power  reserved  by  the  five  great  nations  be  altex-ed? 
Many  people  of  world  importance,  including  some  statesmen,  think  that  the  veto 
power  and  the  control  of  the  atomic  bomb  are  irreconcilable.  Some,  indeed,  feel 
that  we  must  have  a  world  state  now  with  plenary  powers  if  we  are  to  preserve 
our  present  civilization  from  disaster. 

A  social  scientist  answered  that  it  was  a  proper  procedure  to  place  the  respon- 
sibility for  the  control  of  the  atomic  bomb  squarely  on  the  backs  of  the  great 
powers.  The  idea  that  all  nations  large  and  small  should  be  given  equal  repre- 
sentation and  power  in  an  international  body  has  come  from  all  the  nonsense 
that  has  been  thought  and  written  about  sovereignty.  To  give  a  nation  of  five 
million  inhabitants  as  much  power  as  a  nation  with  one  hundred  and  seventy- 
five  millions  could  not  be  considered  democratic.  Modern  wars  are  started  by 
conflict  between  the  great  powers.  And  it  does  not  make  any  difference  to  an 
aggressor  nation  whether  it  is  outvoted  four  to  one  or  forty  to  one.  The  abolition 
of  the  veto  power  would  at  this  time  simply  enlarge  the  sphere  of  possible  dis- 
harmony among-  the  major  nations. 

Accepting  this  as  true,  a  scientist  believed  that  the  veto  power  was  necessary 
under  present  circumstances.  The  public,  he  felt,  is  not  ready  to  discuss  the 
veto  i)ower,  because  it  seemed  to  be  beside  the  point.  What  is  needed  immedi- 
ately is  not  new  machinery  but  agreement  among  the  great  powers. 

A  college  administrator  added  that  the  reason  why  no  one  at  the  meeting 
was  willing  to  speak  for  the  abolition  of  the  veto  was  that  everyone  recognized 
that  our  present  popular  belief  in  national  sovereignty  would  make  it  imjwssible 
for  either  the  U.  S.  S.  R.  or  our  own  Senate  to  agree  to  such  a  step.  We  have  this 
fixation  about  sovereignty  and  we  have  to  live  with  it  at  least  a  little  while 
longer. 

RELATIONS  WITH  THE   SOVIET  UNION 

Throughout  the  meeting,  the  moderator  had  observed  numerous  references 
to  the  U.  S.  S.  R.  when  the  members  had  speculated  on  the  possibility  of  keeping 
the  peace.  Apparently,  in  common  with  many  other  people  in  this  country,  the 
members  of  this  group  felt  that  the  gi'eatest  potential  danger  to  the  peace  of 
the  future  lies  in  the  possibility  of  deteriorating  relations  between  the  United 
States  and  Russia.  The  moderator  realized  that  many  people  in  this  nation 
are  worried,  for  example,  about  the  Russian  policy  toward  the  smaller  states 
neighboring  her.  Occasionally  there  is  also  a  fear  expressed  in  this  country  that 
the  Red  army  may  take  over  the  control  of  the  Russian  state.  And  these  fears 
of  ours  are  also  undoubtedly  reciprocated  by  Russian  fears  about  the  policy 
of  the  United  States.  What  then  can  be  done  here  and  in  Russia  to  encourage 
continuing  good  relations  between  the  United  States  and  the  U.  S.  S.  R.? 

One  of  the  best  ways  to  quiet  our  fears,  a  labor  educator  suggested,  is  to 
study  and  inform  ourselves  about  the  structure  and  the  present  condition  of 
the  U.  S.  S.  R.  If  we  do,  we  will  know  that  the  Red  army  comes  from  the  people, 
is  part  of  the  people,  and  therefore  oifers  no  threat  of  any  such  military  domi- 
nation of  the  government.  AVe  will  also  know  that  there  are  one  million  am- 
putees in  Russia  today  who  have  lost  an  arm  or  a  leg.  and  that  they  together 
with  all  the  Russian  i^eople  have  but  one  desire  internationally — and  that  is 
lasting  peace.  We  should  also  find  out  by  study  that  there  never  have  been 
and  are  not  now  anv  irreconcilable  conflicts  of  interest  between  this  nation 
and  the  U.  S.  S.  R. 

An  officer  of  the  armed  forces  suggested  that  perhaps  we  could  use  the  atomic 
bomb  as  a  bargaining  counter  with  Russia  to  get  the  things  we  want  interna- 
tionally and  to  obtain  a  foolproof  International  organization.  To  this  a  scientist 
objected  that  the  bomb  gives  no  hartraining  power,  or  very  little.  Within  fire 
years  or  so  the  Russians  will  probably  be  able  to  make  atomic  bombsL  In  the 
meantime,  we  are  not  going  to  make  war  upon  them.  The  people  of  this  country 
could  not  be  persuaded  to  enter  another  war  in  the  next  five  year  by  any  gov- 
ernment, unless  we  were  attacked.  They  just  would  not  support  a  war,  and  the 
Russian  government  knows  that. 

A  modification  of  Russian  restrictions  on  the  press  would  help  our  relations, 
a  journalist  volunteered.  There  is  as  much  need  for  international  freedom 
of  the  press  as  there  is  for  free  world  science. 


5038  INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 

What  about  looking  at  our  own  newspapers,  a  civic  leader  interjected,  at  our 
own  schools,  radio,  and  movies?  Depending  upon  the  definition,  we  may  have  a 
fr€>e  press;  but  does  it  express  national  opinion?  Judging  from  the  campaigns 
of  the  last  three  presidential  elections,  she  thought  not.  It  may  be  free,  but  it 
certainly  is  not  a  responsible  press.  Many  people  want  Russia  to  adopt  a  free 
press,  but  would  they  want  Russia  to  adopt  the  policies  of  some  of  the  news- 
papers in  this  country? 

01)viously,  a  scientist  added,  the  United  States  and  the  USSR  in  the  future 
are  going  to  compete  for  the  moral  leadership  of  the  world  in  the  name  of  de- 
mocracy. They  may  mean  difl"erent  things  by  democracy,  but  neither  of  them 
is  using  anti-democratic  propaganda  as  the  Nazis  were.  That  is  important,  for 
perhaps  one  system  does  not  have  to  swallow  the  other.  Perhaps  both  will  be 
modified  toward  a  common  mean. 

Why  do  they  have  to  be  modified  to  be  accepted  by  each  other,  an  educator 
asked?  Is  it  not  possible  that  cultural  pluralism  can  exist  in  the  world  without 
war?  If  we  cannot  accept  the  fact  of  cultural  pluralism,  then  we  certainly  are 
on  the  broad  highway  to  another  world  war. 

This  argument  was  quickly  supported  by  a  college  official.  Reasoning  by 
analogies  is  dangerous,  he  admitted,  but  four  hundred  years  ago  most  of  the 
civilized  world  was  killing  one  another  l)ecause  of  religious  differences.  When 
both  sides  were  convinced  they  could  not  win  they  stopped  the  killing  and  ac- 
cepted the  fact  of  religious  pluralism.  And  types  of  religion  meant  as  much  to 
the  seventeenth-century  European  as  types  of  economics  to  the  man  in  the 
street  today. 

WHAT  NEEDS  TO  BE  DONE  NOW 

A  few  thousand  scientists  created  this  problem  of  atomic  energy,  the  moderator 
stated,  but  millions  of  people  all  over  the  world  have  to  participate  in  solving 
it.  What  can  be  done  in  the  immediate  future  to  dispel  their  suspicion  of  one 
another  and  to  create  both  the  will  and  the  ability  among  them  to  answer  these 
many  difficult  questions  which  we  have  been  discussing? 

For  one  thing,  replied  a  scientist  who  had  worked  on  the  bomb,  our  own 
country  can  take  the  lead  in  allaying  suspicion  by  abandoning  production  of 
atomic  weapons.  (There  was  no  agreement  on  the  timing  of  this  move,  some 
holding  that  international  acceptance  of  an  adequate  control  system  should 
precede  such  a  step.)  Secondly,  the  scientist  continued,  we  might  supply  atomic 
power  plants  to  nations  who  do  not  now  have  the  needed  power  to  develop  their 
raw  materials.  One  operating  uranium  pile  in  China  might  be  convincing  testi- 
mony to  the  Chinese,  as  well  as  the  rest  of  the  world,  that  we  do  not  intend  to 
monopolize  atomic  power  for  our  own  selfish  national  interests. 

The  National  Academy  of  Science  might  also  further  the  interests  of  world 
peace,  a  social  scientist  suggested,  by  reciprocating  Russia's  recent  gesture 
and  inviting  the  scientists  of  the  world  to  a  conference  in  the  United  States 
to  discuss  recent  scientific  progress  and  research.  Why  only  science,  an  officer 
of  the  armed  forces  asked?  Why  not  call  a  world  conference  to  talk  over  the 
whole  field  of  human  culture  and  endeavor? 

A  college  official  objected  that  as  an  educator,  he  was  dubious  about  per- 
suading people  through  intellectual  means  rapidly  enough  to  solve  the  great 
problems  confronting  us.  Through  the  use  of  symbols  we  might  work  faster 
and  more  effectively  in  the  emotional  realm.  One  of  the  most  powerful  of  our 
symbols  is  the  flag.  Why  not  start  a  United  Nations  flag  movement.  A  flag, 
together  with  other  types  of  persuasion,  might  help  to  create  what  we  really 
need — a  new  area  of  sovereignty,  a  world  sovereignty. 

An  officer  of  the  armed  forces  intervened.  One  of  the  most  fundamental 
things  we  can  do  in  creating  an  attitude  receptive  to  world  organization  and 
enduring  peace  is  to  obtain  an  adequate  standard  of  living  for  everyone.  As 
we  oppose  legislation  in  this  nation  calculated  to  assist  the  rest  of  the  world 
to  increase  its  capacity  to  produce  and  to  raise  the  world  standard  of  living 
we  are  opposing  world  peace.  And  as  we  support  it  we  are  supporting  world 
peace.     An  economist  signified  hearty  agreement. 

A  most  essential  role  in  educating  the  public  and  in  changing  public  attitudes, 
a  journalist  declared,  will  be  played  by  the  scientists.  At  no  time  in  the  past 
has  the  prestige  of  the  scientists  been  higher  with  the  American  public.  If 
they  remain  out  of  their  laboratory  shells  and  continue  their  activity  on  the 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC   RELATIONS  5039 

platform  and  in  the  press  as  they  have  recently  done,  the  edueational  job  will 
he  far  less  ditficult  to  perform.  They  should  not  c<mfinB  their  remarks  to  the 
technical  aspects  of  these  questions,  but,  as  in  this  meeting,  take  the  responsi- 
bility of  discussins  publicly  at  every  opportunity  all  of  the  social  implications 
of  their  discoveries. 

A  scientist  replied  that  tvpo  organizations  made  up  of  scientists  had  already 
been  formed  in  the  state  of  Califirnia  to  work  for  the  proper  world  control 
of  atomic  power.  Other  crroups  of  scientists  were  active  in  other  parts  of  the 
country  and  were  federating  natinnnlly.  An  association  for  the  international 
control  of  atomic  energy,  to  include  both  scientists  and  nonscientists,  had  re- 
cently been  launched  in  this  vicinity. 

The  organization  of  such  small  groups  all  over  the  nation  should  be  en- 
couraged, a  social  scienti.st  concluded.  It  gives  the  movement  for  international 
control  a  grass  rt?ots  flavor  and  is  in  the  great  tradition  of  American  democracy. 
But  that  is  not  enough.  If  these  small  groups  are  not  organized  into  a  co- 
ordinated national  movement  for  education  and  action,  thpir  energies  will  be 
dissipated.  What  is  needed  today  is  a  national  campaign,  and  indeed  a  world 
campaign.  There  already  exist  in  this  nation  several  strong  and  active  national 
organizations  concerned  with  the  maintenance  of  world  peace.  By  federating 
with  and  supporting  there  organizations,  local  groups  all  over  the  country  can 
best  bring  about  their  <lesire  to  harness  atomic  power  for  the  constructive  use 
of  mankind. 

George  E.  Mowrt, 

Kajiporteur. 

The  Agenda  Used  by  the  Conference 

i.  the  situation 

A.  Testimony  of  scientists  on  destructiveness  of  atomic  weapons :  on  probable 

time  required  for  other  powers  to  have  them  regardless  of  secrecy ;  on  future 
development  possibilities. 

B.  Official  policy  proposals  and  negotiations  to  date. 

C.  The  present  state  of  public  opinion,  as  gauged  by  opinion  polls,  by  pronounce- 

ments of  various  groups,  and  in  other  ways. 

D.  Official  and  unofficial  reactions  in  other  countries. 

E.  Conclusions  :  How  urgent  is  the  problem  posed  by  the  situation  thus  revealed? 

In  view  of  the  fact  that  all  participants  have  by  now  considerable  back- 
ground information,  a  relatively  brief  time  will  be  spent  on  Topic  I. 

II.    WHAT  NEEDS  TO  BE  DONE? 

A.  Control  of  atomic  weapons. 

1.  National  control?    Probable  consequences  of  atomic  armaments  com- 

petition. 

2.  International  control? 

a.  Methods  and  feasibility  of  inspection  system. 

b.  Political  problems,  including  relation  to  United  Nations  Organiza- 

tion. 

B.  The  prevention  of  war. 

1.  The  United  Nations  Organization.     What  changes,  if  any,  in  the  Charter 

and  in  T'nited  States  policy  toward  the  Organization  are  needed  in 
in  the  light  of  atomic  weapons  ? 

2.  Improvement    of    relations    with    other    great    powers,    especially    the 

U.  S.  S.  R.     What  can  be  done  about  the  distrust  that  exists? 

3.  The  issue  of  "world  government."     How  and  when? 

C.  Re-examination  of  United  States  military  defense  policies. 

1.  Foreseeable  effects  of  atomic  weapons  on  military  strategy  and  on  com- 

parative power  positions. 

2.  The  relation  of  atomic  weapons  to  such  issues  as  : 

a.  Universal  peacetime  military  training. 

b.  Naval  policy  and  naval  bases. 

c.  Scientific  research  and  mobilization  of  scientists. 


5040  INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 

III.    HOW  TO  GET  DONE  WHAT  NEEDS  TO  BE  DONE? 

A.  The  problem  of  public  support  for  constructive  policies  in  relation  to  atomic 

weapons. 

B.  What  specific  methods  are  available  for  education  of  the  public,  especially  on 

the  West  Coast,  to  the  real  issues  involved  and  to  the  needs  for  positive 
action? 

List  op  Participants 

Bloch,  Felix,  Physics  Department,  Stanford  University 

Boardman,  T.  D.,  International  Center 

Brewer,  Leo,  Chemistry  Department,  University  of  California 

Clark.  Mrs.  Warner,  International  Center 

Condliffe,  John  B.,  Economics  Department,  University  of  California 

Cowell,  Mrs.  Olive  Thompson,  Social  Science  Department,  San  Francisco  State 

College  . 
Douglas,  Mrs.  W.  W.,  League  of  Women  Voters 
Edwards.  Paul  C,  Associate  Editor,  San  Francisco  News 
Elkus,  Mrs.  Charles  de  Young,  Jr.,  Columbia  Foundation 
Elliott,  Robert  C,  San  Francisco  News 
Greenslade,  Admiral  John  W.,  USN  (ret.) 
Hacke,  Mrs.  Harold,  League  of  Women  Voters 
Isaacs,  Lt.  Col.  Irwin  M.,  USA 

Kirkpatrick,  Paul  H.,  School  of  Physical  Sciences,  Stanford  University 
Kefauver,  Grayson  N.,  Department  of  Education,   Stanford  University 
McLaughlin,  Mrs.  Alfred,  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations 
McWilliams,  Mrs.  Robert,  International  Center 
Merner,  Garfield  D. 

Mowry,  George  E.  (Rapporteur)  History  Department,  Mills  College 
Oppenheimer,  Frank,  Radiation  Laboratory,  University  of  California 
Phillips,  Miss  Lillian  M.,  Women's  Action  Committee 
Roberts,  Holland,  California  Labor  School 
Tilton,  Mrs.  L.  Deming,  League  of  Women  Voters 
Webster,  David  L.,  Physics  Department,  Stanford  University 
Weinberg,  Joseph  W.,   Physics  Department,  University  of  California 
Wheeler,  Oliver  P.,  Director  of  Research,  Federal  Reserve  Bank  of  San  Francisco 
White,  Dr.  Lynn,  Jr.,  President,  Mills  College 
Wickett,  Fred  A.,  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations 
Wickett,  Walton  A.,  California  Laboratories 
Wilbur,  Brig.  Gen.  Wm.  H.,  USA 

Selected  Reading  List 

(All  items  listed  are  available  in  the  libraries  of  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Rela- 
tions, 417  Market  Street,  or  the  International  Center,  68  Post  Street,  San  Fran- 
cisco. Those  marked  with  an  asterisk  were  circulated  to  conference  participants 
in  advance.) 

Angell,  Norman.     "Human  Nature  and  the  Atom  Age."    Free  World,  Dec.  1945. 
"Atomic  Bomb.     Asset  or  Threat?"     Appraisai  of  Weapon  by  Nation's  Foremost 
Scientists,  V.  S.  News,  October  26,  1945. 
*"Atomic  Energy,  Agreed  Declaration  by  the  President  of  the  United  States,  the 
Prime  Minister  of  the  United  Kingdom,  and  the  Prime  Minister  of  Canada," 
Department  of  State  Bulletin,  November  18,  1945. 
*"Atomic  Energy  and  American  Policy,  Official  and  Unofficial  Pronouncements," 
Internatonal  Conciliation,  December  1945. 
"Atomic  Isolationism,"  Nation,  October  20,  1945. 

Baldwin,  Hanson  W.     "The  Atom  Bomb  and  Future  War,"  Life,  August  20, 1945. 
*Brodie,  Bernard.     "The  Atomic  Bomb  and  American  Security,"  Yale  Institute 
of  International  Studies,  Nov.  1,  1945. 
Bush.  Vannevar.     "Beyond  the  Atomic  Bomb,"  Supplement  to  Fortune,  Sept. 

1945. 
Chase,  Stuart.     "Atomic  Age  Balance  Sheet,"  Common  Sense,  October  1945. 
*Chapman,  Seville.    "Atomic  Bombs  and  World  Organization."    (Mimeographed.) 
*Compton,  Arthur  H.     "Atomic  Power  in  War  and  Peace."     (Mimeographed.) 
Einstein,  Albert  (as  told  to  Raymond  Swing).     "Einstein  on  the  Atomic  Bomb," 
Atlantic  Monthly,  November  1945. 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS  5041 

Geddes,  D.  P.  (ed.).     The  Atomic  Age  Opens.     N.  Y. :  Pocket  Books,  Inc.,  1945. 
*Gideonse,    Harry   D.     "The   Politics  of  Atomic  Energy."     Pieprint  from   'New 
Leader,  November  3,  1945. 
GilfiUan,  S.  Cohim.     "The  Atomic  Bombshell,"  Survey  Oraphic,  Sept.  1945. 
Gustavson,  R.  G.     "The  Story  Behind  the  Atomic  Bomb,"  Vital  Speeches,  October 

1,  1945. 
Hutching,  Robert  M.     "Toward  a  Durable  Society,"  Fortvne,  June  194P.. 
"The  Impact  upon  International  Relations  of  the  New  Weapon,"  World  Today, 

September  1945. 
Jaffe,  Bernard.     "How  the  Bomb  Came  to  Be,"  Nem  Republic,  Sept.  17, 1E45. 
Baldwin,  Hanson  W.,  Churchill,  Winston  ;  and  Hutchins,  "The  Blast  That  Shook 

the  World."     Reader's  Digest,  October  1945. 
Present,  Richard  D.     "Scientists  Have  No  Illusions,"  Free  World,  Dec.  1945. 
*Ruml,  Beardsley.     "World  Trade  and  Peace."     (INIimeographed.) 
Russell,  Bertrand.     "How  to  Avoid  the  Atomic  War,"  Common  Sense,  Oct.  1945. 
Shapley,  Harlow.     "Status  Quo  or  Pioneer?"  Harpefs,  October  1945. 
Shotwell,  James  T.     "Control  of  Atomic  Energy."     Survey  Oraphic,  Oct.  1945, 
Shotwell,  James  T.     "Our  Endless  Frontier,"  Survey  Graphic,  November  1945. 
♦Smyth,    Henry   Dewolf.     Atomic   Energy   for   Militai-y   Purposes.     Princeton: 
Princeton  University  Press,  1945. 


Exhibit  No.  902 

129  East  52nd  St.,  New  York  City,  January  29,  1945. 
Mr.  Frederick  V.  Field, 

16  West  12th  Street,  New  York  City. 

Dear  Fred  :  This  is  to  thank  you  most  sincerely  for  your  extraordinarily  helpful 
letter  of  January  26th.  I  think  I  agree  with  practically  every  one  of  the  criti- 
cisms that  you  have  made.  If  we  could  have  managed  to  shape  the  conference  in 
advance  along  the  lines  which  we  now  in  retrospect  see  would  have  been  desirable, 
the  results  would,  I  b'^lieve,  have  been  even  more  substantial.  The  analysis  that 
you  have  made  means  that  we  must  now  in  the  series  of  continuation  conferences 
and  discussion  groups  which  we  are  now  planning  and  which  you  suggested  at 
Mont  Tremblant  endeavor  to  achieve  some  of  those  things  which  we  failed  to 
achieve  at  Mont  Tremblant.  In  this  we  will  be  looking  to  you  for  constant  sug- 
gestion and  leadership. 

Thanks  to  your  excellent  suggestion,  yesterday  we  had  Castro  to  lunch.  Lock- 
wood  and  Holland  and  I  all  found  him  most  charming,  stimulating  and  intelligent. 
We  are  giving  him  letters  of  introduction  to  friends  in  Delhi  and  Chungking  and 
arranging  for  him  to  meet  a  number  of  Chinese  in  New  York  and  Washington 
and  in  addition  a  circle  of  Americans  who  know  China  in  both  cities. 

He  has  made  excellent  suggestions  for  multiplying  our  contacts  in  Mexico  itself. 

Be  sure  that  I  meet  Tolefano  when  he  comes  to  New  York. 
Sincerely  yours, 

Edward  C.  Carter. 


Exhibit  No.  903 

129  East  52nd  Street,  New  York  Citt, 

February  3,  1948. 
Mr.  Edgar  J.  Tarr, 

Chatean  Laui'ier,  Ottaiva,  Canada. 
Dear  Tarr  :  On  Wednesday  evening,  February  10th,  subject  to  your  approval, 
I  am  planning  to  take  you  to  a  dinner  to  the  great  Mexican  labor  leader,  Vin- 
centa  Lombard  Toledano  who  is  one  of  the  most  forceful,  intelligent,  and  liberal 
leaders  in  Mexico  and  is  President  of  the  Confederation  of  Latin  American 
Workers.  The  dinner  is  sponsored  by  the  C.  I.  O.  It  will  give  you  opportunity 
of  meeting  someone  who  would  be  essential  in  building  an  I.  P.  R.  in  Mexico.  It 
will  also  give  you  an  opportunity  of  seeing  at  first  hand,  progressive  New  York 
City  workers  en  masse. 
Sincerely  yours, 

Edward  C.  Carter. 


5042  INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 

Exhibit  No.  905 

Makch  1,  1943. 
WLH. 
KM     from   ECC: 

The  private  document  prepared  in  Washiugtou  on  the  Strength  of  the  Muslim 
League  has  come  into  my  hands.  It  is  not  available  for  quotation,  nor  should 
any  reference  by  made  to  it.  I  thought,  however,  that  you  might  be  interested 
in  seeing  it,  so  I  have  had  copies  made.  I  don't  think  that  it  covers  the 
ground,  but  it  does  contain  one  or  two  interesting  points. 

164/No.   4/2/1/43 
Background  infomiation 

THE  STRENGTH  OF  THE  MUSLIM  LEAGUE  IN  INDIA 

Mk.  JiNNAii's  Position 

Mr.  Jinnah,  leader  of  the  Muslim  League  has  recently  been  carrying  on  a 
vigorous  political  drive. 

His  visit  to  the  Punjab  showed  the  extent  to  which  he  has  secured  contact 
with  the  Muslim  masses.  It  can  no  longer  be  argued  that  because  at  the 
General  Elections  it  was  not  able  to  secure  a  majority  of  the  Muslim  votes 
in  any  Province,  the  Muslim  League  has  no  following  among  the  masses.  Since 
1937,  accession  to  the  Muslim  League's  and  Mr.  .Tinnah's  strength  has  been 
tremendous.  Almost  every  bye-election  in  Muslim  constituencies  has  been 
won  by  the  League  and  the  number  of  Muslim  League  members  in  the  various 
Provincial  Legislatures  has  increased  manifold. 

The  number  of  Muslim  Ministers  who  now  owe  allegiance  to  the  League  is 
considerable.  The  latest  accession  has  come  from  Sind.  Sir  Ghulam  Hussain 
Hidayatullah,  who  succeeded  Mr.  Allah  Box,  has  joined  the  League  and  his 
example  has  since  been  followed  by  all  the  Sind  Muslim  Ministers.  Here  is  a 
survey  of  the  Muslim  League  position  in  the  Muslim  majority  Provinces : 

PUNJAB 

The  total  number  of  Muslim  Members  in  the  Punjab  Legislative  Assembly  is  89. 
Only  one  out  of  these  was  elected  on  Muslim  League  ticket  in  the  General  Elec- 
tions of  1937.  The  number  of  Muslims  elected  on  Unionist  tickets  was  77.  Aii 
Muslim  members  of  the  Unionist  Party  are,  however,  now  members  of  the  Mus- 
lim League  under  what  is  known  as  the  Sikander-Jinnah  Pact  of  1938.  The 
main  terms  of  the  Pact  were  that  the  Unionist  Party's  Leader,  tlie  late  Sir 
Sikander  Hyat  Khan,  with  all  his  Muslim  followers  in  the  Assembly  should 
join  the  League  and  promise  support  to  it  in  all  Indian  constitutional  questions. 
Mr.  Jinnah  agreed  on  his  part  that  the  Muslim  members  of  the  Unionist  Party 
would  have  freedom  in  Provincial  matters  and  would  be  free  to  pursue  the 
Unionist  Party  program. 

The  political  complexion  of  the  Punjab  made  it  necessary  for  the  late  Sir 
Sikander  Hyat  Khan,  the  Punjab  Prime  JMinister,  not  to  form  a  Muslim  League 
Government  but  a  Unionist  Government  in  coalition  with  Hindu  and  Sikh  groups. 
In  all  Provincial  matters  he  pursued  a  more  or  less  independent  line  and,  though 
professing  allegiance  to  the  League  and  Mr.  Jinnah,  his  policy  on  all-Indian  ques- 
tions was  at  times  embarrassingly  independent  of  the  League.  On  the  other 
hand,  Sir  Sikander  never  openly  flouted  any  league  mandate  and  he  resigned 
from  the  National  Defence  Council  when  required  by  the  League. 

The  Civil  and  Military  Gazette  of  Lahore  recently  wrote  :  "What  is  consistently 
ignored  is  the  fact  that  Mr.  Jinnah  and  Sir  Sikander  are  mutually  dependent; 
their  common  fundamental  purpose  must  override  differences  arising  from  the 
admitted  diversity  of  their  'spheres  of  influence.'  Whatever  their  personal  pre- 
dilections, circumstances  must  force  the  Muslim  League  President  and  the 
Premier  of  the  Punjal)  (so  long  as  he  is  a  IMuslim)  to  I'un  in  dcmble  harness  until 
India's  future  is  hammered  out ;  and  that  Constitution  may  conceivably  effect 
even  closer  cooperation  between  tiiem." 

Mr.  Jinnah's  recent  Punjab  tour  monopolised  public  attention,  not  only  be- 
cause of  his  public  utterances  on  topical  questions,  but  also  because  of  the  object 
underlying  his  visit.  Recent  attempts  made  by  the  Punjab  Premier  to  settle  the 
communal  proldem  in  that  part  of  the  country  on  a  Provincial  basis  irrespective 
of  an  all-Indian  agreement,  must  doubtless  have  caused  anxiety  to  Mr.  Jinnah. 
The  formula  favored  by  Sir  Sikander,  according  to  most  reports,  conceded  self- 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS  5043 

determination  to  the  Hindu  and  Sikli  minorities  in  the  event  of  a  Muslim 
plebiscite  deciding  in  favor  of  secession  in  a  postwar  settlement.  The  minorities 
may  form  a  separate  State  or  join  the  main  Indian  Union.  Negotiations  went 
on  for  some  time  amon,t,'st  the  various  parties  but  ultimately  broke  down  or 
were  adjourned  because  it  was  said  that  the  Hindus  wished  to  consult  the 
Mahasabha. 

Soon  after,  Mr.  Jinnah  arrived  in  the  Punjab  and  in  his  first  public  utterance 
made  a  pointed  reference  to  the  main  basis  of  the  scheme  without  naming  it  and 
condemned  the  move  to  give  the  right  of  self-determination  to  "Sub-National" 
groups  like  the  Hindus  and  the  Sikhs  in  the  Punjab  and  the  Muslims  in  the  United 
Provinces. 

He  further  tried  to  win  over  the  Sikhs  to  his  conception  of  Pakistan  by 
reassuring  them  tliat  their  interests  would  be  safe  under  a  Muslim  State.  This 
failed,  by  Mr.  .Jinnah  succeeded  in  scotching  the  "Mischievious  idea,"  as  he 
described  it,  of  a  purely  Provincial  settlement  of  the  communal  problem  and  laid 
down  that  "no  settlement  is  worth  the  paper  on  which  it  is  written  either  in 
the  I'unjah  or  elsewhere,  so  far  as  Muslims  are  concerned,  except  with  the 
Muslim  League." 

Later,  Mr.  .linnah  in  another  speech  said  that  he  had  not  referred  to  the 
Sikander  formula,  which  he  liad  not  even  studied  in  his  earlier  speech.  This 
enabled  Sir  Sikander  Hyat  Khan  to  make  a  rapprochement  with  Mr.  Jinnah 
and  declare  himself  to  be  a  loyal  supporter  of  the  Muslim  League.  If  there  were 
any  differences  between  Sir  Sikander  and  Mr.  Jinnah.  it  was  explained,  they 
related  more  to  the  method  than  to  the  policy  and  program  of  the  Muslim  League 
and  were  intended  solely  to  further  its  aims  and  ideals. 

Attempts  have  lately  been  made  to  show  that  the  Sikander  formula  is  in  ac- 
cordance witli  the  League's  resolution  on  Pakistan  w^hich  visualised  territorial 
adjustments.  The  formula  allowed  this  in  accordance  with  the  desires  of  the 
communities  concerned  and  to  that  extent  unintentionally  conceded  the  right  of 
self-determination  to  the  Hindues  and  the  Sikhs.  However,  the  problem  is  no 
more  a  live  issue.  IMr.  Jinnah  has  applied  tlie  damper  and  as  a  result  of  his  visit 
to  the  Punjab  he  is  back  again  in  the  position  he  occupied  prior  to  Sir  Sikander's 
attempt. 

The  death  of  Sir  Sikander  Hyat  Khan  on  December  26tli  was  regarded  by  the 
New  York  Times  Correspondent  (X.  Y.  T.  Dec.  29)  as  considerably  strengthening 
Mr.  Jinnah's  position  by  removing  the  only  Muslim  figure  important  enough  to 
challenge  him. 

BENGAL 

Out  of  a  total  of  123  Muslim  members  in  the  Bengal  Assembly  and  30  in  the 
Legislative  Council.  43  and  11  memiiers.  respectively,  follow  the  Muslim  I^eague. 

Mr.  Fazlul  Haq,  the  Premier  of  Bengal,  who  has  been  a  member  of  the  Muslim 
League  since  1918,  resigned  in  1940  when  disciplinary  action  was  threatened 
against  him  for  accepting  membership  of  the  National  Defense  Council,  from 
which,  however,  he  resigned.  The  IMuslim  League  expelled  him  on  December  11, 
1941,  for  having  formed  a  coalition  Ministry  in  Bengal  without  its  sanction. 

Some  unconfirmed  reports  have  appeared  in  the  press  that  Mr.  Fazlul  Haq 
had  met  Mr.  Jinnah  recently  in  Delhi.  Another  report  said  that  Mr.  Haq  liad 
rejoined  the  Muslim  League.  On  this  the  Bengal  Premier  made  the  following 
statement:  "The  news  published  by  Independent  India  (Mr.  M.  N.  Roy's  Delhi 
paper)  about  my  rejoining  the  Muslim'  League  raises  an  irrelevant  issue.  I 
maintain  I  was  never  out  of  the  League,  I  am  still  in  the  League.  Therefore, 
the  question  of  my  rejoining  does  not  arise.  As  regards  Mr.  Jinnah,  I  have 
never  been  at  war  with  him,  nor  do  I  intend  to  be  so.  I  am  not  at  war  with 
anybody.     I  am  at  war  with  untruths." 

SIND 

Out  of  35  Muslim  members  in  the  Sind  Assembly,  only  13  were  elected  on 
Muslim  League  ticket.  With  the  return  of  Sir  Ghulam  Hussain  Hidayatullah 
as  Premier  of  the  Province  in  October  last,  a  number  of  M.  L.  A.'s  have  joined 
the  League.  Sir  Ghulam  and  all  his  Muslim  ]Ministers  are  now  members  of  the 
League,  and  the  strength  of  the  League  party  is  now  26  out  of  35. 

Sir  Ghulam  resigned  from  the  Mu.slim  League  when  Mr.  Allah  Bux  took  him 
into  his  Cabinet  two  years  ago.  His  rejoining  the  League  has  been  prompted 
by  a  desire  to  strengthen  the  Ministry  that  he  formed  on  Mr.  Allah  Bux's 
dismissal. 


5044 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 


ASSAM 

Out  of  34  Muslim  members  in  the  Assam  Assembly,  originally  only  3  were 
elected  on  Muslim  League  ticket.  But,  a  few  months  after  the  General  Elections 
30  members  signed  on  as  a  Muslim  League  I'arty.  The  Premier,  Sir  Mohammad 
Saadullah  Khan,  has  been  strictly  followiu'i  IMuslim  League  discipline.  He  re- 
signed from  the  National  Defence  Council  when  re<]uired  by  the  League  to  do 
so.  On  recently  assuming  office  he  claimed  that  his  Cabinet  was  representative 
of  Assam's  people.  No  mention  was  made  of  the  party  affi'iations  of  the  Muslim 
members  of  his  Cab:net.  In  all  his  public  utterances  siuCvi  assuming  office,  he 
has  refrained  from  mentioning  the  Muslim  League. 

ihf;  north-west  frontier  province 

Out  of  ."^S  members  in  the  N.-W.  F.  Province  Legislative  Assembly,  only  12  belong 
to  the  League  Party.  The  only  sign  of  a  weakening  of  the  Congress  Party  in 
the  Province  has  been  the  resignation  of  Arbab  Abdul  Ghafoor  Khan,  M.  L.  A. 
ex-Parliamentary  Secretary,  from  the  Congress  Party  and  the  Rsd  Sldrts,  but 
he  did  not  join  the  Muslim  League.  He  formed  a  new  organization  called  the 
Pashtoon  .lirga.  It  aims  at  an  independent  Pathan  State,  run  in  accordance 
with  the  laws  of  the  Shariat.  In  a  statement,  Arbab  Abdul  Ghafoor  Khan  said 
that  an  alliance  with  the  Congress  was  harmful  as  the  Pathans  were  gradually 
losing  their  identity  and  drifting  away  from  religion. 


Total  Muslim 
Members  of 
Legislatures 

Total  Muslim 
League  Mem- 
bers 

Piiniab                                                               

89 

123 
30 
35 
34 

78 

Bengal: 

Lowpr  House                                 -  _  

A?i 

11 

Sind                     

26 

Assam                                           -- 

30 

North  Wp'^t                                                                      

Frontier  Province 

38 

12 

Total                                  --- --- 

349 

I  211 

>  Or  60.45  percent. 


Important  note. — It  is  important  to  remember  in  using  the  above  figures  that 
they  show  the  strength  of  the  Muslim  League  among  the  Muslim  members  of 
the  Legislatures  of  Muslim  majority  provinces;  they  do  not  show  Muslim  League 
strength  in  Hindu  majority  provinces  (these  figures  will  be  released  later  when 
available). 

JH :  MC. 


Exhibit  No.  906 

129  East  52nd  Street, 
New  York,  N.  Y.  March  1, 19^3. 
The  Misses  Carter, 

SI  Bartlet  Street,  Andover,  Mass. 
Dear  Mabel  and  Harriet  :    Thank  you  for  all  your  kindness,  thoughtf ulness, 
and  love,  and  for  this  delicious  loaf  of  bread. 

I  looked  everywhere  in  the  station  and  on  the  train  for  Zita,  but  I  guess  she 
probably  decided  to  take  a  later  train. 

Under  separate  cover  I  am  sending  you  the  four  American  Council  booklets. 
They  are  all  good,  but  I  think  you  will  find  the  one  on  the  Soviet  Union  the 
most  interesting  and  timely. 
Sincerely  yours, 

Edward  C.  Carter. 


INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  5045 

Exhibit  No.  907 

March  2,  1943. 
Copies  to  WWL 
WLH 
HA 
ED 

HM  from  ECC : 

Going  up  to  New  England  last  week  I  read  "The  Land  of  the  Soviets"  for  the 
first  time.  I  was  immensely  impressed  with  it  and  feel  that  it  is  a  most  skillful 
and  timely  job.  It  is  going  to  have  a  very  big  sale  in  the  secondary  schools,  but 
I  would  like  to  see  a  similar  sale  amongst  the  general  reading  public. 

If  you  agree  that  this  is  desirable,  I  am  wondering  what  you  and  your  col- 
leagues would  think  of  cooperating  with  Webster  in  getting  it  out  as  a  bound 
volume  that  would  sell  at  $1..50  or  $2.00,  and  go  out  in  a  big  way  for  getting  it 
reviewed  and  promoted.  So  long  as  it  is  in  its  present  Binding  it  will  probably 
fail  to  make  the  review  columns  of  the  more  serious  book  review  editors. 

Could  you  also  check  with  F7-ed  Myers  and  Rose  Gandel  to  see  whether  it  has 
been  taken  up  by  the  merchandising  department  of  RWil  and  whether  there  are 
any  large  possibilities  there  either  in  the  present  edition  or  in  a  bound  volume, 
where  there  could  be  a  considerably  larger  national  distribution. 

At  the  right  time  I  would  like  to  see  the  present  or  the  new  edition  go  with 
personal  letters  from  me  to  any  of  the  following  who  have  not  received  it : 

Litvinoff 

Gousev 

Kolokoff 

Gromyko 

Davies 

Standley 

Faymonville 

Hopkins 

Hazard 

the  whole  RWR  Board 

McLean  and  some  of  the  leaders  of  the  Canadian  Aid  to  Russia  Fund 

Welles 

Some  of  the  more  outstanding  members  of  the  Foreign  Relations  and  Foreign 
Affairs  Committees  in  Congress 

A  select  list  of  people  in  the  Ai-my  headquarters 

T.  V.  Soong 

Some  of  the  Indian  Leaders 

To  Chiang  Kai-Shek  and  some  of  his  colleagues 

Motylev 
ECC  from  HM : 

Here  is  a  possible  type  of  invitation  that  might  work  on  the  Russians. 
It  would  be  necessary  to  tell  Litvinov  what  it  was  and  urge  him  to  send  as 
many  of  his  people  as  possible,  if  he  can't  come  himself.  Likewise  it  would  be 
well  to  get  from  Jessup,  Currie,  Harold  Ickes,  Henry  Morgenthau  the  names  of 
their  assistants  who  should  be  invited,  if  we  don't  already  know.  Also  Lukashev 
should  be  urged  to  let  some  of  his  people  come. 


Exhibit  No.  908 

Makch  18, 1943. 
WLH  from  ECC. 

The  talk  with  Veatch  revealed  the  following : 

1.  Governor  Lehman  and  Mr.  Sayre  were  very  enthusiastic  about  our  talk  and 
very  eager  to  have  the  IPR  undertake  the  assignment. 

2.  The  areas  to  be  covered  in  approximately  the  following  order  are  : 

Burma 

Malaysia 

Netherlands  Indies  and,  in  fact  all  Southeastern  Asia  except  that  we  need  give 

little  attention  to  the  Philippines  (I  imagine  Sayre  will  do  that  himself) 
China 
Korea,  Japan,  and  Manchuria 

Veatch  will  send  us  today  or  tomorrow  such  general  outlines  and  directives 
as  they  have  already  worked  out  for  other  areas,  but  they  do  not  want  us 


5046  INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 

to  be  too  much  ^ided  by  these.  They  want  us  to  make  our  own  analysis  and 
put  forward  our  own  project. 

They  would  hope  that  we  could  send  them  an  outline  of  our  proposed  plan 
within  the  next  four  or  five  days ;  that  after  a  month  we  could  present  a  first 
draft,  and  that  some  of  us  could  take  it  to  Washiugton  for  a  full  day's  discussion 
with  them  and  a  few  Far  Eastern  experts  from  various  Government  departments. 
Then  the  gaps  could  be  filled  and  a  redraft  made  and  the  whole  thing  submitted 
by  the  middle  of  May. 

I  asked  Veatch  whether  they  were  thinking  of  a  six-  or  ten-thonsand-doUar 
job,  and  he  said  that  they  had  been  thinking  in  smaller  terms,  that  he  felt  pretty 
sure  that  they  could  get  an  appropriation  to  cover  the  cost  of  one  $6,500  man 
for  two  months  and  then  the  money  could  be  used  in  whatever  way  we  thought 
best.  But  if  this  is  inadequate  they  would  make  every  effort  to  get  a  larger  ap- 
propriation. I  should  say  that  we  could  count  definitely  on  about  $1,100  with  a 
fair  chance  of  making  a  case  for  $2,200  or  $2,500. 

I  told  Veatch  that  professionally  we  couldn't  afford  to  submit  a  poor  piece 
of  work. 


Exhibit  No.  909 

Copy. 

"WLH  from  ECC.  March  26,  1943. 

I  was  a  bit  sad  when  I  discovered  in  Pacific  Affairs  page  proof  that  you  had 
secured  a  review  from  Norman  Thomas,  but  I  decided  to  say  nothing  to  anyone. 

Today  however  without  having  mentioned  the  matter  to  her  I  received  the 
enclosed  from  Harriet  Moore.  Please  return  it  at  your  convenience. 

The  case  of  Roy  is  different,  I  assume  ILO  submitted  his  paper  and  that  we 
had  to  accept  it. 

Copy. 

ECC  from  HM.  Rec'd  March  26,  1943. 

It  is  probably  unnecessary  for  me  to  add  this  P.  S.  to  the  memo  in  re  the 
talk  with  Litvinov,  but  I  believe  it  should  be  born  in  mind.  It  does  not  help 
the  standing  of  the  International  Secretariat  with  the  Soviets  to  use  people 
like  Norman  Thomas  and  Roy  of  India.  Good  capitalists  are  ok  with  them  but 
Social  democrats  are  poison — especially  of  the  Thomas  variety  who  remain 
the  one  group  in  the  U.  S.  who  oppose  the  war.  This  opposition  even  comes 
out  in  a  piece  like  his  review  in  the  current  Pacific  Affairs  tliough  somewhat 
disguised — "It  is  the  failure  of  most  American  liberals  to  understand  and  discuss 
openly  these  facts  which  warrants  grave  doubts  concerning  the  success  of  our 
struggle  now."  It  would  be  one  thing  for  one  of  the  national  councils  to  select 
these  people — but  it  is  a  little  different  when  it  is  tlie  international  secretariat. 

In  the  case  of  Roy  their  reaction  is  probably  that  the  IPR  is  pretty  ignorant 
about  India  if  they  pick  Roy  to  write  about  the  labor  movement  there.  I  know 
very  little  about  it,  but  my  impression  is  that  Mr.  Roy's  labor  movement  is 
something  minute  and  doesn't  represent  anytliing  of  real  significance.  Of 
course  Mr.  Roy  is  incidentally  an  ex-communist,  expelled  I  believe  for  "rightist" 
tendencies.  If  we  were  to  pick  a  minority  party  in  India,  it  would  be  more 
to  the  point  today  to  pick  the  Communists  themselves  who  apparently  are  co- 
operating in  the  war  effort  and  trying  to  push  the  Congress  into  a  settlement. 
The  British  have  even  let  most  of  them  out  of  jail  as  their  program  is  construc- 
tive for  the  general  war  effort.  But  best  of  all,  the  IPR  should  stock  to  major 
movements  and  to  articles  on  large  groupings  first,  before  it  goes  in  for  the 
Roys. 

I  am  sure  that  this  position  will  not  be  accepted  by  either  the  secretariat  or 
many  of  the  individuals  connected  with  the  IPR,  but  as  you  know  it  is  bard 
for  the  Soviets  to  cooperate  with  an  organization  whose  policy  it  cannot 
identify     *     *     *. 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS  5047 

Exhibit  No.  910 

129  East  52nd  Street, 
New  York,  N.  Y.,  1st  Ap7-il  1943. 

In  pencil  (Copy  to  P.  K.  C). 

Miss  Mabel  M.  Carter, 

31  Bartlet  Street,  Andover,  Massachusetts. 

Dear  Mabel  :  Herewith  my  check  for  $225.    I  was  in  Washington  on  Monday 
and  so  got  a  little  behind  with  my  correspondence. 

While  in  Washington,  among  others,  I  called  on  and  had  interesting  talks 
with  Dr.  T.  V.  Soong,  Foreign  Minister  of  China  ;  Under  Secretary  of  State  Sum- 
ner Welles ;  Secretary  of  the  Interior  Ickes ;  John  Hazard,  of  Lend-Lease ;  and 
Michael  Greenberg,  of  Lauchlin  Currie's  White  House  office.'  In  the  evening  I 
participated  in  a  United  Nations  discission  at  Constitution  Hall.  The  other 
speakers  were:  W.  L.  Batt,  of  the  War  Production  Board;  Gardner  Cowles,  of 
the  OWI,  who  went  to  Russia  with  Willkie ;  Maurice  Hindus ;  and  Sir  Bernard 
Pares,  of  the  London  School  of  Slavonic  Studies.  We  dined  beforehand  at  the 
home  of  Mrs.  Robert  L.  Bacon  and  then  went  back  to  her  house  at  10 :  30  for  an 
hour  and  a  half  further  discussion  and  a  number  of  speakers,  Senators,  Congress- 
men, press,  and  others.  It  was  a  full  and  useful  day. 
Affectionately  yours. 


Exhibit  No.  911 

129  East  52nd  Street, 
New  York  City,  April  12,  19^3. 
Mr.  Richard  J.  Walsh, 

Asia  Magazine,  J,0  East  J,9th  Street,  Neio  York  City. 
Dear  Dick  :  The  Dies  Committee  is  after  T.  A.  Bisson,  who  for  the  past  year 
has  been  working  for  the  BEW.     Bisson  desires  a  few  of  his  friends  to  write 
letters  testifying  to  his  loyalty  as  an  American  citizen,  adding  anything  that  the 
writer  feels  free  to  say. 

Enclosed  is  a  copy  of  what  I  have  written.  Would  you  feel  free  to  writ© 
directly  to  Honorable  John  H.  Kerr,  Chairman,  Special  Subcommittee  on  Com- 
mittee on  Appropriations,  House  of  Representatives,  Washington,  D.  C,  sending 
a  copy  of  your  letter  to  T.  A.  Bisson  at  383  Willard  Avenue,  Chevy  Chase, 
Maryland. 

Sincerely  yours, 

Edward  C.  Carter. 


Exhibit  No.  912 

129  East  52nd  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y.,  12th  April  1943. 

Henry  C.  Alexander,  Esq., 

23  Wall  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y. 
Dear  Alexander:  From  your  reading  of  Land  of  the  Soviets  I  am  afraid 
you  may  have  got  a  wrong  impression  of  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations.  In 
the  hope  of  correcting  such  an  impression,  I  am  venturing  to  send  you  for  your 
personal  library  a  few  of  our  publications  which  may  aid  in  rounding  out  the 
picture. 

During  the  past  year  the  Institute  has  published  in  North  America  more  than 
fifty  books  and  painphlets.  In  this  entire  list  the  only  one  which  has  been  criti- 
cized as  soft  and  sentimental  is  Land  of  the  Soviets,  which  was  written  espe- 
cially for  high-school  students  and  which  now.  happily,  is  being  revised.  Much 
more  representative  of  the  Institute's  solid  work  are  such  studies  as : 
Banking  and  Finance  in  China. 
Japan  Since  1931. 

The  Making  of  Modern  New  Guinea. 
I  am  therefore  sending  copies  of  these  to  you  under  separate  cover. 

Sincerely  yours, 

Edward  C.  Carter. 


5048  INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 

Exhibit  No.  913 

War  Department, 
Military  Inteixigence  SER\^CE; 

Washington,  April  IS,  1943. 
Mr.  Edward  C.  Carter, 

c/o  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations, 

129  East  52nd  Street,  Neio  York,  N.  Y. 

Dear  Mr.  Carter  :  Thank  you  for  your  letter  having  reference  to  the  Princeton 
Conference.  I  am  glad  to  have  the  tentative  agenda,  which  I  think  is  well  pre- 
pared. I  have  read  Mr.  Holland's  article  in  the  Far  Eastern  Survey  of  March 
5th  ;  it  seems  to  be  an  excellent  statement. 

I  am  taking  the  liberty  of  inviting  Colonel  Boekel,  who  is  shortly  going  to 
India  in  charge  of  "civilian  affairs  on  General  Stilwell's  Staff.  I  do  this  in  the 
belief  that  he  will  find  a  great  deal  in  the  discussions  which  will  be  of  value  to 
him  in  his  work.  I  have  checked  with  Dr.  Johnstone  and  he  thinks  it  is  an 
excellent  proposal.  I  realize  there  isn't  time  for  a  reply  from  you,  but  unless 
you  send  me  a  wire  to  the  contrary,  I  shall  bring  Colonel  Boekel. 
Sincerely  yours, 

/s/    John  I*  Christian, 
Captain,  A.  U.  8.,  Southern  Asia  Branch. 
am 


Exhibit  No.  914 
Penciled  notations :  KP 

War  Dep.^btment, 
Military  Intelligence  Service. 

Washington,  Ajrril  1,  194S. 
Mr.  Edward  C.  Carter, 

Secretary,  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations, 

129  East  52nd  Street,  New  York  City. 
Dear  Mb.  Carter:  You  letter  to  Colonel  Mayer  with  respect  to  the  I.  P.  R. 
meeting  on  India,  scheduled  for  Princeton,  April  17-18,  has  been  received.     We 
shall  be  pleased  to  have  Captain  John  L.  Christian  of  the  Southern  Asia  Branch, 
attend  this  private  meeting. 
Sincerely  yours, 

/s/  M.  W.  Petti  grew 
M.  W.  Pettigrew 
Colonel,  G.  S.  C,  Chief,  Far  Eastern  Unit. 


Exhibit  No.  915 


129  East  52nd  Street, 
New  York  City,  April  5, 1943. 


Captain  John  L.  Christian, 

Military  Intelligence  Service, 

War  Department,  Washington,  D.  C. 
Dear  Christian  :  We  were  delighted  to  hear  from  Colonel  Pettigrew  that  you 
will  be  able  to  attend  the  Princeton  Conference  on  "India  in  the  United  Nations' 
War  Effort,"  April  17  and  18.    As  soon  as  it  is  ready  we  will  send  you  the  draft 
agenda. 

Sincerely  yours, 

Edward  C.  Cakter. 


Exhibit  No.  916 
In  pencil  (ECC  invited  4/28/43) 

May  6  Meeting,  Washington,  Revised  Invitation  List 

Sir  Girja  S.  Bajapi,  Indian  Agency  General,  2633  16th  Street  NW,  Washington, 

D.  C. 
Hugh  Horton,  Department  of  State,  Washington 
H.  B.  Bnfler,  British  Embassy,  Washington 

(penciled  in-Carter) 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS  5049 

Frank  Coe,  Board  of  Economic  Warfare,  Washington,  D.  C. 

Geoffrev  Cox,  New  Zealand  Legation,  Washington 

J.   M.   Elizalde,    Resident   Commissioner  of  the   Philippines,   1617   Mass.   Ave., 

Washington 
James  W.  Fnlbright,  House  Office  Building,  Washington 
Morris  Greene,  2117  Woodland  Drive  NW,  Washington 
Dr.  G.  H.  C.  Hart,  1620  Belmont  Street  NW 
Alger  Hiss,  Esq.  Department  of  State 

(penciled  in-Holland) 
Luther  A.  Johnson,  House  Office  Building 

(penciled  in- Johnstone) 
Dr.  Walter  Judd,  House  Office  Building 
Dr.  Kan  Lee,  China  Defense  Supplies,  1601  V  Street  NW 

(penciled  in-Lockwood ) 
Howard  J.  MacMurray,  House  Office  Bldg. 

T.  M.  Martin,  Col.,  G.  S.  C.-Chief,  Japan  Section,  M.  I.  S.  the  Pentagon 
William  Mayer,  Col.,  G.  S.  C.,-Chief,  China  Section,  M.  I.  S.,  the  Pentagon 
John  W.  McCormack,  House  Office  Building 
Karl  Mundt,  House  Office  Building 

M.  W.  Pettigrew,  Col.,  G.  S.  C.,-Chief  Far  Eastern  Section,  M.  I.  S.  the  Pentagon 
L.  B.  Pearson,  Minister-Counsellor,  Canadian  Legation,  Washington 
MomSeni  R.  Pramoj,  Royal  Thai  Legation,  2.300  Kalorama  Road  NW,  Washington 
Mr.  A.  P.  Tixier,  Delegation  du  Comite  National  Francais,  729  15th  Street,  NW 
Alan  Watt,  Australian  Legation,  Washington,  D.  C. 


SUPPLEMENTARY  LIST 


Mahindra 

Someone  from  Navy 
Bruce  Turner 
Rotor 


Exhibit  No.  917 
WWL 

Penciled  notations :   ( K.  P.  on  Monday  ask  WWL  &  WLH  whether  it's  okay  to 

invite  both  of  these?)  ECC 

War  Department, 
Military  Intelligence  Service, 

Washington,  April  29,  1943. 
Mr.  Edward  C.  Carter, 

Institute  of  Paciftc  Relations, 

129  East  52nd  Street,  New  York  City. 
Dear  Mr.  Carter:  Thank  you  very  much  for  your  invitation  to  attend  the 
I.  P.  R.  round-table  discussions  on  the  problems  of  collective  security  in  the 
Pacific  and  Far  East,  commencing  Tliursday,  May  6.  I  shall  make  every  effort 
either  to  be  there  or  to  delegate  someone  to  represent  the  Far  Eastern  Unit. 
I  think  that  the  two  agencies  listed  below  might  also  be  interested  in  the 
discussions : 

Brig.  General  C.  W.  Wickersham,  Commandant,  School  of  Military  Govern- 
ment, Charlottesville,  Virginia. 

Colonel  Dallas  S.  Townsend,  Chief.  Military  Government  Branch,  Civil  Affairs 
Division,  Office,  Chief  of  Staff,  War  Department. 
Very  truly  yours, 

[s]     M.  W.  Pettigrew 
M.  W.  Pettigrew, 
Colonel,  G.  S.  C,  Chief,  Far  Eastern  Unit. 
(Penciled  notation:  How  about  shoemaker,  too?    Lt.  Col.  gaines  H.  Office  of 
Provost  Marshal  Gen.,   Service  of  Supply,  Room  2805,  Munitions  Bldg.,  War 
Dept.,  Wash.,  D.  C.) 

88348— 52— pt.  14 10 


5050  INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 

Exhibit  No.  918 
Penciled  notation  :  Hiss,  yes 

3415  VoLTA  Place, 
WasMngton,  D.  C,  April  SO,  19J,3. 
Mr.  Edward  C.  Carter, 

Institute  of  Pacific  Relations, 

129  East  52  Street,  New  York,  New  York. 
Dear  Mr.  Carter  :  This  is  to  acknowledge  the  receipt  of  your  letter  of  April  28 
in  which  you  were  so  good  as  to  ask  me  to  attend  a  small  private  discussion  on 
May  6  to  discuss  the  tentative  outline  which  was  enclosed  with  your  letter. 

I  shall  he  very  glad  to  attend  this  meeting,  subject,  of  cour.se,  to  some  last- 
minute  call  of  duty  which  frankly  I  do  not  now  foresee. 
Yours  sincerely, 

Alger  Hiss. 


Exhibit  No.  919 

Penciled  notation  :  Martin,  Yes. 

War  Department, 
Military  Inteixigence  Service, 

Washington,  May  1,  1943. 

Penciled  notation  :  K.  P.  By  all  means  come  on  this  basis — ECC 

Mr.  Edward  C.  Cabter, 

Secretary-General,  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations, 

129  East  52nd  Street,  New  York  City. 

Dear  Mr.  Carter:  I  have  received  your  letter  of  April  28,  1943,  inviting  me 
to  join  a  small  private  IPR  round  table  discussion  on  the  problem  of  collective 
security  in  the  Pacific  and  the  Far  East,  to  be  held  in  Washington  on  May  6. 

I  am  glad  to  have  a  copy  of  the  tentative  outline  prepared  by  Mr.  Johnstone, 
and  I  should  like  to  have  the  privilege  of  attending  the  discussion  if  I  am  not 
expected  to  participate. 
Yours  sincerely, 

/s/  Truman  M.  Martin 
Truman  M.  Martin, 
Colonel,  G.  S.  C,  Chief,  Japan  Branch. 


Exhibit  No.  920 

129  East  ."2nd  Street, 
New  York  City,  May  4,  1943. 
Colonel  TrtJman  M.  Martin,  G.  S.  C, 

Chief,  Japan  Branch,  Military  Intelligence  Service, 

Washington,  D.  C. 

Dear  Colonel  Martin  :  We  will  of  course  be  glad  to  have  you  come  to  the 
Thursday  evening  meeting  as  an  observer. 
Sincerely  Yours, 

Edward  C.  Carthir. 


Exhibit  No.  921 

Mat  10, 1943. 
WWL  from  ECC : 

I  had  a  long  talk  with  .Tane  Plimpton  yesterday  about  becoming  the  IPR 
representative  in  Washington.  I  think  she  would  take  the  job  like  a  shot  if 
she  wasn't  partially  committed  to  going  to  work  for  Gulick  in  the  Lehman 
oflBce. 

She  lias  agreed  to  hold  up  until  Wednesday  morning  taking  any  final  action 
with  Gulick.  This  is  to  give  you  time  to  see  her  on  Tuesday  and  do  the  final 
job  (if  salesmanship  on  behalf  of  the  IPR. 

Miss  Plimpton  was  an  honors  graduate  of  Vassar,  and  throughout  her  term 
at  Vassar  has  .shown  an  imusual  interest  in  the  study  both  of  American  domestic 
problems  and  of  foreign  relations.     She  has  been  very  active  in  tlie  student  move- 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC   RELATIONS  5051 

ment,  was  editor  of  the  Vassar  paper,  and  held  several  other  high  positions 
in  student  life. 

She  could  do,  I  think,  a  reniarkaldy  good  job  for  Bill  Johnstone  and  for  our 
other  Washington  study  groups  because  she  has  already  had  a  lot  of  experience 
in  summarizing  similar  meetings.  For  several  weeks,  for  example,  at  700 
Jackson  Place,  she  has  been  rapporteur  of  the  Washington  study  group  of  the 
Commission  to  Organize  Peace. 

Of  incidental  value  is  the  fact  that  she  has  intimate  friends  in  the  White 
House  and  is  a  born  promoter  as  well  as  a  good  scholar.  Once  she  was  given  a 
definite  assignment,  I  would  have  no  hesitation  in  sending  her  to  Welles  Horn- 
beck,  Harry  White,  or  anyone  in  our  government  or  any  otlier  government 
with  whom  we  wanted  to  make  an  IPR  contact. 

I  think  you  can  render  a  great  service  to  Amco  and  Pacco  by  persuading 
her  to  bec<)me  our  Washington  representative.  So  far  as  Pacco  is  concerned 
I  would  be  prepared  to  recommend  an  appointment  for  the  rest  of  the  year. 

She  kno'ws  her  way  around  government  offices,  having  been  an  interne  in 
the  Bureau  of  the  Budget  where  she  has  made  the  necessary  grade.  She  does 
not  know  shorthand,  but  she  types  rapidly  and  well. 

You  can  reach  her  in  lioom  2.jU  of  the  State  Department  building,  though 
that  particular  roo^n  is  a  Bureau  of  tlie  Budget  room.  She  lives  at  3913 
Huntington  Street,  N.  W. — Telephone :  Ordway  6370. 

You  may  want  to  send  her  a  wire  today  as  to-  when  and  where  to  meet  you. 


Exhibit  No.  922 

May  21,  1943. 
Mr.  Edward  C  Cartel, 

Institute  of  Pacific  Relations, 

129  East  52nd  Street,  New  York,  New  York. 
Dear  Mr.  Carter  :  As  regards  the  invitation  list  for  May  27  I  suggest  adding 
Sir  George  Sansom,  and  Kan  Lee.  I  presume  that  you  have  invited  Hiss.  I  shall 
be  glad  to  have  a  talk  with  Alger  Hiss  about  the  meeting.  I  still  think  if  we  go 
ahead  on  the  agenda  that  it  can  be  a  good  discussion.  I  will  be  on  hand  to  have 
dinner  with  you  before  the  meeting  if  that  is  possible  or  to  see  you  ten  or  fifteen 
minutes  before  the  meeting  at  700  Jackson  Place. 

I  will  be  perfectly  willing  to  preside  if  you  think  it  best,  although  you  do  a 
much  better  job  than  I  can.    Please  let  me  know  if  there  is  anything  further  you 
would  like  done  before  the  meeting. 
Sincerely, 

William  C.  Johnstone, 
Dean  of  the  Junior  College. 


Exhibit  No.  923 
Penciled  in  (copy  to  HM) 

129  Bast  52nd  Street, 
Neic  York  22,  N.  Y.,  7th  June  1H3. 
Mortimer  Graves,  Esq., 

American  Council  of  Learned  Societies, 

1219  Sixteenth  Street  N.  W.,  Washington,  D.  C. 
Dear  Mortimer:  On  my  return  I  received  your  little  yellow  inquiry  about  a 
center  of  information  in  Washington.  Part  of  the  problem,  of  course,  is 
finance ;  and  part  is  personnel.  I  think  you  ought  to  get  Harriet  Moore's  advice. 
I  wish  we  could  see  our  way  clearer  and  am  wondering  whether  we  ought  to 
wait  until  we  can  have  the  Ickes-Litvinoff-Graves-Moore-Carter  dinner  that  I 
spoke  of. 

Sincerely  yours, 

Edward  C.  Carter. 


5052  INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 

Exhibit  No.  924 

129  East  52nd  Street, 
New  York  22,  N.  Y.,  9th  June  1943. 
LAucHLiisr  CuRRiE,  Esq., 

Executive  Office  of  the  President, 

The  White  House,  Washiiigton,  D.  C. 

Dear  Curbie:  Some  time  ago  you  asked  me  for  a  list  of  Chinese  personnel.  I 
am  now  able  to  send  you  a  copy  of  a  list  prepared  by  Lenning  Sweet  of  UCR 
together  with  a  suplementary  list  which  he  has  also  prepared.  This,  I  assume, 
will  be  used  in  its  present  form  or  revised  in  the  report  that  Lockwood  is  making 
for  Governor  Lehman.  If  this  is  of  any  use  to  you,  would  you  have  a  copy 
made  for  your  files  and  return  the  enclosed  to  me  in  due  season? 


Sincerely  yours, 


Edward  C.  Carter. 


Exhibit  No.  925 

129  East  52nd  Street, 
Neiv  York  22,  N.  Y.,  15th  June  19^3. 
Lauchun  CuRTiiE,  Esq., 

Executive  Office  of  the  President, 

The  White  House,  Washington,  D.  C. 
Dear  Currie:  Sweet  of  UCR  has  compiled  the  enclosed  list  of  foreign  per- 
sonnel that  might  be  of  use  in  relief  and  rehabilitation  positions  in  China.     If 
there  is  anything  of  use  to  you  in  it  will  you  make  a  copy  for  your  files  and 
return  this  copy  to  me  in  due  course. 

Col.  Evans  » "arlson,  as  you  doubtless  know,  is  back  from  the  Pacific  with  new 
and  characteristically  valuable  experience  behind  him.     He  leaves  tonight  for 
Washington  and  \A'ill  be  at  the  Army  and  Navy  Club  for  the  next  two  days  in 
case  you  want  to  see  him.    I  assume  he  will  be  seeing  the  President. 
Sincerely  yours, 

Edwabd  C.  Carter. 


Exhibit  No.  926 

Invitations  for  Third  Meeting  on  Collective  Securitive  in  the  Pacific  and 

THE  Par  East 

In  ink— June  17,  1943. 
In  pencil— 6/10/43. 
( Hand  written  : ) 
No— Sir  Girja  S.  Bajpai :  Indian  Agency  General,  2633  16th  St.  NW. 

Dr.  Hugh  Borton :  Special  Division,  Department  of  State. 
Yes — Nicholas  A.  J.  deVoogd :  1620  Belmont  Street  NW. 
Yes — iMorris  Greene :  Australian  Legation. 
Yes — Alger  Hiss :  Dejiartment  of  State. 
Yes— M.  R.  Seni  Pramoj :   Royal  Thai  Legation,  2300  Kalorama  Road  NW. 

Lt.  Col.  James  W.  Shoemnker :  1729  Q  Street  NW. 
No — Captain  Vaughn  F.  Meisling :  Military  Intelligence  Service,  War  Department. 
Yes — Jf)hn  Alexander:  British  Embassy. 

No — Philippe  Baudet :  French  National  Committee,  1420  16th  Street  NW. 
Yes — Frank  Coe :  Board  of  Economic  Warfare. 
(?) — L.B.Pearson:   Canadian  Legation. 

Yes — The  Honoraltle  Frances  P.  Bolton :  2301  Wyoming  Ave.  NW. 
Yes — The  Honorable  Howard  J.  McMurray :  House  Office  Building. 
No — The  Honorable  James  W.  Wadsworth :  House  Olfice  Building. 

G.  S.  Cox  :  New  Zealand  Legation. 
No — The  Honorable  J.  W.  Fulbright :  House  Office  Building. 
Yes — The  Honorable  Walter  Judd :   House  Office  Building. 
Yes— Kan  I^e :  China  Defense  Supplies,  Inc.,  2311  Mass.  Ave.,  Washington  8. 

Alan  Watt :  Australian  Legation. 

Harry  B.  Price :  China  Defense  Supplies,  Inc.,  2311  Mass.  Ave.,  Washing- 
ton 8. 
Yes — J.  M.  Elizalde:  1617  Massachusetts  Avenue  NW. 

Col.  William  Mayer:  Chief,  China  Section,  MIS,  War  Dept.,  Pentagon  Bldg 
No — Sir  George  Sansom :  British  Embassy. 

Y.  R.  C.  James  Yen  :  %  Chinese  Embassy. 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 


5053 


No — Bruce  Turner:  New  Zealand  Legation  (6/14/43)  in  pencil. 

No — W.  W.  liOekwood. 

Yes— W.  L.  Holland. 

Yes — William  C.  JohnKStons. 

Yes— Edward  C  Cartel*. 

(In   ink)    Walter    Laves:    Organization    Services   Division,    Office   of    Civilian 

Defense,  Dnpont  Circle  Bldg. 
Yes — Grayson  Kirk :  Department  of  State. 

*Engene  Dooman:  Department  of  State. 

♦William  Y.  Elliott :  War  Shipping  Administration. 

*Read  Hager:  Joint  Chiefs  of  Staff,  Munitions  Assignment  Board. 

List  of  those  invited  to  collective  security  in  the  Pacific  and  the  Far  East, 

too  Jackson  Place,  Washington,  D.  C. 

(in  ink) 

[I— Invited.    Ace.  =  Accepted.    Arr.  =  Attended.    N= Did  not  attend  or  regretted] 


John  Alexander 

Sir  Qirja  B-ijpai 

Philipne  Baudet 

T.  A.  Bisson 

Frances  P.  Bolton 

Hus:h  Borton 

H.  B.  Butler 

Evans  F.  Carlson 

Edward  C.  Carter 

Frank  Coe 

■Q.  S.  Cox 

N.  A.  J.  de  Voogd 

Eugene  Dooman 

J.  M.  Elizalde 

William  Y.  Elliott 

.T.  F.  Engers 

Miriam  S.  Farley 

J.  W.  Fulbright 

Andrew  Grajdanzev__. 

Morris  Greene 

Read  Hager 

O.H.  C.Hart 

Alger  Hiss, 

W.L.  Holland 

Luther  Jolmson 

William  C.  Johnstone. 

Walter  Judd 

Grayson  Kirk 

Walter  Laves 


Kan  Lee 

W.  W.  Lockwood 

Col.  T.  M.  Martin  __ 
Col.  William  Mayer- 


John  W.  McCormack 

Howard  J.  McMurray 

■Capt.  Vaughn  F.  Meisling, 

Martha  Mooney 

Harriet  Moore 

Karl  Mundt 

L.  B.  Pearson 

Col.  M.  W.  Pettigrew 


Catherine  Porter 

M.  R.  Seni  Pramoj 

Harry  B.  Price 

Sir  George  Sansom 

James  W.  Shoemaker.. 

Capt.  J.  P.  Taylor 

A.  P.  Tixier 

Dallas  Townsend 

Bruce  Turner 

James  W.  Wadsworth. 

Alan  S.  Watt 

Urbano  Zafra 


May  6,  1943 


(In  ink)  May  27, 1943 


I.,  Ace,  Att 

I.  (sorry).  New  York. 


I.  (sorry),  engaged _ 

L,  Ace,  Att 

I.,  England 


I.,  Ace,  Att 

I.,  Ace 

I.  (try  attend),  Turner. 
I.,  Ace,  Att 


I.  (sorry)  engaged. 


I.,  Ace,  Att 

I.  (sorry)  engaged. 


I.,  Ace,  Att. 


I.,  West  Coast 

I.,  Ace,  Att 

I.,  Ace,  Att 

I.  (sorry),  engaged. 
I.,  Ace.,  Att 

I.  (sorry),  engaged. 


,  Ace,  Att 

,  Ace,  Att 

.    (sorry  suggests 
Meisling). 
,  i\ 

(sorry),  engaged 

,  Ace,  Att 


I.,  N 

I.  (sorry) ,  engaged 

I  (try),  N 

I.  (try  or  send  some- 
one). 


I.,  Ace.  Att. 


I.,  Ace,  Att- 


,  London 

(sorry)  engaged. 


I.,  Ace,  Att 

I.  (sorry).  Hot  Springs. 

L,  Ace,  .\tt 

I.,  Ace,  Att 

I.,  Ace,  Att 

I.,  Ace,  Att 


I.,  Ace,  Att 
I.,  Ace,  Att 
I.,  Ace  .  Att. 
I.,  Ace,  Att. 


I.  (sorry),  Hot  Springs 


I..  N 

I.,  Ace,  Att. 


I.,  Ace,  Att- 


L,  N 

L,  N 

I.,  N 

I.,  Acc,  Att- 
I.,N 


I.  (sorry).  Hot  Springs. 

L  (try) 

I.,  Acc,  Att 

L,  N 


I.,  Acc,  N 

I.,  Ace,  Att 

I.,  Acc,  Att 


I.  (sorry),  engaged 

I.  (sorry).  Hot  Springs 
I.,  N 


L,  Ace,  Att. 
I.,  Ace,  Att. 
I.,  Ace,  Att. 
I.,  Acc,  Att. 
I.,N 


(sorry)  engaged. 
,  Acc,  Att 


I.  (sorry)  engaged. 

I.,  N 

Hot  Springs 


June  17,  ;943 


I.,  Ace,  Att. 

I.  (sorry),  away. 

I.  (sorry).  New  York. 

I.,  .\ce,  Att. 

I.  (very  sorry),  busy. 

I.,  Ace,  Att. 

I.,  Ace,  Att. 

I.,  Ace,  Att. 

I.  (no  reply). 

I.,  Ace,  Att. 

I.  (sorry). 

I.  (hopes  to  come)  N. 

T.,  no  reply. 

I.,  Ace,  Att. 

I.  (sirry)  engaged. 

I.,  Acc,  .\tt. 

I.,  Acc,  Att. 

I..  Ace,  Att. 

I.  (s'>n  v),  New  York. 

I.,  Acc,  N. 

I.,  Acc.  A!t. 

I.,  Ace,  Alt. 
I.,  Ace,  Att. 
I.,  Ace,  N. 

I.    (very   much   inter- 
ested). 
I.,  Ace,  Att. 
I.,N.  ■ 

I.  (no  reply). 


I.,  Acc,  Att. 
I.,N. 

L,N. 

I.  (try),  N. 


I.,  Ace,  Att. 

I.  Acc,  Att. 

I.  (sorry)  Baltimore. 

I.  (no  reply). 

I.  Acc-.,  Att. 


I.,  N.,  regrets. 

L,N. 

I.  (sorry). 

(?),N. 


•Special  letter. 


5054  INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 

Exhibit  No.  927 

WLH  NWL  HA  (Pencilled  initials) 

129  East  52nd  Street, 
New  York  City,  May  26,  191i2 
MiLO  Perkins,  Esq. 

Executive  Director,  Board  of  Economic  Warfare, 

Washington,  D.  C. 

Dear  Mr.  Perkins  :  In  early  September  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations  is 
planning  a  small  private  study  conference  to  make  an  over-all  appraisal  of  the 
factors  to  be  considered  in  the  waging  of  the  war  in  Asia  and  the  Pacific,  and  to 
stimulate  creative  thinliing  on  immediate  postwar  problems. 

We  expect  able  representation  from  China,  India,  Great  Britain,  Canada, 
Australia,  New  Zealand,  the  Philippines,  Soviet  Russia,  and  the  Netherlands 
East  Indies. 

We  regard  it  as  most  essential  that  you  be  present  and  participate  in  our 
discussions.  I  want  very  much  to  talk  with  you  in  the  near  future  as  to  some 
of  the  personnel  whom  we  should  invite  from  other  countries.  I  am  wondering 
whether  you  would  have  a  quarter  of  an  hour  free  to  discuss  this  matter  with 
me  on  Tuesday,  June  2nd.  I  could  see  you  any  time  from  early  morning  to  late 
at  night  except  between  two  and  three-thirty. 
Sincerely  yours, 

Edward  C.  Carter. 


Exhibit  No.  928 

Penciled  Note :  ECC  Ark  July  3 

Board  of  Economic  Warfare, 
Washington,  D.  C,  June  20,  19^2. 
OflBL-e  of  the  Executive  Director 
Penciled  note:  TARR 

HOLLAND 
LOCKWOOD 
JESS UP 
Mr.  Edward  C.  Carter, 

Institute  of  Pacific  Relations, 
129  East  52nd  Street, 

Neiv  York  City. 
Dear  Mr.  Carter  :  I  appreciate  your  invitation  to  attend  the  September  meet- 
ing of  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations  to  discuss  problems  of  war  and  recon- 
struction in  the  Far  East.  Your  enterprise  in  promoting  such  discussion  is 
useful.  If  circumstances  permit,  I  shall  be  happy  to  participate ;  otherwise  I 
shall  ask  James  H.  Shoemaker  of  the  Far  Eastern  Division  to  attend. 

I  am  sorry  that  I  could  not  get  in  touch  with  you  before  June  2'.  Might  I 
suggest  that  the  next  time  you  come  to  Washington  you  see  Mr.  William  T. 
Stone  and  Dr.  Shoemaker  about  the  persons  to  be  invited  to  attend  the  meeting. 
I  have  asked  them  to  consider  this  matter  now  so  that  your  discussion  with  them 
may  be  as  helpful  as  possible. 
Sincerely  yours, 

[s]  MiLO  Perkins.  Executive  Director. 


Exhibit  No.  929 

Draft  to  Mild  Perkins 

Dear  Mr.  Perkins  :  We  deeply  appreciated  your  letter  of  June  20  indicating 
that  if  circumstances  permitted  you  would  be  happy  to  participate  in  the  forth- 
coming Conference  of  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations. 

In  deference  to  the  wishes  of  our  Chinese  colleagues  we  have  decided  to  hold 
the  Conference  in  December  instead  of  September  as  originally  proposed.  The 
Chinese  cabled  that  they  could  send  a  very  much  more  representative  group  if 
the  later  date  were  chosen. 

Enclosed  is  a  copy  of  the  draft  agenda.  Mr.  Lockwood  has  already  followed 
your  suggestion  and  talked  to  Mr.  Stone  and  Mr.  Shoemaker  about  our  plans. 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS  5055 

Exhibit  No.  930 

129  East  52d  Streiet, 
New  York  22,  N.  Y.,  June  28,  194S. 
Lauchlin  Cxtrrie,  Esq., 

Executive  Office  of  the  President, 

The  White  House,  Washington,  D.  C. 

Deiak  Cukeie:  For  your  private  iiiformation  I  enclose  a  description  of  some  of 
the  Chinese  who  arrived  in  this  country  a  few  weelis  ago.  This  was  prepared  for 
me  by  Harry  Price.  I  am  sure  he  would  have  no  objection  to  my  sharing  it  with 
you. 

Sincerely  yours, 

Edwaed  C.  Carter. 


Exhibit  No.  931 

July  14,  1943. 
constantin  oumansky, 

Embassy  of  the  V.  8.  S.  R., 

Merida  18,  Mexico  City,  Mexico: 

Planning  see  you  early  Thursday  afternoon  fifteenth. 

Edward  C.  Carter. 


Exhibit  No.  932 

129  East  52d  Street, 
Neio  York  22,  N.  Y.,  June  SO,  19J,3. 
His  Exceixency,  the  Soviet  Ambassador, 
Embassy  of  the  U.  S.  8.  R., 
Mexico  City,  Mexico. 
Delar  Oumansky:   If  you  are  unlikely  to  visit  the  United  States  this  coming 
month  I  am  wondering  whether  you  could  spare  a  half  a  day  to  talk  over  many 
matters  with  me  if  I  found  it  possible  to  visit  Mexico  in  the  third  or  fourth  week 
of  July? 

Sincerely  yours, 

Edw^vrd  C.  Carter. 


Exhibit  No.  933 

Copy  of  Unfinished  Handwritten  Letter  From  Edward  C.  Carter  to 

John  A.  Carter 

Aloft — Mexico  City  to  Fort  Worth,  Tex., 

8unday,  July  18,  19.'t3. 

Dear  John  :  Mexico  City  is  about  the  same  altitude  as  your  birthplace,  Simla. 
Unlike  Simla  it  is  flat.  Like  Simla  it  is  surrounded  by  mountains.  But  Mexico's 
mountains  though  impressive  are  not  as  high  or  extensive  as  the  vast  bulk  of  the 
Himalayas.  The  climate  of  Mexico  City  is  unlike  Simla.  It  has  cool  nights  and 
warm  days  all  the  year  round.  Some  people  feel  the  altitude.  I  didn't.  The 
city  is  a  mixture  of  Rome,  Paris,  New  York,  Detroit,  Los  Angeles,  and  Mexican 
Indian  and  I  suppose  of  Madrid  and  Lisbon  (which  I've  never  visited).  It 
reminds  one  alternatively  of  Manila  (the  Spanish  influence,  palm  trees,  sunshine, 
a  primitive  hinterland  and  an  emotional  people  who  can  act  with  great  ability 
but  who  sometimes  find  great  oratory  a  substitute  for  practical  action.  They 
both  can  exert  themselves  when  music  bids  them  dance. 

I  mentioned  Detroit's  influence.  There  is  apparently  no  gas  or  rubber  shortage. 
The  city  is  jammed  with  American  cars — mostly  Mexican  licenses  but  a  scattering 
of  Texas  and  Arizona  licenses.  The  hotels  are  full  of  American  tourists.  I  had 
wired  ahead  for  a  room  but  had  to  try  six  hotels  after  arrival  before  I  could  get 
located.  Luckily  Oumansky  (who  has  just  arrived  from  Moscow  as  the  Soviet 
Ambassador)  sent  one  of  his  staff  in  the  Embassy  car  and  she  (Miss  Alexandra 
Nicholsky)  drove  me  around  until  she  found  a  hotel  that  would  take  me  in. 

After  a  wash  and  shave  at  the  Hotel  Gillow,  she  drove  me  to  Embassy  for  lunch. 
Oumansky  greeted  me  most  cordially  but  said  quickly,  "Don't  say  anything  about 
it  to  Mrs.  O."  Luckily  I  knew  what  he  meant.  Five  days  before  leaving  Moscow 
for  Mexico  their  only  child,  a  15-year-old  daughter  who  was  their  greatest  joy 
and  interest  in  life,  was  killed  in  an  accident  in  Moscow.    She  had  been  at  school 


5056  INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 

in  Washington,  was  developing  great  charm,  brains,  versatility,  and  they  had  all 
three  been  planning  together  their  next  great  adventure — the  flight  to  Mexico 
and  life  in  a  totally  different  civilization.  They  buried  her  and  2  days  later  got 
into  the  great  plane  that  flew  them,  their  files,  and  the  Embassy  staff  (four  or 
five  people)  across  Siberia  to  Fairbanks,  Alaska,  where  I  am  happy  to  say  the 
U.  S.  Army  received  them  most  cordially  (lots  of  generals  helping)  and  on  orders 
from  Washington  a  big  Army  transport  plane  flew  them  from  Fairbanks  via 
Seattle  to  Los  Angeles  when  they  travelled  by  American  Airlines  to  Mexico  City. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  U.  and  I  had  a  very  nice  lunch  preceded  by  a  little  vodka  and 
caviar  that  they  had  brought.  Mrs.  O.  was  in  black  and  you  could  see  how  over- 
whelmed she  is  with  her  sorrow.  Several  times  when  I  was  with  O.  alone  he 
told  of  his  anxiety  for  her  and  showed  how  terribly  he,  too,  is  suffering.  But  he 
has  his  work  that  absorbs  so  much  of  his  time.  She  is  reading  and  clipping 
American  newspapers  for  him  but  the  mails  are  awfully  slow  and  that  is  hardly 
a  full-time  job.  I  am  going  to  ask  Ruthie  if  she  will  send  Mrs.  O.  some  clippings 
from  time  to  time  so  that  Mrs.  O.  will  have  more  to  do  and  also  so  that  they  can 
get  stuff  of  value  that  they  wouldn't  otherwise  get.  Mrs.  O.  has  sent  Alice  and 
Ruthie,  by  me,  some  little  gifts  of  Mexican  silver. 

Oumansky  and  I  spent  many  hours  during  my  3  days  in  Mexico  discussing  IPR 
and  the  world  in  general.  Motylev  has  gone  to  the  front  and  has  been  succeeded 
by  G.  N.  Voitinsky  as  head  of  the  USSR  IPR.  V.  is  a  very  good  man — he  was  long 
in  China  and  the  Far  East.  The  food  situation  in  Russia  for  civilians  is  terribly 
bad  but  the  Soviet  press  says  little  about  it  for  fear  of  giving  comfort  to  the 
enemy. 

With  O.  I  met  some  of  the  leaders  of  the  Mexican  RWR.  Castro  Leal,  a  great 
Mexican  history  and  university  professor. 

(Penciled  notation:  If  he  has  time  ECC  may  finish  this  later — RDC.) 


Exhibit  No.  934 

July  20th,  1943. 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Constantin  Oumansky, 
Enibassy  of  the  V.  8.  8.  R., 

Merida  18,  Mexico,  D.  F. 

Dear  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Oumansky,  This  is  to  thank  you  both  for  your  very  kind 
hospitality  while  I  was  in  Mexico  City.  I  enjoyed  every  minute  of  the  3  days 
and  I  cannot  tell  you  how  pleased  I  was  to  renew  our  old  acquaintance. 

The  new  secretary  of  the  Mexican  aid  to  Russia  committee  came  to  see  me 
Sunday  morning  and  we  had  a  long  and  useful  talk. 

I  arrived  at  La  Guardia  Field  yesterday  (Monday  afternoon)  about  1 :  30. 

I  have  already  given  your  greetings  to  several  of  your  friends  and  will  be 
seeing  more  in  the  course  of  the  week.  I  tried  several  times  to  reach  Mrs. 
Litvinoff  on  the  phone  yesterday  afternoon,  but  there  was  no  answer.  So  I  went 
to  her  apartment  at  6 :  00  and  discovered  she  had  been  away  for  a  few  days.  At 
the  apartment  house  they  did  not  know  precisely  when  she  would  return,  but  I 
will  see  that  she  gets  Mrs.  Oumansk.v's  letter  just  as  soon  as  she  returns. 

Mrs.  Carter  and  Ruth  were  delighted  with  Mrs.  Oumansky's  presents  and  with 
all  the  news  I  was  able  to  bring  them. 

I  will  be  w^riting  you  again  in  two  or  three  days  on  several  matters. 
Sincerely  yours, 

Edward  C.  Carter. 


Exhibit  No.  935 

129  East  52nd  Street, 
New  York  22,  N.  T.  July  20th,  1943. 
Mrs.  Maxim  Litvinofp, 

301  Eafit  SSth  8treet,  New  York,  N.  Y. 

Dear  Mrs.  Litvinoff  :  Yesterday  I  arrived  by  air  from  Mexico  City  where  I 
had  spent  3  days.  I  saw  a  great  deal  of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Constantin  Oumansky, 
who  sent  you  their  warmest  greetings  and  the  enclosed  package.  On  ray  ar- 
rival yesterday  afternoon  I  phoned  your  apartment  several  times  but  got  no 
answer.  So  I  went  to  the  apartment  about  six  in  the  evening  and  discovered 
that  you  were  away  for  a  few  days.  So  I  thoutrht  I  better  send  this  package 
by  mail  rather  than  leaving  it  with  the  elevator  man. 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS  5057 

The  Oumansky's  are  settling  in  to  life  in  Mexico  City  very  well.  They  have 
made  many  friends  already  and  are  clearly  very  vpell  liked.  They  are  both 
terribly  crushed  by  their  daughter's  death.  He  is  most  considerate  of  her  and 
is  doing  everything  in  his  power  to  help  her  to  overcome  her  profound  grief.  His 
life  is,  of  course,  more  filled  with  activity  than  hers  so  he  does  not  have  as  much 
time  for  sadness.  But  he  is  terribly  crushed  by  the  calamity.  He  is  naturally 
eager  for  her  to  have  as  many  things  to  do  as  possible.  I  suggested  to  her  a 
number  of  things  that  she  can  do  for  Russian  war  relief  in  Mexico. 

II'  you  could  possibly  manage  to  go  there  for  a  visit,  you  would  be  doing  the 
Oumanskys  a  very  friendly  service.  Incidentally,  you  would  find  much  in  Mex- 
ico to  interest  you.  It  is  a  fascinating  mixture  of  Europe,  the  Orient,  and  of 
Mexican  Indian  life  and  culture.  There  are  interesting  people  in  Mexico  from 
all  over  the  world  and  the  cultural  and  aesthetic  life  would  interest  you  very, 
very  greatly.  The  climate  is  salubrious  and  the  vegetables  and  fruit,  the  clear 
air  and  the  sunshine  are  to  be  had  in  great  abundance.  There  is  little  external 
evidence  of  the  war  and  no  rationing  of  rubber,  petrol  or  coffee.  Do  go  if  you 
possibly  can. 

There  is  a  chance  that  I  will  be  flying  to  Chungking  about  the  first  of  August. 
I  do  hope  that  I  can  have  a  talk  with  you  at  least  on  the  phone  before  I  go,  if 
I  do  go. 

With  kindest  regards,  I  am 
Sincerely  yours, 

Edwaed  C.  Carter. 

Copy  care  Embassy  of  the  U.  S.  S.  R.,  Washington,  D.  C. 


Exhibit  No.  936 
Copy  to :  Oumansky. 

129  East  52nd  Street, 
New  York  22,  N.  Y.,  July  20th,  1943. 
Eugene  D.  Kisselev,  Esq., 

Consul  General  of  the  V.  8.  8.  R., 

7  East  61st  8treet,  New  York,  N.  Y. 
Dear  Mr.  Kisselev  :  This  is  to  inform  you  that  I  have  recently  received  a  cable- 
gram from  Moscow  signed  by  Voitinsky  reading  as  follows : 

"Volumes  Mont  Tremblant  Conference  Papers  Received  Many  Thanks." 

May  I  thank  you  most  sincerely  for  your  kindness  in  dispatching  the  volumes 
go  promptly. 

I  will  have  another  consignment  of  books  to  send  to  Voitinsky  in  another 
week  or  two.    May  I  enlist  your  help  in  sending  this  second  instalment  also? 
Sincerely  yours, 

Edward  C.  Carter. 


Exhibit  No.  937 

129  East  52nd  Street,  New  York  22,  N.  Y., 

August  Jfth,  1943. 

liAUCHLIN   CURRIE,   EsQ., 

Executive  Office  of  the  President, 

The  White  House,  Washington,  D.  C. 
Dear  Mr.  CtrERiE:  Dad  was  very  grateful  to  you  for  sending  him  the  letter 
of  recommendation  which  he  found  awaiting  him  at  the  Mayflower  on  Monday 
night.  He  was  sorry  to  miss  having  a  last  word  with  you.  If  there  is  anything 
■which  you  would  like  to  communicate  with  him  you  can  send  it  to  the  Embassy 
in  Chungking. 

He  is  wondering  whether  you  would  feel  free  to  cable  John  Fairbank  that  he 
is  on  the  way? 

Sincerely  yours. 


Secretary  to  Edward  C.  Carter. 


5058  INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 

Exhibit  No.  938 

August  1,  1943. 
Sent  from  331  East  71st  Street,  N.  Y.  C. 

Lauchlin  Currie, 

Executive  Office  of  the  President, 

White  House,  Washington,  D.  C: 

If  you  think  a  general  letter  of  recommendation  would  be  helpful  for  me  on 
my  journey  could  I  get  it  at  your  office  nine-thirty  Tuesday  morning? 

Edward  C.  Carter. 


Exhibit  No.  939 

The  United  States, 
Office  of  War  Information, 
54  Queensway,  New  Delhi,  India,  August  23,  1943. 
Mr.  E.  C.  Carter, 

%  American  Eiwhassy,  Chungking. 

Dear  Dad  :  The  following  cable  came  from  Bill  Holland,  which  I  am  passing 
along  through  the  pouch. 

"Extension  AMCO  relief  studies  requested  confidential  basis  hope  you  Carter 
can  report  briefly  from  Chungking,  extensively  following  return ;  also  secure 
several  studies  qualified  Americans  special  aspects  500  dollars  available  stop 
Can  you  also  arrange  survey  correspondents  India  Australia  Hariet  More." 

I  hope  things  are  going  well,  and  that  the  trip  was  not  too  adventurous. 
Affectionately  yours, 

[s]  Bill. 

(Penciled  note  :  W.  D.  Carter.) 


Exhibit  No.  940 

129  East  52nd  Street,  New  York  22,  N.  Y., 

15th  October  1943. 
Letter  #25 

William  D.  Carter,  Esq., 

U.  S.  Office  of  War  Inforniation, 

A.  P.  O.  885,  Postmaster,  New  York,  N.  Y. 

Dear  Bill  :  Here  is  another  part  of  the  September  Pacific  Affairs  which  you 
requested.    I  hope  it  gets  to  you  soon. 

You  may  be  interested  to  know  that  Kay  Greene  is  now,  as  far  as  we  know, 
somewhere  in  the  northern  part  of  the  continent  on  which  you  landed  before 
flying  to  your  present  post.  She  started  out  with  a  job  with  Lehman's  organiza- 
tion, which  I  believe  Phill  Jessup  got  for  her.  I  think  Margaret  is  going  to  use 
some  of  her  furniture  for  her  new  apartment.  Kay  had  left  it  for  Rose  Y'ardu- 
mian  and  Mary  Healy  to  use.  But  as  Rose  has  now  gone  to  Washington  for  the 
IPR  and  as  Mary  will  soon  be  joining  Beecroft,  they  gave  up  their  plans  for 
taking  an  apartment  here  so  the  furniture  was  going  begging. 

Love. 


Exhibit  No.  941 

1  East  54th  Street, 

■'ith  November,  1943. 
Private  &  confidential. 
Dr.  Robert  J.  Kerner, 

University  of  California,  Berkley. 
Dear  Kerneb  :  As  you  know,  W.  L.  Holland  and  I  were  in  Cliina  in  September. 
Holland  saw  your  former  student  and  great  admirer,  Chen  Han-.seng.  Holland 
discovered  that  because  of  his  honest,  liberal  views  and  progressive  attitude, 
Chen  Han-seng  was  in  danger  of  being  spirited  away  by  some  underground  right- 
wing  group.  We  all  regard  him  as  one  of  the  soundest  students  of  China's 
agrarian  economy  and  a  true  Chinese  patriot.  We  conferred  with  both  Chinese 
and  American  friends  in  China  as  to  how  best  to  save  Chen  Han-seng  for  future 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS  5059 

usefulness  to  his  country.     It  is  a  matter  that  has  to  be  handled  with  extreme 
delicacy. 

All  of  our  advisers  say  that  the  best  insurance  would  be  an  invitation  from 
one  of  the  three  or  four  leading  American  universities  to  Chen  Han-seng  to  come 
to  the  United  States  either  as  a  temporary  research  professor  or  associate  or 
for  a  special  course  of  lectures.  This  apparently  would  be  a  greater  safeguard 
than  an  invitation  from  the  IPR. 

Knowing  how  familiar  you  are  with  Chen  Han-seng*s  work,  Holland  and  I 
are  venturing  to  inquire  whether  you  could  act  in  the  matter.  If  funds  should 
prove  the  only  difficulty,  we  would  be  prepared  to  find  the  necessary  money  for 
the  journey  and,  say,  a  three-months  api>ointment. 

In  confidence,  today  I  have  received  through  the  State  Department  the  fol- 
lowing confidential  message  from  Chungking  : 

"Confidential :  Please  tell  Mr.  Carter  that  latest  from  the  Kweilin  consul 
indicates  that  Chen  Han-seng  is  in  an  increasingly  precarious  position,  and 
that  Sa  Kung-liao,  the  liberal  writer  who  was  arrested  there  this  summer, 
is  now  incommunicado;  Chen  may  well  be  next,  and  IPR  would  be  well 
advised  to  act  suddenly  and  soon  if  they  want  to  get  him  out." 
Would  you  wire  me  whether  you  would  be  in  a  position  to  act  swiftly  and 
.affirmatively  in  this  matter? 
Sincerely  yours, 

Edward  C.  Carter. 


Exhibit  No.  9-12 

< Handwritten  note:)   Copies  to  JAC 

PKS 
WDC 

1  East  54th  Street, 
.Veir  York  22,  N.  Y.,  Sth  November  1943. 
The  Misses  Caster, 

31  Bartlctt  ^trert,  Andovcr,  Massachusetts. 

Dear  Mabel  and  Harriet  :  Letters  from  each  of  you  have  arrived.  "We  are 
glad  to  hear  fj-om  you  both  and  to  read  the  interesting  clippings  that  you  have 
sent. 

I  finished  my  work  in  Moscow  just  as  Hull,  Eden,  Harriman,  and  their  staffs 
arrived.  I  had  an  invitation  to  go  to  the  airport  to  meet  them,  but  at  the  same 
time  I  had  an  important  engagement  with  a  Russian  expert  on  China  whom  I 
had  been  trying  to  see  ever  since  I  arrived,  so  1  spent  three  hours  with  Rogoff 
instead  of  going  to  the  airport  to  see  the  celebrities  arrive.  The  reception  for 
them  was  very  imiiressive  I  was  told.  The  American  planes  came  in  and  landed 
their  passengers  fifteen  minutes  ahead  of  the  British,  so  first  I\Ir.  Hull  inspected 
the  Guard  of  Honor  and  then  Mr.  Eden.  The  Guard  of  Honor  were  all  in  fancy 
uniforms  and  impressed  everyone  profoundly.  I  "did  not  bother  Hull  or  Eden 
after  their  arrival  because  I  knew  they  were  fully  occupied  with  the  preparations 
for  what  proves  to  have  been  one  of  the  most  historic  meetings  in  our  generation. 
A  great  many  of  the  things  that  we  have  all  worked  for  for  years  are  beginning 
to  be  realized. 

We  are  not  going  to  Nashville  to  see  Jill  because  John  is  staying  on  at  Fort 
Sill  as  an  artillery  instructor  for  a  month  or  two  at  least.  His  address  is :  Lt. 
John  A.  Carter  01184470,  Battery  E,  32nd  Battalion,  Sth  Training  Regiment, 
F.  A.  R.  T.  C,  Fort  Sill,  Oklahoma. 

Alice  and  I  are  going  to  Lee  this  afternoon  so  I  can  get  a  little  further  sleep 
and  relaxation  before  I  plunge  into  active  work  next  week. 

Ruth  and  I  have  just  spent  two  days  in  Washington.  I  had  talks  with  Secre- 
tary Morgenthau,  Ambassador  Davies,  Lauchlin  Currie,  Governor  Lehman,  Phil 
Jessup.  Selskar  Gunn,  General  Faymonville,  Jane  Plimpton,  Stanley  Hornbeck, 
Elizalde,  Fox  of  the  President's  War  Relief  Control  Board,  and  a  few  others. 

I  was  very  tired  when  I  arrived  owing  to  the  strenuous  character  of  the  last 
week  in  Russia,  but  I  am  now  back  in  my  old  form. 

You  will  note  we  have  moved  into  new  offices  which  ai-e  going  to  be  a  little^ 
more  commodious  and  convenient  than  our  rabbit-warren  at   129  East  52nd 
Street. 

With  much  love,  I  am 

Ever  affectionately  yours, 


5060  INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 

Exhibit  No.  943 

November  13,  1943. 
AG  from  ECC : 

When  I  asked  yon  to  translate  Rogoff's  article  I  did  not  know  about  the  part 
of  it  which  appeared  in  the  September  issue  of  Amerasia.  I  hope  tliis  will  reach 
you  in  time  so  as  to  prevent  your  doing  the  entire  translation  if  part  of  it  has 
already  been  done  in  Amerasia. 

I  was  sorry  that  I  did  not  get  as  far  to  the  east  as  Irkutsk. 


Exhibit  No.  944 

1  East  54th  Street,  New  York  22,  N.  Y., 

15th  November,  1943. 
Lt.  John  A.  Carter  01184470, 

Battery  E,  32nd  Battalion,  8th  Training  Regiment, 

Fort  Sill,  Oldahoma. 

Dear  John  :  It  was  wonderful  to  hear  your  voice  on  the  phone  at  Lee  Friday 
evening.     Mother,  Ruth  and  I  were  very  excited. 

I  got  your  good  letter  of  November  3rd  a  few  days  before.  Your  present  tem- 
porary assignment  of  teaching  men  survey  must,  as  you  say,  be  both  interesting 
and  instructive  to  you.  I  am  sure  it  is  also  interesting  and  instructive  to  your 
pupils. 

You  certainly  have  a  wide  variety  of  subjects  to  cover  in  the  Field  Artillery. 

You  would  have  been  immensely  interested  to  have  visited  with  me  the  great 
"German  War  Tropiiies  Exhibition"  at  the  Park  of  Culture  and  Rest  in  Moscow. 
Here,  spreading  over  many  acres  is  a  vast  but  systematically  organized  collec- 
tion of  armament  and  equipment  captured  from  the  Germans.  There  are  special 
sections  for  each  classification— tanks,  planes,  trucks,  artillery,  uniforms,  mines, 
bombs,  etc.  The  evolution,  for  example  of  tanks  and  artillery,  are  vividly  shown. 
The  Russian  Major  General  who  personally  conducted  me  had  special  tech- 
nicians elaborating  details  in  each  section;  i.  e.,  one  for  howitzers,  another  for 
heavy  siege  guns,  another  for  light  but  terribly  powerful  antitank  guns,  another 
for  various  types  of  antiaircraft  guns.  The  different  technicians  explained  the 
differences  in  German  and  Soviet  equipment  and  indicated  how  much  more  mobile 
a  great  deal  of  the  Russian  equipment  is. 

Yes,  the  Moscow  conference  was  one  of  the  most  significant  gatherings  of  our 
generation.  As  I  was  in  Russia  for  the  fortnight  before  the  conference  began, 
I  was  aware  on  every  side  of  the  determined  efforts  the  Russians  were  making  to 
ensure  the  success  of  the  conference.  The  intellectual  and  documentary  educa- 
tion had  been  very  extensive.  In  addition  the  Russians  thought  up  a  thousand 
dilTerent  acts  of  hospitality  and  friendship  not  only  for  Hull  and  Eden  but  for 
all  of  their  staff  including  all  of  the  members  of  the  crews  of  every  one  of  the 
British  and  American  planes  that  flew  the  two  staffs  into  Moscow. 

It  was,  I  suppose,  necessary  for  Churchill  and  Roosevelt  to  have  all  of  those 
two-some  conferences  of  theirs,  but  it  did  begin  to  look  to  all  the  rest  of  the  world 
as  though  a  secret,  closely  knit  Anglo-American  hegemony  was  emerging  to  con- 
trol the  world. 

The  Moscow  conferences  dramatize  to  the  world  that  the  four  countries — 
Britain,  China,  U.  S.,  and  U.  S.  S.  R. — must  and  will  work  together.  Of  course, 
there  are  innumerable  problems  to  be  faced  still,  but  the  machinery  for  facing 
them  is  now  at  long  last  being  set  up. 

I  am  sure  that  all  of  the  public  criticism  of  Hull  as  being  anti-Soviet  has  been 
worth  while.  It  probably  needled  him  into  bolder  and  more  friendly  action  than 
he  mi!:ht  otherwise  have  taken. 

With  you,  I  think  that  the  reports  of  the  travelling  Senators  were  not  aS 
thoughtful  as  they  should  have  been.  A  British  Parliamentary  Mission  of  the 
same  sort  would  have  compared  notes  and  agreed  on  making  a  more  unified  im- 
pact on  the  public  on  their  return. 

With  you  I  also  question  the  wisdom  of  the  line  which  Time  is  taking  regard- 
ing air  bases  abroad.  There  is  bound  to  be  an  immense  expansion  of  aviation 
after  the  war,  but  we  will  become  one  of  the  most  hated  nations  if  we  try  to 
scoop  other  nations  in  attempting  monopoly  of  postwar  commercial  aviation. 

It  is  too  eai-ly  to  say  whether  Wavell  will  establish  a  new  India  or  not.  Thus 
far  he  has  shown  no  sign  of  holding  out  the  olive  branch  to  those  in  prison.     He 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC   RELATIONS  5061 

has,  however,  publicly  acknowledged  that  there  is  famine  in  India  by  going  per- 
sonally to  Bengal,  which  his  predecessor  failed  to  do. 

I  will  try  and  send  you  copies  of  any  letters  or  reports  that  might  develop 
further  my  ideas  resulting  from  the  trip. 

I  enclose  a  hurriedly  dictated  report  on  certain  aspects  of  my  visit  to  the 
Soviet  Union.  This  is  just  a  first  draft  and  will  be  revised  later.  Will  you 
please  send  it  on  to  Polly  and  the  Andover  Aunts  and  ask  them  to  return  it  to  me. 
Affectionately  yours, 


Exhibit  No.  945 

1  East  54th  Steeet,  New  York  22,  N.  Y., 

15th  November  1943. 
Miss  Kate  Mitchell, 

Amerasia,  225  Fifth  Avenue, 

'Nevo  York,  N.  Y. 
Dear  Kate  :  May  I  congratulate  you  on  the  September  issue  of  Amerasia.     I 
do  hope  that  you  managed  to  send  a  number  of  copies  into  China  itself.     If  you 
have  not  done  so  already,  may  I  venture  to  suggest  that  you  tear  off  the  cover 
and  send  by  air  mail  to  their  appropriate  APO  addresses  one  copy  each  to : 
General  Stilwell 
General  Chennault 
General  Stratemeyer   (New  Delhi) 

John  Davies  and  Jack  Service  ( Both  on  Stilwell's  staff) 
George  Merrell  (American  Mission,  APO  8S5,  Postmaster,  NYC) 
William  D.  Carter  (U.  S.  O.  W.  I.,  APO  885,  Postmaster,  NYC) 
Mac  Fisher  (Chungking) 
You  might  also  send  one  by  ordinary  air  mail  to  Liu  fu-wan,  P.  O.  Box  98, 
Chungking. 

It  may  help  matters  with  the  Indian  and  Chinese  censorship  if  you  refrain 
from  mentioning  that  you  are  sending  these  at  my  request.     It  may  also  help 
if  the  envelope  which  carries  them  is  simply  marked  with  your  new  address 
without  mentioning  Amerasia,  52nd  Street,  or  the  IPR. 
Sincerely  yours, 

Edward  C.  Carter. 


Exhibit  No.  946 

(Pencilled:)  RD     San  Francisco,  417  Market  St. 
(Pencilled  note:)  Return  to  RD 

Report  on  Washington  Office,  December  1943-March  1945 

Under  the  joint  auspices  of  the  American  Council  and  the  International  Secre- 
tariat the  Washington  offices  of  the  Institution  Of  Pacific  Relations  were  re- 
opened at  744  Jackson  Place  NW.,  in  November  1943  with  Professor  William  C. 
Johnstone,  Dean  of  the  School  of  Government  at  The  George  Washington  Uni- 
versity, as  Director  of  the  Washington  Study  Program  and  Miss  Rose  Yardumian 
as  Washington  Representative.  During  the  past  year  several  research  associates 
have  been  added  on  a  part-time  basis  including  Miss  Virginia  Thompson,  Mrs. 
Eleanor  Lattimoi-e  and  Dr.  Rockwood  Chen.  (Miss  Thompson  moved  to  San 
Francisco  in  October  where  she  is  now  associated  with  the  Office  of  War  Informa- 
tion.) In  August  1944  Mrs.  Elizabeth  Ussachevsky  joined  the  staff  of  the  Wash- 
ington Office.  A  small  library  including  a  full  set  of  IPR  publications  and  a 
number  of  reference  texts  on  the  Far  East  has  been  set  up  and  made  available 
to  members  and  people  working  in  the  field.  The  Washington  Office  sells  the 
publications  of  both  the  American  Council  and  the  International  Secretariat  for 
the  convenience  of  members  in  the  local  area. 

The  IPR  in  Wa.shington  has  been  in  a  favorable  position  through  its  inter- 
national and  private  character  to  simulate  informal  discussion  among  Far  Eas- 
tern experts  temporarily  stationed  in  Washington  from  the  various  countries 
for  off-the-record  meetings  either  at  the  IPR  offices  or  at  the  Cosmos  Club  Assem- 
bly Hall.  Informal  meetings  at  the  IPR  office — of  which  there  have  been  17  in 
the  course  of  the  past  year — have  included  such  speakers  as  Mr.  Edmund  Clubb  of 


5062  INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 

the  Department  of  State;  Dr.  Wang  Shih-chieh,  Minister  of  Information  in 
Chungking;  Col.  Victor  Purcell,  a  Briti.sh  colonial  administrator  with  long  ex- 
perience in  Malaya ;  Dr.  J.  S.  Kennard,  a  missionary  recently  returned  from 
China ;  the  Hon.  Walter  Nash  of  New  Zealand  who  discussed  the  ILO  confer- 
ence ;  several  Chinese  professors  visiting  this  country  under  the  program  of 
cultural  relations  of  the  Department  of  State;  Mr.  John  Service  of  the  Depart- 
ment of  State ;  Sir  Frederick  Eggleston,  Minister  to  the  United  States  from 
Australia  ;  Mr.  Kumarappa,  Director  of  Social  Sciences  of  the  Tata  Institute, 
India ;  Mr.  George  Yeh,  China,  Ambassador  Naggiar,  France,  Mrs.  Pandit,  India, 
Mr.  Siva  Rao,  India,  delegates  to  the  Hot  Springs  Conference  of  IPR ;  Senator 
Carloos  Garcia,  a  Filipino  guerrilla  leader  from  Leyte ;  Gunther  Stein,  British 
correspondent  from  China ;  and  Mr.  John  Emmerson  of  the  Department  of  State 
who  described  plans  of  the  Japanese  Emancipation  League  in  Yenan. 

General  meetings  to  which  all  members  in  the  local  area  are  invited  have  taken 
place  about  every  two  months  usually  in  the  Cosmos  Club  Assembly  Hall.  At- 
tendance at  these  meetings  ranges  from  75  to  100  people.  The  first  meeting  of  this 
kind  was  held  in  December  1943  to  give  tlie  members  of  the  IPR  an  opportunity 
to  hear  Mr.  Edward  C.  Carter,  Secretary-General  of  the  IPR  and  Mr.  William 
Holland,  Research  Secretary,  discuss  their  trip  to  China.  The  response  to  this 
meeting  was  so  enthusiastic  that  it  was  decided  to  include  such  meetings  as  part 
of  the  regular  program.  Kiglit  .such  mombei'ship  meetings  have  been  held  in  the 
last  16  months.  Other  speakers  have  included  H.  Foster  Bain,  repatriated  from 
the  Philippines  on  the  second  Gripsholm  trip,  who  described  some  of  the  effects 
of  Japanese  occupation  on  the  Philippine  economy ;  Dr.  Tsiang  Tingfu  and  Dr. 
Mackenzie  Stevens  who  discussed  the  role  of  cooperatives  in  Asia  ;  Dr.  Henry 
De  Young,  Mr.  Youngjeuhg  Kim,  and  Mr.  Ilhan  New  who  discussed  Korean 
affairs;  Lt.  Com.  Nelson  Spinks,  Dr.  Wiiljam  C.  Johnstone  and  Mr.  Wilfred 
Fleisher  who  participated  in  a  panel  discussion  on  What  To  Do  With  Japan 
under  the  chairmanship  of  Admiral  Harry  Yarnell ;  Mr.  Obaidnr  Rahman  and 
Mr.  John  Fischer  on  U.  S. -Indian  economic  relations.  In  December  1944  a  joint 
meeting  was  held  at  the  home  of  Mrs.  Gifford  Pinehot  with  the  local  branches 
of  Americans  United  and  Indusco  participating  on  recent  developments  in  Chinese 
affairs — Mr.  Lewis  Smythe  and  Mr.  Owen  Lattimore  were  the  speakers.  Early 
in  March,  194.5,  Representative  Mike  Mansfield  of  Montana  reported  on  his  mis- 
sion to  China  to  the  IPR  membership  in  a  Cosmos  Club  meeting. 

Special  functions  have  included  a  luncheon  for  press  members  to  hear  Mr. 
Carter  and  Mr.  I-Iolland  give  an  off-the-record  account  of  their  trip  to  the  Far 
East,  a  dinner  for  members  of  Congress  and  administration  officials  for  the  same 
purpose.  (Penciled  note — An  informal  luncheon  discussion  led  by  Mr.  Carter 
for  Army  and  Navy  officials  responsible  for  educational  work  was  held  about  a 
year  ago  to  acquaint  officers  with  IPR  materials  particularly  our  pamphlet  pro- 
gram.) A  luncheon  was  heUl  for  Owen  Lattimore  on  his  return  from  China 
in  the  summer  of  1944  when  he  accompanied  Vice-President  Wallace  on  his  trip 
to  the  Soviet  Far  East  and  China.  At  this  meeting  Mr.  Lattimore  discussed  the 
treatment  of  minorities  by  the  Chinese  and  Russians.  In  December  1944  a 
sherry  party  honoring  Sir  Fi-ederick  Eggleston,  Minister  from  Australia  to  the 
U.  S.  was  held  at  the  Mayflower  Hotel. 

Following  the  ninth  international  conference  of  the  IPR  held  at  Hot  Springs, 
many  parties  were  held  in  Washington  to  honor  the  foreign  delegates  visiting  in 
Washington.  Highlighting  these  was  a  tea  given  by  the  Hon.  Frances  Bolton, 
Representative  from  Ohio,  for  conference  delegates  to  meet  members  of  Congress 
as  well  as  Army,  Navy,  and  Administration  officials.  A  small  cocktail  party  was 
given  for  the  press  by  the  IPR  to  meet  the  chairmen  of  the  various  delegations. 

Under  Dr.  Johnstone's  chairmanship  a  number  of  small  study  groups  were 
formed  on  various  topics  sponsored  by  the  American  Council  in  some  cases  and 
by  the  International  Secretariat  in  others.  In  one  case  the  American  Council 
of  the  IPR  and  the  China  Council  sponsored  jointly  a  number  of  meetings  on 
Postwar  U.  S.-Chinese  P^conomic  Relations.  Under  the  auspices  of  the  American 
Council  study  groups  met  on  Trade  and  Investment  Policies  in  Southeast  Asia, 
Treatment  of  Japan  and  Postwar  U.  S.-Chinese  Economic  Relations.  The  Inter- 
national Secretariat  has  sponsored  two  groups,  one  on  Treatment  of  Japan,  and 
the  other  on  Economic  Recovery  in  Pacific  countries.  A  great  part  of  the  dif.- 
cussions  on  Japan  have  been  included  by  Dr.  Johnstone  in  his  forthcoming  book. 
The  Future  of  .htpnn,  soon  to  be  published  by  the  Oxford  University  Press  under 
the  sponsorship  of  the  American  Council  of  IPR.  Plans  are  under  way  for 
another  study  group  under  the  auspices  of  the  American  Council  on  the  general 
topic  of  Dependent  Territories  in  the  Pacific  area. 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS  5063 

It  is  interesting  to  note  that  as  a  result  of  greatly  increased  interest  in  the 
Pacific  area  and  therefore  in  the  work  of  the  IPR  generally,  membership  in  the 
AVashington  area  has  almost  doubled  in  the  last  eighteen  months  since  the  re- 
opening of  the  Washington  offices.  (Checli  with  TGS  on  exact  figures  believe 
we  have  picked  up  85  members  in  the  past  year  bringing  our  membership  up 
to  200  approximately.  This  does  not  include  about  35  non-Americans  interested 
in  the  work  of  the  IPR  whom  we  invite  to  general  membership  meetings.) 


ExHiHiT  No.  947 

(Pencilled  note:)   Ray — Some  rough  notes  for  Peggy   on  my  vague   ideas  on 
program.     Thought  you  might  like  to  see  a  copy.     RY 

(Pencilled  note  :)   Return  to  R.  D. 

To:  MAS, 
From:    KY. 

April  16,  1945. 

During  the  present  phase  of  the  Pacific  war  and  until  its  final  successful  con- 
clusion and  for  several  years  thereafter  the  interest  of  the  American  people  in 
Far  Eastern  affairs  will  increase  tremendously.  The  job  before  the  IPR  will 
be  to  build  this  interest  in  a  constructive  way  toward  the  education  of  an 
enlightened  American  people.  The  IPR  is  uniquely  organized  and  favorably 
equipped  to  assume  leadership  in  this  task.  Through  a  carefully  planned  pro- 
gram of  activities  integrating  the  school  program,  -pamphlet  and  research  pro- 
grams, and  through  an  expanded  circulation  of  Far  Eastern  Survey,  Pacific 
Affairs  and  the  other  research  publications  of  the  International  Secretariat, 
the  IPR  should  be  able  to  go  forward  building  and  broadening  the  base  of  its 
meuibership.  Tlie  greatest  obstacle  before  the  American  Council  at  present  is 
the  lack  of  integration  between  work  already  done,  current  program  and  a 
future  program.  This  can  be  overcome  only  with  the  appointment  of  a  mature 
qualified  and  experienced  Program  Director  with  a  background  in  Far  Eastern 
affairs  if  possible. 

In  my  work  in  Washington  I  have  found  that  not  all  people  interested  in  IPR 
are  interested  in  all  phases  of  its  work.  For  example,  press  and  radio  people 
are  far  more  interested  in  the  Far  Eastern  Survey  than  in  general  meetings  or 
study  group  activities.  The  good  job  already  begun  on  getting  the  Far  Eastern 
Surrey  before  infiuential  new.spapermen  and  radio  commentators  with  appro- 
priate releases  should  be  continued.  We  have  found  that  government  people 
are  more  interested  in  the  program  of  study  groups  than  in  any  other  single 
activity.  The  international  character  of  IPR  l)ringing  together  experts  tor 
inftumal  di.scussion  on  Far  Eastern  problems  has  interested  many  government 
people  who  after  participating  in  one  of  these  groups  usually  become  members. 
It  may  be  that  this  kind  of  activity  can  be  expanded  throughout  the  United 
States ;  in  areas  where  non-Americans  interested  in  Pacific  affairs  are  present, 
the  international  character  could  be  organized  for  people  with  Far  Eastern 
background.  It  may  be  that  this  phase  of  our  activity  should  be  planned  in 
cooperatic.ii  with  local  Fl'A's,  Carnegie  Endownipnt  groups,  Americans  United, 
etc.  While  I  strongly  favor  cooperation  \\  ith  all  groups  to  avoid  duplication, 
outside  of  study  group  activity  I  would  urge  that  the  IPR  set  up  an  independent 
program  wherever  possible. 

Organized  groups  and  clubs  (including  women's  groups,  international  and 
national  organizations  interested  in  international  relations,  church  groups, 
labor  groups,  and  other)  are  attracted  by  general  membei'ship  meetings.  An 
arbitrary  figure  of  six  such  meetings  a  year  might  be  planned  for  all  active 
branches.  While  we  have  been  able  to  plan  only  one  meeting  ahead  in  Wash- 
ington we  hope  in  the  future  to  have  plans  made  a  little  farther  ahead.  It  is 
not  always  possible  to  do  this,  of  course,  because  people  come  unexpectedly  and 
sometiiiies  stay  only  briefly.  These  groups  mentioned  above  who  will  form 
the  bi'oader  base  which  we  hope  to  build  are  also  very  much  interested  in  the 
popular  pamphlet  program.  It  may  be  that  the  general  meetings  and  new 
pamphlets  could  be  coordinated  in  some  way.  The  Army  and  Navy  can  be 
included  in  the  above  group,  generally  speaking.  We  had  one  special  luncheon 
in  Washington  for  Army  and  Navy  leaders  in  orientation  work  about  a  year 
ago  to  acquaint  them  with  our  work,  particularly  pur  pamphlet  progi-am.  Per- 
haps another  one  should  be  planned  soon. 


5064  INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 

There  has  been  no  demand  in  Washington  for  the  business  luncheons  which 
have  worked  so  successfully  in  New  York.  However,  we  have  had  a  number 
of  small  informal  sherry  parties  beginning  at  5 :  30  and  lasting  about  an  hour 
for  foreign  officials,  U.  S.  government  officials,  newspapermen,  etc.,  just  back 
from  the  Far  East.  To  these  meetings  we  invite  approximately  3.5  people,  mostly 
members  and  some  nonmembers  whom  we  wish  to  interest  in  membership.  The 
talks  are  usually  off-the-record  and  brief,  with  a  long  question  period.  We  have 
had  17  such  meetings  in  the  course  of  the  past  12  months.  They  are  an  excellent 
technique  for  building  membership  in  Washington  as  well  as  for  giving  us  the 
reputation  for  being  closely  in  touch  with  the  latest  visitors  from  the  Far 
East.  People  often  call  up  to  ask  what's  going  on  at  IPR?  (We  don't  tell 
them  all,  of  course!)  Slightly  modified  to  fit  the  special  branches  these  meetings 
could  be  more  generally  used  throughout  by  our  branches. 

Not  a  small  part  of  our  office  time  is  taken  up  with  requests  for  information, 
not  only  on  IPR  publications  and  others  but  on  substantive  material.  We  have 
handled  this  business  very  spottily  in  Washington.  When  I  have  time,  I  work 
up  bibliographies.  Investigate  Mme.  Chiang  Kai-shek's  life,  etc.,  but  often  these 
requests  must  be  answered  very  generally  by  reference  to  a  pamphlet  or  article. 
This  is  one  specific  instance  where  coordination  between  a  branch  and  the 
national  office  is  bad.  There  are  lots  of  special  bibliographies  in  the  file  in 
New  York  (Bruno  has  worked  up  many),  and  somehow  when  this  is  done 
branches  should  get  copies.  It  would  be  desirable  to  have  copies  of  those 
already  drawn  up.  Another  criticism  which  I  would  like  to  make  is  that,  unless 
I  come  to  New  York  to  find  out  specifically  what  each  of  you  is  working  on, 
I  am  apt  to  be  very  loosely  informed.  ( Don't  stop  the  New  York  trips  thought. ) 
For  instance,  I  had  heard  from  someone  down  here  that  we  were  putting  out  a 
pamphlet  by  Pearl  Buck  but  didn't  know  anything  about  it  until  I  got  to  New 
York.  Each  department  head  or  the  Secretary  should  assume  responsibility  for 
keeping  branches  informed  about  all  work  in  preparation.  This  would  be  a 
big  help. 

We  have  recently  decided  in  Washington  that  we  would  try  to  build  up  our 
relations  with  the  House  and  Senate  Foreign  Affairs  Committees.  In  connec- 
tion with  these  plans  which  have  already  been  in  operation,  a  few^  of  us  invited 
Congressman  Mansfield  to  dinner,  and  plans  are  in  process  to  invite  Congress- 
woman  Emily  Taft  Douglas  for  lunch.  Getting  the  IPR  better  known  on  the 
Hill  will  be  one  of  our  chief  aims  for  the  next  six  months.  (I  might  add,  Peggy, 
that  I  am  scared  to  death  of  this  kind  of  work.)  I  have  asked  Ruth  Lazurus  to 
keep  me  informed  about  forthcoming  issues  of  FES  so  that  I  can  use  special 
articles  as  a  springboard  for  discussion  on  IPR. 

Finally,  on  the  question  of  big  money  raising,  I  have  done  nothing  in  this 
field  whatsoever.  The  question  is  a  complex  one,  I  know,  but  the  branches 
should  be  informed  of  what  is  being  done  in  the  various  areas  and  how.  The 
national  office  should  assume  leadership  in  this  job  but  with  some  direction; 
perhaps  the  branches  could  help  share  the  burden. 

The  fact  that  Washington  has  almost  doubled  membership  figures  since  the 
reestablishment  of  our  Washington  office  is  a  concrete  indication  of  the  interest 
of  many  kinds  of  people  in  our  work.  (Check  with  Tillie.  I  believe  we've  added 
over  85  members  and  have  approximately  200  now.) 


Exhibit  No.  948 

1  East  54  th  Street, 
New  York  22,  N.  Y., 

ISth  December  1943 
Andrew  J.  Grajdanzev,  Esq., 

Office. 

Dear  Andrew:  I  am  giving  a  small  private  dinner  for  several  Soviet  friends 
in  Washington  on  Tuesday,  December  14th,  to  report  on  my  impressions  of  the 
Soviet  Union. 

I  would  be  delighted  if  you  would  join  us.  The  dinner  will  be  held  in  Suite 
237  at  the  Hotel  Mayflower  at  8 :  00  p.  m.  tomorrow  night.  Business  suits  will 
be  worn. 

Would  you  let  me  know  whether,  in  spite  of  this  short  notice,  you  will  be 
able  to  attend. 

Sincerely  yours, 

Edward  C.  Carteb. 


INSTITUTE   OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  5065 

Exhibit  No.  949 

22nd  December,  1943. 
Private  &  Confidential. 

The  Secretary, 

Lithuanian  Legation, 
Washington,  D.  C. 

Dear  Sir  :  Yesterday  I  received  the  enclosed  unsigned  letter,  pamphlet,  and 
news  bulletin  in  the  enclosed  envelope. 

I  have  scanned  this  material  and  am  now  returning  it  to  you  because  I  am  not 
able  to  write  to  the  anonymous  sender,  and  furthermore  I  ought  in  all  frankness 
to  say  that  I  am  sure  that  this  is  not  the  moment  for  friends  of  Lithuania  to 
attack  the  Soviet  Union.  From  a  realistic  point  of  view  it  seems  clear  that 
Lithuanians  in  Europe  will  have  a  better  opportunity  of  working  out  their  own 
salvation  by  forgetting  the  grievances  of  the  past  centuries  and  seeking  to  under- 
stand and  cooperate  with  the  people  of  the  Soviet  Union.  It  would  seem  to  me 
that  along  these  lines  there  is  a  greater  chance  for  peace  in  Europe  and  pros- 
perity in  Lithuania  than  along  the  lines  of  the  enclosed  documents. 
Sincerely  yours, 

Edward  C.  Carter. 


Exhibit  No.  949-A 
State  of  New  York, 

County  of  New  York,  ss: 

I  have  examined  the  documents  described  in  the  list  annexed  hereto  as  Ex- 
hibit I.  While  I  have  a  present  recollection  of  only  a  few  of  them,  I  am  satisfied 
that  with  the  following  exception  they  are  letters  or  memoranda  received  by 
me  or  photostatic  copies  thereof,  or  copies  of  letters  or  memoranda  sent  by  me 
to  others  or  photostatic  copies  of  such  copies  : 

12.  Ray  Dennett         RDC         Sept.  26, 1945. 

Edward  C.  Carter. 

Sworn  to  before  me  this  9th  day  of  May  1952. 

[seal]  Irene  R.  Donohue, 

Notary  Puhlic,  State  of  New  York. 

Qualified  in  Queens  County,  No.  41-6061800. 

Certs,  filed  with  Queens,  Kings,  New  York,  and  Bronx  County  Clerks  and  Regs. 
Offices,  Westchester  &  Nassau  Co.  Clerks  Offices. 
Commission  Expires  March  30, 1954. 

(The  document  referred  to  by  Mr.  Carter  is  exhibit  No.  9G2.) 


Exhibit  No.  950 

K.  C.  Li,  Woolworth  Btjilding,  New  York 

El  Runchokee, 
El  Paso,  Texas,  March  7, 19U- 
Mr.  E.  C.  Carter, 

Institute  of  Pacific  Relations,  1  East  54th  Street, 

Ne^v  York,  Neio  York. 

Dear  Mr.  Carter:  Your  letter  of  March  1  has  been  forwarded  to  me  and  I 
am  enclosing  copy  of  a  letter  I  have  written  to  the  Draft  Board  in  Richmond, 
California. 

I  approve  of  your  assuring  Mr.  Holland  that  the  IPR  for  the  next  two  years 
will  make  up  the  difference  between  any  salary  he  may  receive  in  government 
service  and  his  present  IPR  salary.  It  is  only  fair  in  view  of  the  reasons  you 
give. 

I  hope  Holland  is  deferred,  as  he  is  indeed  indispensable  in  preparing  for  the 
important  1945  Meeting.  I  am  leaving  here  but  expect  to  be  back  in  New  York  by 
the  15th. 

With  kindest  personal  regards. 
Sincerely  yours, 

(Signed)     K.  C.  Li. 
K,  C.  Li. 

KCL :  efm 

(Enclosure) 

88348 — 52 — pt.  14 11 


5066  INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    KELATIONS 

Exhibit  No.  951 

K.  C.  Li,  Woolwobth  Building,  New  York 

March  7,  1944. 
Selective  Service  Board  #53, 
Richmond,  Calif. 
Gentlemen  :  I  have  just  learned  that  Mr.  W.  L.  Holland,  a  registrant  of  your 
Board,  has  been  classified  as  1-A.     May  I  respectfully  suggest  reconsideration  of 
this  classification  for  the  following  reasons : 

1.  Mr.  Holland  is  International  Research  Secretary  of  the  Institute  of 
Pacific  Relations  which  is  the  leading  research  organization  devoted  to 
Pacific  problems. 

2.  Because  the  Institute  has  lost  so  many  of  its  staff  to  Government 
service,  Mr.  Holland  has  literally  become  indispensable.  Besides  being 
research  secretary,  he  is  also  editor  of  its  magazine,  "Pacific  Affairs." 

S.  The  1945  Conference  of  the  Institute  is  regarded  as  very  important, 
and  preparations  for  it  are  in  the  hands  of  Mr.  Holland.  The  work  of  this 
Conference  will  be  valuable  to  the  State  Department  as  well  as  to  members 
of  the  United  Nations. 

4.  Mr.  Holland  is  frequently  being  consulted  by  representatives  of  the  War, 
Navy,  and  Treasury  Departments. 

5.  Should  the  registrant  be  inducted,  he  will  no  doubt,  because  of  poor 
eyesight,  be  assigned  to  limited  service.  I  believe  he  is  of  greater  value 
to  his  country  and  the  cause  of  the  United  Nations  in  his  present  position 
than  he  can  be  in  uniform. 

For  the  above  reasons,  I  recommend  that  Mr.  Holland  be  deferred  for  1  year. 
Sincerely  yours, 

K.  C.  Li, 
Chairman,  International  Finance  Committee,  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations. 


Exhibit  No.  952 

3/27/44. 

Notes  Fob  Cleveland  Speech,  March  31,  1944 

The  peoples  and  leaders  of  the  United  Nations  generally  believe  that  they 
will  win  the  war.  But  many  thoughtful  people  in  the  various  nations  are  not  so 
sure  of  the  peace.  This  misgiving  is  on  balance  a  healthy  sign.  It  derives  in 
part  from  a  greater  degree  of  political  consciousness  than  that  which  existed 
amongst  the  Allies  in  the  midst  of  the  First  World  War.  It  is  true  that  some 
hundreds  of  people  in  the  United  Kingdom,  the  British  Dominions,  the  United 
States  and  other  countries  were  studying  proldems  of  world  organization  dur- 
ing the  last  war.  But  where  there  were  hundreds  engaged  in  this  task  then, 
there  are  now  thousands,  probably  tens  of  thousands.  Indeed  one  of  the  most 
striking  results  of  the  last  war  and  the  Paris  and  other  peace  conferences  was 
the  creation  of  scores  of  important  national  and  local  organizations  whose 
central  purpose  was :  "It  must  never  happen  again."  Among  the  many  such  non- 
governmental organizations  that  came  into  being  at  that  period  are  the  Royal 
Institute  of  International  Affairs  in  London,  The  Centre  d'Etudes  de  Politique 
Etrangere  in  Paris,  the  Institute  of  History  and  Economics  in  Copenhagen,  the 
Foreign  Policy  Association  and  the  Council  on  Foreign  Relations  in  the  United 
States.  In  lf)25  men  and  women  from  several  of  the  Pacific  countries,  meet- 
ing in  Honolulu,  formed  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations  as  a  regional  ex- 
pression of  this  broad  movement.  For  it  was  felt  that  most  international 
organizations  had  their  headquarters  in  Eui-ope  and  were  inadvertently  tending 
to  take  the  position  that  if  European  problems  were  solved  the  problems  of 
the  world  as  a  whole  would  disappear.  Many  Europeans  and  Americans,  if  they 
looked  to  the  Far  East  at  all,  seemed  to  be  looking  that  way  with  a  telescope 
in  reverse.  The  founders  of  the  IPR  were  acutely  consrious  of  a  whole  world  of 
dynamic  forces  in  the  Pacific  area  which  had  menacing  possibilities  and  which 
cried  out  for  immediate  study.  The  Institute  aimed  to  study  the  problems  of  the 
Pacific  from  a  world  point  of  view  and  the  problems  of  the  world  from  a 
Pacific  point  of  view.  National  Councils  of  the  Institute  came  into  being  in 
eleven  countries  bordering  on  the  Pacific  or  having  vital  interests  in  that  area. 
When  Japan  raised  the  curtain  on  the  Second  World  War  by  occupying  Man- 
churia in  1931,  the  foresight  of  the  founders  of  the  Institute  was  justified.     In 


INSTITUTE   OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  5067 

1933  the  Institute  chose  Mr.  Newton  D.  Baker  as  Chairman  of  its  international 
governing  body,  the  Pacific  Council  and  he  gave  rare  insight  to  the  leadership  of 
the  Institute  until  his  death.  Recently  an  eminent  American,  closely  in  touch 
with  the  efforts  of  the  United  Nations,  following  Hongkong  and  Pearl  Harbor, 
to  prepare  themselves  for  the  war  in  the  Pacific,  remarked:  "I  would  hate 
to  think  of  where  we  would  have  been  if  it  had  not  been  for  the  scholarly 
research  of  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations." 

In  addition  to  the  national  and  international  organizations  which  I  have 
just  mentioned  there  have  grown  up  in  this  and  other  countries  local  and  regiouat 
societies  of  similar  purpose  such  as  the  Cleveland  Council  on  World  Affairs^ 
and  the  Chicago  Council  on  Foreign  Relations.  These  still  further  register  th& 
growing  conviction  that  the  study  of  foreign  affairs  was  as  urgent  a  concem 
of  the  masses  as  domestic  issues.  The  contribution  of  such  councils  to  public 
enlightenment  has  been  great. 

But  the  Second  World  War  has  come  and  by  history's  severest  test  the  efforts 
of  us  all  will  have  to  be  described  with  the  one  word :  "failure." 

The  challenge  today  is  how  can  we  profit  by  this  collective  failure  to  help  in 
solving  now  the  overwhelming  problems  of  world  organization?  Do  we  now 
accept  Newton  D.  Baker's  prophecy  that  if  the  nations  did  not  organize  after  the 
first  world  struggle,  the  war  would  have  to  be  fought  over  again  on  a  vaster  scale 
and  that  the  United  States  would  return  to  the  ideal  of  world  organization  which 
it  had  rejected? 

Although  the  governments  of  the  world  and  the  peoples  through  unofficial 
organizations  like  the  Cleveland  Council  on  World  Affairs  and  the  Institute  of 
Pacific  Relations  have  failed,  they  have  increased  substantially  the  possibility  of 
avoiding  the  grievious  mistakes  of  the  past  generation.  Balked  and  frustrated 
as  we  are  by  the  caution  of  our  governments,  the  leaders  of  the  United  Nations; 
and  their  respective  publics  are  much  further  advanced  in  previsioning  the 
future  than  they  were  at  this  stage  in  World  War  I. 

Both  governmental  agencies  and  unofficial  organizations  have  done  and  are 
doing  quantitatively  at  least  a  vastly  greater  amount  of  study  on  the  future 
organization  of  the  world  than  they  had  done  in  preparation  for  the  Paris  Con- 
ference. In  the  United  States  alone  every  week  sees  the  appearance  of  some  new 
book,  plan,  or  monograph  on  world  organization.  The  Protestant  Churches,  under 
the  leadership  of  John  Foster  Dulles,  have  advanced  their  views.  The  interna- 
tional lawyers,  under  the  leadership  of  Manley  O.  Hudson  of  Harvard  and  the 
Permanent  Court  of  International  Justice,  after  a  long  period  of  careful  study, 
have  made  six  postulates  and  twenty-three  proposals  for  the  organization  of  the 
proposed  community  of  nations  and  prescribing  details  for  the  operation  of  its 
machinery.  The  Commission  to  Study  the  Organization  of  Peace,  under  the 
leadership  of  James  T.  Shotwell,  has  published  a  flood  of  memoranda  on  almost 
every  aspect  of  the  postwar  world.  The  United  States  Chamber  of  Commerce's 
Committee  on  Post  War  Problems  has  called  for  the  immediate  formation  of  an 
international  commission  to  draft  a  world  peace  plan  based  on  the  Moscow  4- 
Power  Declaration.  This  committee,  headed  by  Harper  Sibley  of  Rochester, 
has  made  six  brief  but  pertinent  proposals  which,  if  adopted,  might  usher  in  a 
new  era.  The  Committee  of  Economic  Development  under  Paul  G.  Hoffman  of 
the  Studebaker  Corporation  has  a  nation-wide  net  of  study  groups  working  on 
the  internal  problems  of  American  adjustment  to  the  postwar  situation.  In  this 
field  many  other  organizations  such  as  the  Brookings  Institute,  the  Twentieth 
Century  Fund,  the  National  Industrial  Conference  Board,  the  Chamber  of  Com- 
merce, the  A.  F.  of  L.,  and  C.  I.  O.  through  a  joint  committee  are  busily  at  work. 
Many  of  the  great  universities  have  created  institutes  of  international  affairs 
which  are  turning  out  thoughtful  memoranda  on  the  postwar  world.  The 
National  League  of  Women  Voters,  the  American  Association  of  University 
Women,  the  National  Federation  of  Women's  Clubs  are  similarly  engaged.  In 
the  periodical  field,  FORTUNE  magazine  is  conspicuous  for  its  continuing  pub- 
lication of  articles  on  America  and  the  future.  This  magazine  has  already  pub- 
lished five  major  articles  dealing  with  relations  with  Britain,  with  the  Pacific, 
with  Europe,  and  also  with  reference  to  the  American  domestic  economy  and 
the  United  States  government.  The  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations  has  the  coop- 
eration of  its  Councils  in  ten  countries  in  carrying  out  a  long-range  and  very 
fundamental  series  of  studies  on  the  war  and  postwar  problems  of  the  Pacific 
area.  The  interim  volume  "WAR  AND  PEACE  IN  THE  PACIFIC,"  being  a 
report  of  the  Mont  Tremblant  Conference,  sketches  the  main  outlines  of  the 
problems  and  indicates  the  studies  which  still  must  be  undertaken.     The  Inter- 


5068  INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC   RELATIONS 

national  Labour  Office  in  Montreal  and  the  Secretariat  of  the  League  of  Nations 
in  Princeton  are  hard  at  worli. 

Within  the  State  Departments  and  Foreign  Offices  of  the  United  Nations  work 
on  these  problems  from  the  governmental  angle  is  proceeding  on  a  much  greater 
scale  in  volume  at  least  than  during  the  first  world  war. 

Both  the  public  and  governments  of  the  principal  United  Nations  will  have  an 
immense  volume  of  material  with  which  to  face  the  future.  But  while  recognizing 
the  value  of  all  this  preparatory  work,  the  publics  are  haunted  by  several 
misgivings. 

First,  they  fear  that  statesmanship,  though  adequately  documented,  will  fail 
because  the  statesmen  are  tired,  overworked,  overcautious,  and  so  fearful  of  their 
internal  political  opponents  that  they  are  unequipped  to  give  that  creative  leader- 
ship on  which  the  world  waits. 

Second,  they  fear  that  isolationism  with  its  reactionary  and  appeasing  qualities 
will  rise  up  to  defeat  creative  statecraft  if  it  emerges. 

Third,  the  people  of  Britain,  China,  Russia,  France,  and  Italy  fear  that  if 
America's  leaders  move  constructively  to  implement  the  Moscow  declaration, 
the  Atlantic  Charter  and  the  Four  Freedoms  in  cooperation  with  the  other  Powers 
that  the  American  Congress  will  repeat  history  and  defeat  American  states- 
manship at  the  end  of  this  war. 

It  is  precisely  at  this  point  that  the  role  of  organizations  like  the  Cleveland 
Council  on  World  Affairs  emerges  as  of  transcendant  importance. 

At  the  first  conference  of  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations  in  Honolulu  in 
1925  at  the  opening  session  the  Chairman  asked  the  members  to  list  the  problems 
of  the  Pacific.  The  very  first  spokesman  rose  and  said,  "The  United  States  is 
the  problem  of  the  Pacific."  There  were  many  in  other  countries  who  asserted 
that  the  United  States,  becavise  of  its  growing  strength  and  its  refusal  to  cooperate 
with  the  League  of  Nations,  the  International  Labour  Office  and  the  World 
Court,  was  an  anarchical  influence  in  the  Pacific  and  in  the  world  in  general. 

Facing  the  new  and  vastly  more  complex  world  situation  today  there  are  many 
responsible  Americans  who  hold  that  the  problem  of  the  postwar  world  is  the 
United  States.  For  if  it  does  not  use  its  sovereignty  to  implement  a  world 
collective  system,  the  third  world  war  will  be  infinitely  more  devastating  than 
anything  mankind  has  yet  known. 

There  is  a  tendency  among  other  Americans  to  fear  that  the  application  of 
the  Four  Freedoms  and  the  Atlantic  Charter  will  be  defeated  not  by  the  United 
States  but  by  the  British  and  the  Dutch  in  their  colonial  world  and  by  the 
British  in  their  acquiescence  in  an  unjust  settlement  in  eastern  Europe.  There 
is  a  further  American  belief  that  the  forming  and  successful  operation  of  a 
world  organization  will  be  thwarted  by  the  age-old  conflict  of  the  European 
nations  and  the  reemei'gence  of  Britain's  ancient  balance-of-power  policy. 
There  are  other  Americans  who  admit  these  dangers  but  who  affirm  that  they 
will  only  be  realized  if  the  United  States  withdraws  from  the  theatre  of  world 
cooperation.  Certainly  it  is  not  the  duty  of  the  Cleveland  Council  on  World 
Affairs  or  the  Foreign  Policy  Association  or  the  Council  on  Foreign  Relations 
to  dictate  to  our  European  or  Asiatic  allies.  It  is  rather  to  concentrate  on  the 
colossal  task  of  so  informing  the  American  electorate  that  its  representatives  in 
Congress  will  voice  an  overwhelming  and  intelligent  American  mass  opinion  on 
behalf  of  effective  and  daring  cooperation  in  world  machinery  and  affairs. 

Although  the  various  public  opinion  polls  reveal  a  growing  American  approval 
of  International  cooperation,  they  do  not  yet  ensure  that  when  the  generalities 
are  brought  down  to  the  concrete  issues  of  "vital  interests",  the  American  pub- 
lic is  prepared  to  go  the  whole  way.  In  this  decade  we  have  seen  the  great 
Republic  of  France  collapse  because  for  150  years  there  have  existed  two  Frances 
which  hated  each  other.  Within  this  country  the  lines  do  not  appear  to  be  as 
clearly  drawn  as  in  France.  But  there  are  menacing  movements  and  atti- 
tudes which  are  growing  in  strength.  In  spite  of  much  that  is  encouraging, 
attitudes  toward  the  Negro,  the  Jew  and  even  the  North  American  Indian  make 
it  inappropriate  for  Americans  to  throw  stones  at  the  British  for  their  treat- 
ment of  colonial  peoples.  The  attitude  of  certain  American  groups  toward  pro- 
gressive movements  in  organized  labor,  among  farmers,  and  the  public  gen- 
erally hold  the  seeds  of  future  devastating  conflict.  Usually  those  who  take 
these  antisocial  attitudes  are  precisely  those  who  still  appear  to  regard  the 
Nazis  and  the  Japanese  more  tolerantly  than  they  regard  our  British,  Russian, 
and  Chinese  allies. 


mSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS  5069 

America  today  is  in  debt — deep  debt — to  China,  Britain,  and  the  USSR.  To 
China  because  slie  was  the  first  to  see  the  nature  of  aggression  and  take  up 
arms  against  Japan.  To  England  because  if  she  had  lost  the  Battle  of  Britain 
the  Nazis  would  have  lunged  into  the  Atlantic  and  been  able  to  drive  further 
into  Russia  before  they  were  stopped.  And  to  the  Soviet  Union  for  her  early 
foresight  in  knowing  that  war  was  coming  and  for  her  brilliant  and  stupendous 
war  effort. 

I  would  hate  to  think  of  how  much  further  Japan  would  have  gone  if  the 
Chinese  had  not  contained  from  three-quarters  of  a  million  to  a  million  Japanese 
troops  on  the  mainland  of  Asia  for  nearly  seven  years.  Australia,  India,  Alaska, 
and  parts  of  the  United  States  Pacific  coast  would  have  been  endangered. 

If  England  had  lost  the  Battle  of  Britain,  Canada  and  the  United  States  would 
have  become  a  war  theatre  instead  of  arsenals  of  democracy.  Latin  America 
would  undoubtedly  have  been  used  by  the  Nazis  as  a  springboard  for  bombing 
Dallas,  New  Orleans,  Atlanta,  and  Washington. 

If  the  USSR  had  not  accepted  Hitler's  challenge,  Germany  and  Japan  would 
have  met  in  India  and  all  southern  Asia  would  have  fallen  to  the  enemy.  China's 
position  would  have  become  well  nigh  hopeless  and  most  of  Africa  would  have 
been  in  the  hands  of  the  Nazis  and  Fascists. 

China's  losses  have  been  vaster  than  those  of  Britain  and  America  combined. 
They  have  been  equalled  only  by  those  of  Russia,  for  to  date  the  Red  Army  has 
killed  more  Nazi  troops  than  the  armies  of  all  the  United  Nations  put  together. 
The  magnitude  of  the  Soviet  effort  is  indicated  statistically  when  I  remind  you 
that  the  published  totals  of  American  Army,  Navy,  and  Air  Force  personnel  is 
still  under  forty  thousand  dead  as  compared  with  an  estimate  of  three  million 
in  the  Soviet  Union. 

The  comradeship  in  arms  of  China,  Britain,  Russia,  and  the  United  States 
has  naturally  led  to  a  measure  of  collaboration  in  staking  out  the  broad  out- 
lines of  the  peace.  The  Moscow  agreements  commit  these  four  Powers  to 
participate  in  a  new  international  order.  This  commitment  implied  that  the 
four  Powers  would  police  our  enemies  and  substituted  four  Power  collaboration 
for  the  old  formula  of  a  balance  of  power  among  the  strongest  states. 

Probably  a  majority  of  thinking  Americans  accept  the  Moscow  thesis  that  a 
nuclear  alliance  of  the  four  Powers  is  a  precondition  of  an  ordered  world.  They 
agree  with  the  Moscow  conference  leaders  that  provision  should  be  made  for  the 
cooperation  of  all  peace-loving  states  with  the  Big  Four.  Public  opinion  in  the 
United  States  broadly  accepts  the  principles  of  the  Atlantic  Charter  and  the 
Four  Freedoms  partially  because  of  an  incorrigible  American  habit  to  accept 
broad  and  idealistic  generalities.  But  the  re-educational  job  with  which  we  are 
confronted  is  as  follows  : 

First,  to  define  what  these  mean  when  applies  to  the  American  scene ;  Second, 
to  understand  the  degree  to  which  they  can  be  applied  nationally  and  interna- 
tionally by  the  other  Powers ;  Third,  to  aid  our  government  in  stating  the 
issues  so  concretely  and  constructively  that  they  will  be  supported  by  the  people 
and  the  Congress  and  provide  a  basis  for  mutual  cooperation  with  the  other 
Powers. 

One  of  the  many  dangers  in  current  American  thought  is  the  persistence  of 
the  idea  that  the  United  States  is  the  most  powerful  country  in  the  world.  Even 
more  sinister  is  the  belief  that  we  are  the  most  moral  people  in  the  world.  And 
finally,  there  is  emerging  from  many  platforms  the  assertion  that  the  cultural 
and  intellectual  center  of  the  world  has  moved  from  the  European  continent 
and  the  British  Isles  to  North  America.  "Let  him  that  thinkest  he  standeth, 
take  heed  lest  he  fall." 

In  industrial  and  agricultural  production  and  social  organization  the  Soviet 
Union  may  outstrip  the  United  States  in  our  lifetime.  Out  of  the  ruins  of  conti- 
nental Europe  there  may  emerge  a  daring  intellectual  vigor  surpassing  that  in 
the  United  States.  There  are  those  who  believe  that  the  leaders  in  the  realm  of 
art  and  thought  who  will  set  the  pace  for  the  civilized  world  will  emerge  from 
the  vast  area  that  stretches  from  the  Volga  to  the  Yangtze. 

Certainly  our  failure  following  the  Paris  conference  and  our  failure  to  under- 
stand the  implications  of  Japanese,  Italian,  Spanish,  and  German  aggression 
sprang  in  part  from  the  American  feeling  of  overwhelming  superiority  in  power, 
social  organization,  and  intellectual  leadership.  The  war  has  shown  that  we 
are  members  one  of  another,  that  we  are  strong  only  as  we  are  united  with  other 
nations. 


5070  INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 

Recently  Mr.  Walter  Lippmann  in  his  "U.  S.  Foreign  Policy"  has  convinced 
many  Americans  that  we  have  never  had  a  coherent  world  policy.  More  re- 
cently Mr.  Joseph  M.  Jones  in  his  "A  Modern  Foreign  Policy  for  the  United 
States"  has  made  an  on-the-whole  useful  critique  of  our  own  State  Department 
and  at  two  points  has  advanced  ideas  which  call  for  widespread  study  on  the 
part  of  the  American  puhlic.  He  lists  some  of  the  main  operating  concepts  of 
American  foreign  policy  in  the  past  and  affirms  that  there  is  scarcely  one  that 
has  not  heen  either  demolished  by  the  impact  of  world  events  or  riddled  by  the 
implications  of  modern  warfare.     This  is  what  he  says : 

"(1)  Isolation,  avoidance  of  alliances,  avoidance  of  commitments,  diplomacy 
by  'parallel  action'  and  'cooperative  effort'— demolished  by  our  inevitable  in- 
volvement  in    two    devastating   world   wars   in    one   generation. 

"(2)  Verbal  championing  of  high  principles  of  international  law  and  conduct 
while  continually  declaring  that  our  action  in  support  of  any  and  all  principles 
would  stop  'short  of  war,'  thereby  delivering  our  diplomacy  over  to  any  foreign 
nation  that  could  trump  our  highest  ciird— destroyed  by  Japanese  bombs  at 
Pearl  Harbor. 

"(3)  Nonintervention  in  the  affairs  of  sovereign  states— a  fraud  that  was  ex- 
posed in  all  of  its  essential  absurdity  in  Spain  in  1937. 

"(4)  Rights  of  neutrals — two  world  wars  have  shown  conclusively  that  they 
are  respected  only  to  the  extent  that  it  is  convenient  and  expedient  for  warring 
powers  to  do  so. 

"(.5)  Freedom  of  the  seas — to  a  large  extent  made  irrelevant  by  the  growth 
of  civil  and  military  air  power. 

"(6)  National  self-determination — proved  inadequate  as  it  fails  to  protect 
the  rights  of  individuals  and  minorities. 

"(7)  Limitation  and  reduction  of  armaments — a  policy  proved  dangerous  to 
the  nation's  security  in  the  absence  of  international  organization  for  policing, 
inspection,  enforcement,  and  for  mitigating  the  economic  causes  of  war. 

"(8)  Concept  of  international  law  as  applying  only  to  states  and  not  to  indi- 
viduals, thus  permitting  atrocities  within  states  that  shock  and  offend  the  world's 
conscience  and  lead  to  war — direct  bomb  hit. 

"(9)  Nondiscrimination  and  equality  of  treatment  in  commercial  relations — 
still  valid,  but  inadequate  in  a  world  in  which  economic  expansion  and  a  rising 
standard  of  living  are  conditions  of  peace  and  democracy." 

Mr.  Jones  proceeds  to  sketch  the  framework  of  a  modern  foreign  policy  as 
follows : 

"I.  The  first  major  requirement  of  a  modern  American  foreign  policy  is  that 
it  shall  perpetuate  after  the  war  the  close  association  of  the  four  ma.ior  United 
Nations — the  United  States,  Great  Britain,  the  Soviet  Union,  and  China — as  a 
nucleus  of  world  order,  strong  and  above  challenge. 

"II.  The  second  important  requirement  of  American  foreign  policy  is  that  it 
shall  be  based  upon,  protect,  and  extend  the  principle  of  freedom  in  the  world. 

"III.  The  third  essential  requirement  of  American  foreign  policy  is  that  it 
shall  make  adequate  provision  for  international  control  over  civil  and  military 
air  power  everywhere  in  the  world ;  and  for  placing  at  the  disposal  of  a  United 
Nations  organization  a  sufficient  margin  of  air  power  to  deal  efficiently  and 
effectively  with  aggression  or  threat  of  aggression  anywhere  in  the  world. 

"IV.  The  fourth  major  requirement  of  American  foreign  policy  is  that  it  shall 
promote,  wherever  in  the  world  it  is  desired,  steady  expansion  of  economic 
activity,  a  rising  standard  of  living  for  the  masses,  and  expanding  programs  of 
public  education,  health,  and  nutrition  as  indispensable  to  democracy  and 
peace." 

In  spite  of  certain  limitations  I  would  urge  all  of  you  who  are  here  today 
carefully  to  study  these  two  volumes.  In  addition  I  venture  to  suggest  study  of 
the  volume  "Post  War  Worlds"  by  Percy  E.  Corbett  and  "War  and  Peace  in  the 
Pacific"  for  those  concerned  for  international  relationships  in  that  half  of  the 
world.  To  this  latter  group  I  recommend  the  volume  "Winning  the  Peace  in 
the  Pacific"  by  S.  R.  Chow,  an  eminent  Chinese  scholar,  and  another  volume 
"The  Ftttt^re  of  Southeast  Asia"  by  an  Indian  leader,  K.  M.  Panikl^ar. 

The  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations  in  common  with  other  organizations  is  en- 
gaged in  an  effort  to  fill  up  the  vast  gaps  in  the  world's  knowledge  of  the  Pa- 
cific area.  The  American  Council  of  that  Institute  has  published  recently  a 
sheaf  of  pamphlets  on  several  of  the  countries  of  the  Pacific  which  are  being 
used  widely  in  the  American  Army  and  in  American  secondary  schools.  Every- 
one here  who  has  a  relative  in  the  Armed  Forces  in  the  Pacific  or  a  child  in  an 
Ohio  school  will  wish  to  familiarize  themselves  with  this  invaluable  series. 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS  5071 

This  vast  Pacific  world,  almost  unknown  to  Americans  before  Pearl  Harbor, 
is  now  beins  visited  by  a  rapidly  increasing  stream  of  American  men  and  women 
in  the  Armed  Forces.  For  a  few  it  is  a  kind  of  Cook's  tour.  But  for  the  ma- 
jority it  is  the  mud  of  a  South  Pacific  fox-hole,  the  fever  of  the  lUirmese  jungle, 
the  lieat  of  the  Indian  plains,  and  the  frustration  of  life  in  wartime  China.  A 
"must"  for  all  patriotic  Americans  is  to  see  that  their  men  and  women  in  these 
areas  are  supplied  with  background  material  on  racial  and  national  cultures  and 
economic  interests  so  that  they  can  adjust  themselves  intelligently  to  their  role 
of  comrades  in  arms  and  comrades  in  peace  with  their  Pacific  allies.  There 
remains  the  common  task  of  examining  the  military,  political,  and  economic 
policy  which  the  United  States  and  other  United  Nations  should  adopt  in  this 
far  flung  Pacific  area.  Here  more  attention  has  been  given  to  the  treatment  of 
Japan  that  to  any  other  single  topic.  But  if  we  think  that  the  resolving  of  the 
problem  of  Japan  means  the  solution  of  all  the  problems  of  international  coopera- 
tion in  the  Pacific  area,  we  will  deceive  ourselves.  For  all  around  that  greatest 
of  oceans  new  dynamic  and  divisive  forces  will  emerge  which  must  be  faced 
on  a  regional  and  global  basis. 

Let  us  address  ourselves  first,  however,  to  the  treatment  of  Japan.  I  am  not 
familiar  with  any  more  comprehensive  analysis  of  this  problem  than  that  con- 
tained in  an  article  in  the  current  Pacific  Affairs  by  my  colleague,  T.  A.  Bis- 
son.  Recognizing  that  the  treatment  of  Germany  will  give  some  pointers  for  the 
treatment  of  Japan,  Mr.  Bisson,  from  whom  I  will  quote  at  length,  writes  as 
follows : 

"In  his  Christmas  Eve  broadcast.  President  Roosevelt  expressed  the  general 
principles  underlying  the  political  attack  on  Germany  in  most  careful  and  exact 
terminology.  The  conferees  at  Teheran,  said  the  President,  'were  united  in 
determination  that  Germany  must  be  stripped  of  her  military  might  and  be 
given  no  opportunity  within  the  foreseeable  future  to  regain  that  might.  The 
United  Nations  have  no  intention  to  enslave  the  German  people.  We  wish  them 
to  have  a  normal  chance  to  develop,  in  peace,  as  useful  and  respectable  mem- 
bers of  the  European  family.  But  we  most  certainly  emphasze  that  word  "i-e- 
spectable" — for  we  intend  to  rid  them  once  and  for  all  of  Nazism  and  Prussian 
militarism  and  the  fantastic  and  disastrous  notion  that  they  constitute  the 
"master  race.'  " 

"Against  the  background  of  the  final  military  assault  on  the  European  fortress, 
three  simple  principles  are  laid  before  the  Germany  people:  (1)  Germany's  mili- 
tary power  will  be  crushed  and  not  permitted  to  revive;  (2)  the  old  leadership 
must  go;  and  (3)  on  these  bases,  the  (Jerman  people  will  again  be  accepted  as 
normal  members  of  the  European  community.  The  uncompromising  nature  of 
this  program  is  perhaps  its  most  striking  feature.  Even  with  respect  to  the  sec- 
ond principle,  there  is  no  call  to  the  Germans  to  throw  out  their  old  leaders. 
The  words  used — 'we  intend  to  rid  them' — place  the  responsibility  on  the  United 
Nations  for  this  drastic  action.  They  are  an  implied  threat  to  those  Germans 
who  support  the  old  leaders,  and  an  implied  promise  to  those  Germans  who  would 
like  to  see  them  overthrown.  Cooperation  of  the  German  people  in  this  over- 
throw would  obviously  be  welcomed,  but  it  is  neither  urged  nor  suggested. 

"In  the  same  broadcast.  President  Roosevelt  also  made  reference  to  two  basic 
elements  which  must  enter  into  the  making  of  peace  with  Japan.  These  comprise 
llrst,  'the  restoration  of  stolen  property  to  its  rightful  owners' — a  restatement  of 
the  Cairo  pledge  that  Japan  will  be  stripped  of  all  territories  gained  by  aggression 
since  1895  ;  and  secondly,  the  peace  will  ensure  'the  permanent  elimination  of  the 
Empire  of  Japan  as  a  potential  force  of  aggression.'  It  is  noteworthy  that  these 
two  pronouncements,  taken  together,  do  not  go  beyond  the  first  principle  as  stated 
for  Germany.  They  constitute  a  blunt  affirmation  of  the  intention  of  the  United 
Nations  to  fight  the  war  against  Japan  to  a  finish,  somewhat  analogous  in  this 
respect  to  the  'imconditional  surrender'  demand  voiced  at  Casablanca.  It  might 
have  been  assumed  that  further  statements  on  Japan,  covering  the  scope  of  the 
last  two  principles  set  forth  for  Germany,  would  have  to  wait  upon  victory  in 
Europe  and  the  mounting  of  the  final  assault  against  Japan.  At  this  point,  how- 
ever, Generalissimo  Chiang  Kai-shek,  in  a  New  Year's  message  to  the  Chinese 
Army  and  people,  went  far  to  close  the  gap.  Revealing  a  hitherto  unreported 
passfige  at  the  Cairo  conference,  he  made  the  following  statements: 

"  'In  intimate  talks  I  had  with  President  Roosevelt  and  Prime  Minister 
Churchill  at  Cairo  we  considered  steps  for  mutual  cooperation  and  agreed  upon 
certain  plans  for  prosecution  of  the  war. 

"  'We  also  agreed  upon  the  question  of  the  disposal  of  the  enemy  after  the  war. 
One  important  problem  in  this  connection  concerns  Japan's  form  of  government. 


5072  INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 

When  President  Roosevelt  asked  my  views  I  frankly  replied,  "It  is  my  opinion 
that  all  Japanese  militarists  must  be  wiped  out  and  the  Japanese  political  system 
must  be  purged  of  every  vestige  of  aggressive  elements.  As  to  what  form  of 
government  Japan  should  adopt,  that  question  can  better  be  left  to  the  awakened 
and  repentant  Japanese  people  to  decide  for  themselves." 

"  'I  also  said,  "If  the  Japanese  people  should  rise  in  revolution  to  punish  their 
warmongers  and  overthrow  their  militarists'  government  we  should  respect  their 
spontaneous  will  and  allow  them  to  choose  their  own  form  of  government."  Mr. 
Roosevelt  fuly  approved  of  my  idea.' 

"Assuming  that  these  statements  reflect  a  common  approach  to  the  peace  settle- 
ments in  Europe  and  the  Far  East,  it  is  already  possible  to  sketch  the  type  of 
peace  to  be  made  with  Japan.  A  few  of  the  outlines  are  even  now  sharp  and 
clear ;  others  must  be  drawn  on  the  basis  of  given  suggestions  in  the  light  of 
objectives  which  seem  desirable. 

"The  peace  with  Japan  will  be  a  harsh  one  in  many  of  its  aspects,  notably  those 
affecting  territories,  disarmament,  and  possible  reparations.  When  the  costs  and 
sacrifices  of  defeating  Japan's  ruthless  aggression  are  placed  in  the  reckoning, 
nothing  less  should  be  expected  or  desired.  These  terms  of  the  peace  will,  in  some 
cases,  be  setting  right  old  wrongs  that  have  endured  for  a  generation  or  longer. 
They  are  also  required  to  limit  Japan's  power  to  engage  in  a  second  adventure  in 
aggression. 

"Obviously,  these  terras  presuppose  the  existence  and  continued  maintenance  of 
unity  between  members  of  the  United  Nations  and  the  emergence  of  a  strong  and 
effective  international  organization.  Continued  agreement  and  firm  cooperation, 
at  least  among  the  United  States,  Great  Britain,  the  U.  S.  S.  R.  and  China,  are 
indispensable  in  order  to  enforce  the  terms  of  peace  against  Japan  initially  and 
then  to  see  that  they  are  upheld.  Given  this  degree  of  unity,  the  har«her  aspects 
of  the  peace  can  be  mitigated  somewhat  by  measures  which  will  indicate  clearly 
to  the  Japanese  people  that  the  settlement  is  dictated  not  by  a  polic.v  of  revenge, 
nor  with  an  intention  to  enslave.  The  line  is  not  so  difficult  to  draw  as  might 
appear.  A  vengeful  peace  can  be  defined  as  one  aimed  at  keeping  Japan  in  a  state 
ot  lasting  subjection,  political  or  economic.  Any  such  policy  would  be  self- 
defeating.  Sir  George  Sansom  has  rightly  declared  that  the  existence  of  'a  nation 
of  over  70  million  desperate  and  frustrated  people  would  ruin  any  plan  designed 
to  bring  prosperity  and  peace  to  Asia.'  The  principle  enunciated  by  President 
Roosevelt  for  the  German  people  must  also  be  taken  as  applying  to  the  Japanese 
people — the.v  will  be  given  'a  normal  chance  to  develop,  in  peace,  as  useful  and 
respectable  members'  of  the  world  community. 

"What  is  stated  here  really  amounts  to  a  process  of  postwar  development.  It 
looks  toward  the  emergence  of  a  healthy  Japan,  which  can  in  time  reenter  the 
society  of  nations  as  a  member  in  full  standing.  The  process  makes  serious 
demands  on  the  United  Nations,  as  well  as  on  Japan.  They  must  assist  her  to 
develop  along  peaceful  lines  on  both  the  political  and  economic  levels ;  they  must 
assume  direct  responsibility  for  the  type  of  political  and  social  structure  estab- 
lished in  Japan  after  her  defeat.  United  Nations  guidance  will  be  required  in 
greater  or  lesser  degree,  to  make  it  certain  that  the  old  autocratic  system  is  not 
reestablished,  but  that  a  new  system  is  inaugurated  in  which  the  democratic 
aspirations  of  the  Japanese  people  find  real  expression.  Full  opportunity  must 
also  he  given  Japan  to  raise  the  living  standard  of  her  people  by  the  processes 
of  normal  international  trade.  The  new  world  organization  must  have  not  only 
the  strength  to  maintain  collective  security  but  also  the  economic  statesmanship 
to  eliminate  trade  barriers  and  develop  the  colonial  areas  of  the  world  by  meas- 
ures for  improving  the  social  and  economic  welfare  of  the  inhabitants  on  a  basis 
of  nondiscriminatory  international  cooperation.  This  process  will  provide  the 
most  dependable  safeguard  against  renewed  Japanese  (or  German)  aggression. 
The  enemy  nations  must  be  restored  to  health  and  then  must  be  fitted  into  a 
constructive  system  of  international  collaboration." 

Whatever  the  fate  of  the  Royal  Family,  it  is  clear  that  whatever  remains  of 
the  Japanese  Navy  must  be  surrendered.  Munitions  and  aircraft  must  be 
destroyed  or  surrendered.  Munitions  plants  must  at  least  be  converted  into 
production  of  civilian  goods.  For  a  considerable  period  Japan  will  be  pre- 
vented from  maintaining  military  and  naval  forces.  A  civilian  police  force 
alone  will  be  allowed.  The  punishment  of  the  Japanese  leaders  of  totalitarian 
aggression,  whether  naval,  military,  or  industrial,  must  be  complete.     On  the 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC   RELATIONS  5073 

matter  of  reparations  the  experts  disagree.  Tlie  Chinese  are  expected  to  in- 
inherit  such  parts  of  the  large  industrial  plants  in  Manchuria  and  Formosa  as 
are  not  destroyed  by  military  action  or  a  scorched  eai'th  policy.  In  these  fac- 
tories and  in  the  coal  and  iron  of  IManchnria,  China  will  add  significantly 
to  her  heavy  industry.  If,  as  declared  at  Cairo,  China  regains  all  her  lost  ter- 
ritories there  would  seem  to  be  but  little  need  of  insisting  on  a  long  drawn- 
out  period  of  reparation  payments  which  might  promise  more  discord  than  they 
are  worth.  Confined  to  the  slender  area  of  her  own  islands,  Japan  will  face  a 
perplexing  problem  of  self-support.  "With  the  security  issue  settled,  intelligent 
people  in  other  countries  will  assert  that  Japan's  economic  rehabilitation  will 
be  advantageous  to  other  countries.     Mr.  Bisson  rightly  affirms : 

"Extension  of  disarmament  into  the  factory,  a  necessity  under  modern  con- 
ditions, still  treats  the  symptoms,  not  the  disease  itself.  The  key  issue  in  the 
degree  of  success  attending  the  United  Nations'  dealings  with  a  defeated  Japan 
is  not  how  well  the  country  is  disarmed  but  how  greatly  its  outlook  and  mo- 
tivations are  changed.  In  the  last  analysis,  what  is  required  is  a  thorough 
recasting  of  Japan's  political  and  social  leadership.  Addressing  himself  to 
Germany,  Pre.sident  Roosevelt  declared  in  the  statement  already  quoted: 
'*  *  *  we  intend  to  rid  them  once  and  for  all  of  Nazism  and  Prussian  mili- 
tarism and  the  fantastic  and  disastrous  notion  that  they  constitute  the  "master 
race."  '  In  much  the  same  terms.  Generalissimo  Chiang  Kai-shek  stated  that 
'all  Japanese  militarists  must  be  wiped  out  and  the  Japanese  political  system 
must  be  purged  of  every  vestige  of  aggressive  elements.'  " 

As  to  those  who  ask,  "Can  we  expect  to  impose  democracy  on  Japan?"  one 
answer  is  that  if  the  United  Nations  do  not  concern  themselves  we  will  find 
the  militarists  and  secret  societies  back  again  in  their  old  places  of  power. 
Others  will  answer  that  the  Japanese  people  may  do  a  good  part  of  the  job 
themselves.  Without  staking  Japan's  future  on  the  so-called  "liberals"  we  do 
know  that  there  have  been  relatively  able  opposition  movements  in  Japan.  If 
the  United  Nations'  political  warfare  and  postwar  policy  is  sound,  it  will  ap- 
peal to  the  Japanese  on  the  ground  that  there  are  stronger  material,  social,  and 
emotional  satisfactions  than  those  deriving  from  the  ideology  of  conquest  and 
master  race.  Confidence  must  be  created  in  the  faith  that  construction  can 
follow  destruction.  If  the  United  States  role  in  United  Nations'  policy  is  to 
be  positive  in  revolutionizing  the  psychology  of  the  Japanese,  the  American 
people  must  steer  a  courageous  and  realistic  course  toward  cooperation  with 
the  masses  of  Japan  by  avoiding  appeasement  and  collaboration  with  the  mili- 
tarists and  the  great  cartels  which  have  never  refused  to  profit  from  the  expan- 
sionist policy  of  the  militarists. 

As  indicated  above  while  the  problem  of  Japan  is  central  it  is  not  the  only 
one  in  the  Pacific  area.  A  few  of  those  that  must  be  faced  are  the  foreign 
trade,  investment,  airlines,  merchant  marine,  and  immigration  policies  of  the 
United  States.  Another  is  the  problem  of  British  relations  with  India,  Burma, 
Malay.sia,  and  China.  Internally  China  has  tensions  and  problems  that  are  as 
baffling  as  those  within  the  United  States. 

Though  Soviet  Russia  was  the  first  gi-eat  power  to  aid  China  substantially  in 
her  war  with  Japan,  the  role  of  Russia  in  the  Pacific  is  still  obscure  to  many 
citizens  of  China,  India,  the  Netherlands,  the  United  States  and  the  British 
Commonwealth.  This  results  in  large  measure  to  two  factors :  First  and 
principally  bef^ause  of  the  generation  of  mutual  suspicion  between  these  powers 
and  the  Soviet  Union  and  the  fact  that  but  few  citizens  of  these  countries 
have  ever  taken  the  trouble  to  inform  themselves  on  the  rational  character 
of  Soviet  policy  in  Asia  and  the  Pacific.  It  results  to  a  lesser  degi-ee  from 
a  failure  to  recognize  the  validity  of  the  position  of  the  combined  Chiefs  of 
Staffs  that  Ri^ssia's  supreme  contribution  to  the  global  war  is  to  continue 
her  devastatinsr  blows  against  the  Nazis.  No  United  Nations  citizen  in  his 
right  mind  could  ask  that  at  this  moment  the  Soviet  Union  take  on  a  second 
front  war  which  would  incidentally  cut  off  the  great  flow  of  lend-lease  supplies 
for  the  defeat  of  Hitler  that  now  safely  cross  the  Pacific.  But  in  the  postwar 
period  whether  Russia  enters  the  Paciflc  war  or  not,  the  other  Pacific  nations 
will  have  to  recoscnizp  Russia  as  a  major  Pacific  power.  The  future  peace  of 
the  Pacific  will  depend  in  part  on  whether  the  powers  that  heretofore  have 
regarded  Russia  with  suspicion  can  so  thoroughly  inform  themselves  as  to 
Rxissian  policy  as  to  be  able  to  accept  at  its  face  value  Russia's  overwhelming 
commitment  to  the  world  collective  system. 


5074  INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC   RELATIONS 

Cleveland  Lecture,  March  31,  1944 

In  Georgia,  in  the  Atlanta  Constitution,  Mr.  Henry  Ford  proclaimed  that  the 
war  will  end  in  two  months.  Mr.  Ford  was  not  in  a  position  to  reveal  the  inside 
information  on  which  his  prediction  was  based.  The  period  in  which  we  will 
have  to  wait  in  order  to  verily  his  accuracy  is  so  brief  that  I  shall  not  take 
your  time  today  to  speculate  on  its  truth  or  falsity.  I  mention  it  merely  to 
advance  another  speculation  and  that  is  that  Mr.  Ford  in  common  with  some 
other  Americans  may  believe  that  the  collapse  of  Germany  automatically  and 
simultaneouslv  means  the  end  of  the  war  with  Japan. 

I  do  not  hold  this  view.  It  seems  to  me  to  spring  from  several  wrong  assump- 
tions (1)  a  throw-back  to  the  pre-Pearl  Harbor  underestimation  of  Japanese 
power;  (2)  a  belief  that  there  is  a  Pacilic  war  and  a  European  war  rather  than 
a  global  conflict;  (3)  that  once  the  Nazis  are  subdued  the  United  Nations  can 
quickly  deal  the  mortal  blow  to  Japan. 

But  for  the  moment  let  us  have  an  end  of  speculation.  Looking  across  the 
Pacilic  one  sure  factor  emerges.  The  way  in  which  the  United  Nations  deal 
with  Japan  and  all  the  areas  which  Japan  has  occupied  will  be  one  of  the 
determinants  of  the  issues  of  war  and  peace  in  the  world  for  coming  generations. 

Undoubtedly  the  collapse  of  Germany  will  have  profound  repercussions  in 
Japan.  The  Japanese  will  receive  the  news  with  mixed  feelings.  It  will  spell 
ultimate  doom.  At  the  same  time  many  Japanese,  angry  with  Hitler's  failure 
at  Moscow,  Stalingrad  and  in  the  Caucasus  and  exasperated  by  the  arrogant 
behavior  of  their  German  colleagues  in  Japan  and  China,  will  secretly  rejoice 
that  the  German  master  race  is  eating  the  dust  of  defeat.  The  Japanese 
command  will  undoulitedly  seek  to  minimize  the  meaning  of  Hitler's  down- 
fall. With  his  collapse  will  come  two  important  opportunities — the  first  on 
the  military ;  the  second  on  the  political  and  psychological  front.  If  the  latter 
is  as  inchoate  as  in  the  past  United  Nations  political  warefare  in  Africa  and 
Europe  has  been  we  may  yet  win  the  war  in  the  Pacific  but  lose  the  np;'c.> 


Exhibit  No.  953 

April  14,  1944. 
Soviet  Russia's  Contribution  to  Peace 

(By  Edward  C.  Carter,  Secretary-General  of  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations) 

The  Red  Army  has  killed  more  Nazi  soldiers  than  the  armies  of  all  the  rest 
of  the  United  Nations  put  together.  Surely  this  is  a  primary  contribution  to  the 
future,  for  until  the  Nazi  army  is  destroyed  there  will  be  no  peace. 

If  the  USSR  had  not  accepted  Hitler's  challenge,  Germany  and  Japan  would 
have  met  in  India  and  all  southern  Asia  would  have  fallen  to  the  enemy.  China's 
position  would  have  beoome  well  nigh  hopeless  and  most  of  Africa  would  have 
been  in  the  hands  of  the  Nazis  and  Fascists. 

By  what  means  did  Russia  emerge  as  the  greatest  effective  military  power 
in  the  world  in  the  winter  of  1943-44?  By  what  alchemy  did  the  Russia  of 
1914-17  transform  herself  in  a  short  generation?  Remember  that  Germany 
knocked  Czarist  Russia  out  of  the  First  World  War  while  Germany  was  still  at 
war  with  the  entire  British  Empire,  the  United  States,  France,  Belgium,  Italy, 
China  and  Japan.  There  is  no  single  answer.  The  process  represents  a  vast 
complex  of  historical  and  economic  forces.  Here  we  have  the  paradox  of  a 
great  people  who  sought  primarily  the  good  life.  That  was  the  first  aim.  Su- 
preme military  power  emerged  as  a  by-product  of  that  objective.  In  other  words, 
Russia's  second  contrilmtion  to  the  peace  is  the  unity  of  her  people  and  her 
progress  in  social  and  economic  organization,  looking  forward  to  a  genuine 
democracy  as  the  ultimate  goal. 

The  Russians,  the  British,  the  Chinese,  and  indeed  many  Americans  are  still 
guessing  as  to  the  future  international  role  of  the  United  States.  Under  these 
circumstances  it  is  inevitable  that  people  in  tlie  other  countries  should  be 
guessing  about  Russia's  future  role.  This  results  in  part  from  a  generation  of 
mingled  suspicion  and  ignorance  which  has  lilinded  many  of  us  to  the  fact 
that  through  the  years  Russia  has  had  a  rather  exceptionally  consistent  for- 
eign policy. 

No  student  of  current  affairs  can  be  blind  to  the  serious  effects  on  present 
thinking  in  many  countries  on  the  future  role  of  the  Soviet  Union  as  a  result  of 
nearly  twenty  years  of  mutual  misunderstanding  between  Russia  and  other 
countries.     There  is  not  time  tonight  for  me  to  list  those  trends— some  real. 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS  5075 

some  imagined — in  the  early  days  of  the  revolution  which  caused  misgivings 
abroad.  Those  early  years  provoked  a  profound  and  burning  suspicion  of  things 
Russian. 

To  the  Russians  the  behavior  of  the  other  nations  seemed  equally  grim.  Sus- 
picion in  Russia  of  the  capitalist  countries  resulted  from  foreisiin  intervention 
in  Russia  following  the  revolution.  On  the  advice  of  Secretary  of  War  Winston 
Churchill  in  1918  London  despatched  materials  and  troops  into  northern  Russia 
under  Major  General  Poole  and  later  under  Major  General  Ironside.  These 
forces  at  their  maximum  numbered  more  than  eighteen  thousand  British  and 
five  thousand  Americans.  They  disposed  of  the  Soviet  government  at  Archangel 
and  set  up  a  provisional  white  government.  In  eastern  Siberia,  British,  French, 
American  and  Japanese  forces  marched  in.  The  Czechs  controlled  western 
Siberia  and  Admiral  Kolchak  with  British  aid  established  a  provisional  regime 
at  Omsk.     You  are  familiar  with  the  aid  which  the  Allies  gave  to  Generals 

Yudenich .    You  will  remember  that  in  1921  the  French  General  Weygand 

played  a  major  role  in  Poland's  war  against  Russia.  For  a  long  time  it  was 
not  easy  for  Russia  to  forget  the  foreign  intervention  of  1918,  the  Allied  blockade 
of  Russia  in  1919,  or  the  credit  Iilockade  that  extended  into  the  1920's. 

From  the  moment  of  Litvinov's  first  arrival  in  Geneva,  the  Soviet  government 
went  on  record  as  committed  to  a  world  collective  security  system.  Neither  the 
United  States,  France,  nor  Great  Britain  were  really  committed  to  that  system. 
Englishmen  and  Frenchmen  assure  Americans  that  it  was  impossible  for  their 
governments  to  make  this  commitment  because  of  American  isolationism. 

The  Powers  regarded  Russia's  commitment  to  the  collective  system  cynically, 
and  the  temporary  Moscow-Berlin  agreement  in  1939  was  the  direct  result  of 
tlie  policies  of  Chamberlain  and  Daladier  in  the  Munich  period. 

It  behooves  Americans  to  resurvey  the  whole  history  of  150  years  of  relations 
between  Russia  and  the  United  States,  both  under  the  Czar  and  under  the 
Bolsheviks.  In  this  period  of  150  years  the  United  States  has  been  at  war  at 
one  time  or  another  with  Britain,  France,  Germany,  Italy,  and  Japan.  Never 
throughout  this  period  has  the  United  States  been  at  war  with  Russia.  Misun- 
derstanding have  arisen  from  time  to  time  between  the  United  States  and  both 
Czarist  and  Bolshevik  Russia,  bur  they  have  never  issued  in  war  between  the 
two  countries.  The  economic  and  foreign  policies  of  the  two  countries  have 
been  parallel.  Their  broad  interests  have  been  largely  identic.  Both  have  been 
more  concerned  with  the  maintenance  of  peace  than  advancing  their  fortunes 
by  wars  of  aggression. 

On  both  sides  there  is  much  to  forget.  Happily,  tliere  is  a  general,  though 
not  yet  universal,  desire  to  face  forward  and  profit  by  the  grave  mistakes  of 
the  past.  Since  June  22nd.  1941,  immense  progress  has  been  made  in  the  task 
of  liquidating  distrust  and  forging  new  ties  of  genuine  understanding. 

The  growing  awareness  of  Russia's  indispensability  as  a  member  of  the  family 
of  nations  derives  from  several  causes  : 

First,  a  frank  recognition  of  the  fact  that  if  the  USSR  had  not  resisted  the 
Nazis  the  other  United  Nations  would  still  be  fighting  a  losing  war ; 

Second,  fresh  and  ever  increasing  knowledge  of  the  military,  industrial  and 
social  strength  of  the  Soviet  Union ; 

Third,  a  recognition  that  Soviet  geography,  natural  resources,  and  commit- 
ment to  a  steady  rise  in  the  standard  of  living  both  demand  and  make  possible 
Russia's  announced  and  reiterated  commitment  to  a  strong  woi'ld  collective- 
security  system. 

At  the  recent  Moscow  and  Teheran  conferences  Russia  gave  unequivocal  evi- 
dence of  her  commitment  to  a  world  collective  security  system.  This  is  sa 
clearly  in  Russia's  self-interest  that  only  a  defection  by  London  and  Washington 
can  again  precipitate  Russia's  withdrawal. 

Mr.  Hull  has  indicated  clearly  that  one  of  the  foundations  of  United  States 
war  and  peace  policy  is  the  complete  destruction  of  the  Nazi  system  which 
plungr-d  us  into  war.  There  can  now  no  longer  be  any  question  in  any  informed 
person's  mind  as  to  the  complete  commitment  of  the  Soviet  government  and  the 
Russian  people  to  the  destruction  of  the  Nazi  system.  In  view  of  the  Soviet 
war  effort  the  consistent  prediction  of  certain  writers  of  a  separate  deal  between 
Stalin  and  Hitler  appears  ridiculous.  Though  the  Moscow  and  Tehei-an  declara- 
tions have  been  criticized  as  indefinite,  few  can  ignore  the  significance  of  the 
declarations  regarding  complete  agreement  as  to  the  scope  and  timing  of  mili- 
tary operations. 

In  the  political  field  the  Moscow  declaration's  fourth  point  recognized  "the 
necessity  of  establishing  at  the  earliest  practicable  date  a  general  international 
organization — for  the  maintenance  of  peace  and  security."     Cooperation  of  the 


5076  INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 

great  Powers  is  such  an  indispensable  precondition  of  sulistantial  advance  that 
this  must  be  regarded  as  a  step  forward.  Moscow  and  Teheran  were  also  sig- 
nilicant  in  that  they  were  the  occasion  for  the  first  meetings  of  the  Foreign  Min- 
isters and  the  government  heads  of  the  three  great  Powers. 

There  is  a  cluster  of  declarations  and  agreements  which  throw  a  good  deal 
of  light  on  the  interests,  intentions,  and  broad  ideals  of  Great  Britain,  the  United 
States,  and  the  Soviet  Union :  The  Atlantic  Charter,  the  United  Nations  Declara- 
tion, the  Anglo-Soviet  Treaty  of  May  1942,  and  the  mutual  aid  agreements  con- 
cluded by  the  United  States  with  other  countries.  The  Moscow  and  Teheran 
statements  to  a  large  extent  implied  general  approval  of  the  foregoing  declara- 
tions and  agreements.  In  some  cases  they  stood  for  concrete  and  binding  com- 
mitments. In  other  cases  they  repreesnt  ultimate  goals  toward  which  progress 
will  be  gradual.  In  other  words,  the  Moscow  and  Teheran  statements  under- 
lined in  clear  terms  the  Soviet  Union's  commitment  to  a  broad  program  of 
cooperation  for  peace  and  security. 

As  might  be  expected,  the  Bolsheviks  with  their  growing  appreciation  of  the 
continuity  of  Russian  history  have  long  assumed  that  the  recovery  of  Russia's 
lost  territories  was  a  legitimate  aim. 

The  Russians  have  made  it  abundantly  evident  that  they  regard  the  reacquisi- 
tion  of  the  Baltic  States,  Bessarabia,  and  parts  of  Karelia  as  desirable  and 
historically  defensible.  They  have  announced  that  at  the  right  time  they  are 
prepared  to  negotiate  with  a  responsible  and  repi'esentative  government  of  Poland 
on  the  general  basis  of  the  Curzon  line.  They  have  not  dogmatically  insisted  on 
the  Curzon  Line  as  unalterable,  but  they  have  stated  frankly  that  it  should  form 
the  basis  for  negotiation. 

The  Russians  have  aflarmed  their  wholly  friendly  and  cordial  interest  in  the 
reestablishraent  of  the  Czechoslovak  state.  They  have  entered  into  a  strong 
and  binding  twenty-year  agreement  with  Great  Britain.  They  have  made  clear 
their  attitude  to  the  French  National  Committee  of  Liberation.  They  have 
stated  their  attitude  to  the  Badoglio  government. 

Tlie  Soviet  authorities  have  declared  that  they  do  not  intend  to  annex 
Rumanian  territory  or  to  alter  the  Rumanian  social  structure. 

The  Soviet  government,  together  with  Great  Britain  and  the  United  States, 
has  notified  the  Austrians,  the  rest  of  Europe,  and  the  whole  world  of  their 
intention  that  their  goal  is  that  Austria  become  independent  and  free.  The 
Austrians  are  assured  of  support  in  their  efforts  to  find  economic  and  political 
advantage  througli  understandings  with  "those  neighboring  states  which  will 
be  faced  with  similar  problems."  In  other  words,  the  world  organization  will 
not  in  theory  stand  in  the  way  of  regional  arrangements  in  the  Danube  Valley. 
A  measure  of  regionalism  was  foreshadowed  by  the  creation  at  Moscow  of 
the  Advisory  Council  for  Italy  and  the  European  Advisory  Commission. 

The  Soviets  clearly  wish  to  look  forward  to  a  hundred  years  of  peace.  I 
venture  to  guess  that  they  would  prefer  to  see  western  Europe  emerge  from 
the  war  quickly  into  a  long  era  of  peace  and  progress  under  liberal,  demo- 
cratic, capitalistic,  and  friendly  governments  than  to  be  torn  in  twain  by  long- 
drawn-out  chaos  resulting  from  inconclusive  communist  revolutions. 

Vis-a-vis  Japan,  the  USSR  does  not  seek  a  two-front  war.  The  strength  of 
the  Soviet  Far  Eastern  armies  is  such  as  to  immobilize  a  Japanese  army  of 
approximately  three-quarters  of  a  million  in  Korea,  Manchuria,  and  North 
China.  While  not  seeking  war  with  Japan,  one  may  surmise  that  the  Russian 
Army  does  not  fear  Japan.  Very  recently  the  negotiations  regarding  Sakhalin 
and  the  fisheries  question  reveal  that  Moscow  is  fully  aware  of  the  fact  that 
her  strentrth  is  greater  than  that  of  Japan.  In  discussing  the  war  in  the  Pacific, 
Soviet  writers  invariably  refer  to  Japan  as  the  aggressor  and  China,  Britain, 
the  United  States,  and  other  countries  as  the  victims  of  aggression. 

In  her  relations  with  China,  Russia  is  reported  to  have  taken  a  scrupulously 
correct  position.  The  Chinese  remember  that  before  Pearl  Harbor,  when  the 
United  States  and  British  countries  were  aiding  Japan  with  abundant  war 
materials,  Russia  was  aiding  China  with  substantial  credits  and  supplies. 

With  reference  to  British  India,  a  study  of  Soviet  publications  indicates  that 
the  Russians  are  failing  to  follow  the  practice  of  certain  American  liberals  in 
lecturincr  Britain  about  her  relations  with  India. 

At  Teheran  the  three  leaders  recognized  the  common  responsibility  of  making 
"a  peace  which  will  command  good  will  from  the  overwhelming  masses  of  the 
peoples."  There  was  the  promise  to  seek  the  cooperation  of  all  peoples  "dedi- 
cated to  the  elimination  of  tyranny."  There  was  the  welcome  to  such  peoples 
to  come  "as  they  may  choose  into  the  world  family  of  democratic  nations."    The 


INSTITUTE   OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  5077 

<;oncert  of  three  made  clear  their  dedication  to  the  cause  of  free  lives  to  nations 
and  individuals  and  their  repudiation  of  the  role  of  three-power  dictatorship. 
There  still  awaits  clarification  of  the  fourth  point  of  the  Moscow  declaration 
mentioned  above  regarding  the  necessity  of  establishing  a  general  international 
organization.  This  was  to  be  open  to  all  peace-loving  states  for  the  maintenance 
of  peace  and  security.  Pending  the  completion  of  this  organization  the  three 
Powers  and  China  promised  to  consult  with  one  another  and,  as  occasion  re- 
quired, with  other  members  of  the  United  Nations. 

The  foregoing  and  other  declarations  point  in  general  terms  to  the  regulation 
of  armaments  and  the  inauguration  of  a  system  of  general  security. 

Moscow  and  Teheran  did  not  completely  blueprint  the  future.  They  did, 
however,  point  the  way  to  many  forms  of  international  cooperation  which  are 
of  self-evident  importance  to  all  nations.  Neither  the  British  nor  the  Americans 
who  participated  in  those  conferences  have  provided  their  publics  with  any  in- 
formation to  controvert  the  theory  that  Stalin  and  Molotov  were  any  less  sincere 
in  their  declarations  than  the  leaders  from  the  other  nations. 

The  Soviet  government  has  participated  in  the  United  Nations  Food  Confer^ 
ence  and  is  also  participating  in  the  United  Nations  Relief  and  Rehabilitation 
Administration.  A  Soviet  delegation  recently  came  to  the  United  States  for 
preliminary  bilateral  talks  on  postwar  international  currency  stabilization 
with  U.  S.  Treasury  officials.  These  discussions,  which  were  paralleled  with 
talks  with  the  British  delegation  and  similar  negotiations  with  thirty  other 
governments,  are  paving  the  way  for  a  United  Nations  Monetary  Conference 
toward  the  end  of  this  year  or  in  1945.  The  press  has  hinted  that  the  subject 
matter  of  the  Beaverbrook-Berle  conversations  in  London  regarding  international 
problems  of  postwar  aviation  have  been  communicated  to  the  Soviet  authorities. 

The  Soviet  government's  policy  towards  its  own  diverse  nationalities  contains 
lessons  both  for  Europe  and  for  the  colonial  areas  alike  of  Europe,  the  Americas 
and  Asia.  These  are  lessons  that  can  be  learned  and  applied  with  necessarily 
adopting  socialism  as  the  exclusive  government  policy.  Some  of  these  lessons 
are: 

1.  In  oi'der  to  be  independent  and  strong,  substantial  economic  power  is  an 
essential.  This  is  best  achieved  if  there  is  an  effective  balance  of  industrial  and 
agricultural  development.  This  does  not  preclude  high  specialization  in  the 
Internal  economy. 

2.  When  there  is  an  integration  between  internal  economic  policy  and  foreign 
policy  the  risk  of  cultural  or  social  domination  of  one  nation  by  another  is 
substantially  reduced. 

3.  Nation-wide  education  and  public  health  are  indispensable  to  a  rising 
standard  of  living  and  the  development  of  self-government.  These,  however, 
cannot  be  achieved  unless  there  is  an  intelligent  and  dynamic  economic  and 
social  motivation  on  the  part  of  the  rank  and  file  of  the  population. 

4.  Racial  and  national  antagonisms  and  prejudices  can  be  reduced  by  a  com- 
bination of  education,  compulsion  (i.  e.  punishment  of  all  overt  forms  of  dis- 
crimination and  vilification)  and  economic  practices  which  in  fact  provide 
equality  of  opportunity. 

The  Russians'  self-confidence  in  their  way  of  life  and  in  their  strength  permit 
them  to  work  for  practical  compromises  with  other  nations  and  other  systems. 
This  is  a  new  development  in  Soviet  foreign  policy  beginning  about  1933  at  the 
time  of  the  second  Five-Year  Plan.  Before  this,  they  relied  more  heavily  on 
hortatory  appeals  to  the  rest  of  the  world  and  other  devices  showing  some  lack 
of  internal  self-assurance.  Those  who  have  followed  the  progressive  efforts  of 
the  Soviet  government  to  give  their  many  minorities  and  nationalities  a  more 
indigenous  and  richer  culture  of  their  own,  while  steadily  according  them 
greater  and  greater  responsibility  for  political  and  economic  matters,  were  not 
surprised  with  the  Russian  announcement  recently  that  the  IG  Soviet  Republics 
were  hereafter  to  have  a  say  in  Army  and  foreign  policy.  The  minorities  were 
to  participate  in  the  State's  highest  responsibilities — the  issues  of  peace  and 
war.  This  latest  move  was  not  in  my  view  a  hastily  fabricated  device  for  giving 
the  Soviet  Union  more  votes  in  a  future  world  council  than  the  British  Empire 
or  the  Pan-American  republics,  or  General  Smuts'  British  countries  plus  Western 
Europe.  It  was  rather  a  logical  development  of  Stalin's  policy  of  according  to 
every  major  racial  or  nationality  group  within  the  S'oviet  Union  the  fullest 
share  in  the  complex  and  abounding  life  of  the  Soviet  Union  and,  concurrently, 
a  new  place  in  the  affairs  of  the  family  of  nations. 

In  October  last  I  had  the  privilege  of  visiting  one  of  the  16  Republics — 
Uzbekistan.    Here,  in  half  a  generation,  a  medieval,  predominantly  Mohammedan 


5078  INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 

State  has  been  inducted  into  full  participation  in  tlie  mass  production  techniques 
of  the  20th  Century.  Accompanying  the  industrial  and  agricultural  leap  over 
five  centuries  there  has  been  a  corresponding  lightning  evolution  from  feudalism 
to  a  political  and  social  structure  that  has  made  a  backward  people  heir  to 
the  education,  science,  and  the  aesthetic  satisfactions  of  the  modern  world.  None 
of  these  rapidly  developing  16  Republics  have  any  urge  to  participate  in  wars 
of  aggression.  Their  vital  interest  is  in  the  maintenance  of  peace  and  the  most 
friendly  relations  in  trade  and  culture  with  all  their  neighbors.  Their  vested 
interest  in  peace  is  as  great  as  that  of  every  one  of  the  forty-eight  states  of  the 
American  union. 

Exhibit  No.  953-A 

215  East  72d  Street, 
Tflew  York,  N.  Y.,  May  26, 1952. 

Mr.  ROBEKT  MOKRIS, 

Room  424y  Senate  Office  Building, 

Washington,  D.  C. 

Dear  Mk.  Morris:  When  you  brought  to  New  York  recently  a  large  number 
of  documents  for  identification,  one  was  a  mimeographed  or  photostated  article 
entitled  "Soviet  Russia's  Contribution  to  Peace."  I  remember  that  there  was 
no  clue  as  to  w'here  the  article  appeared. 

I  now  find  that  it  appeared  in  volume  234  of  July  1944,  in  The  Annals  of  The 
American  Academy  of  Political  and  Social  Science,  edited  by  Dr.  Ernest  M, 
Patterson,  professor  of  economics  at  the  University  of  Pennsylvania.  The  title 
of  the  volume  was  "Agenda  for  Peace." 

In  adition  to  my  own,  papers  were  contributed  by  Bruno  Lasker,  Francis  B. 
Sayre,  Percy  E.  Corbett,  F.  Cyril  James,  C.  J.  Hambro  and  Samuel  S.  Fels. 

Reviews  in  the  volume,  among  others,  covered  books  by  A.  Whitney  Griswold, 
Edward  R.  Stettinius,  Jr.,  Count  Sforza,  Stuart  Chase,  H.  M.  Kallen,  Albert 
Shaw, 

I  thought  that  if  you  are  planning  to  print  this  article  of  mine  in  the  records 
-of  the  hearings,  you  would  want  to  indicate  under  what  auspices  the  article  was 
published. 

Sincerly  yours, 

Edward  C.  Carter. 

ECC :  f  tw 


Exhibit  No.  954 

(Penciled  note :)  "MAS  scan  &  return  to  EC." 

January  7,  1945. 
ECC  from  RD : 

Apart  from  Kohlberg,  Hearst  &  Co.  there  has  been  [penciled  note  "No?"]  direct 
criticism  of  the  school  material  put  out  by  Amco  except  as  follows  : 

1.  Julean  Arnold  has  been  carrying  on  a  one-man  crusade  against  the  S.vllabus 
prepared  by  George  Harris  for  some  years.  This  criticism  is  largely  against  the 
relative  amount  of  attention  paid  in  the  material  to  the  modern  political  aspects 
of  China's  development  rather  than  to  any  misinterpretations  or  factual  errors. 
Arnold  feels  that  relatively  more  attention  should  have  been  devoted  to  Chinese 
history.     (Penciled  note  "anti-Brit?") 

2.  Kenneth  Colegrove  took  sharp  exception  to  the  use  of  Kate  Mitchell  (pen- 
ciled note  right  of  paragraph :  "I'd  never  heard  of  this.  I  know  we  slaved  with 
Kate  &  Komar  to  make  it  objective")  and  Komar  Goshal  as  editors  of  the 
pamphlet  texts  on  India.  He  wrote  me  a  strong  note  asserting  that  Mitchell's 
bias  had  been  so  evident  and  so  proved  that  we  were  doing  a  disservice  in  using 
her  and  Goshal.  He  stated  that  he  felt  that  the  pamphlet  was  biased.  The 
correspondence  is  in  the  files.  I  have  an  impression  that  Lennox  Mills  joined 
with  Colegrove's  criticism,  but  I  am  not  certain. 

3.  Leland  Goodrich  told  me  verbally  that  IPR  pamphlet  texts  had  been  subject 
to  attack  in  the  Cambridge  school  system,  and  that  some  one  had  talked  with  him 
on  the  phone  about  them.  My  memory  is  vague  on  the  subject,  and  at  any  rate 
no  direct  word  reached  the  office  while  I  was  in  charge.  Again,  I  have  the  im- 
pression that  the  attack — if  that  is  what  it  was— merely  mentioned  IPR  material 
along  with  other  stuff  used  in  Cambridge. 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS  5079 

(Penciled  note:)  "This  was  a  question  raised  by  a  Catholic  group.  Later  the 
pamphlets  were  adopted  in  Cambridge." 

MAS  may  know  of  any  comments  directly  to  her  from  school  superintendents 
as  they  did  not  normally  come  to  my  attention. 

For  your  private  information,  Huggins  has  raised  questions  several  times  in 
Executive  Committee  meetings  about  the  educational  program.  He  has  not 
been  enthusiastic  about  Mrs.  Stewart,  and  as  a  member  of  a  school  board  has 
voiced  some  reluctance  to  go  along  with  the  program.  McConaughy  and  Jessup 
have  regularly  risen  to  MAS's  defense  and  to  the  defense  of  the  whole  educa- 
tional program  of  Amco. 

(Penciled  note:)  "This  is  very  helpful  to  know.  I'd  be  grateful  to  learn  Mr. 
Huggins'  criticisms  of  our  school  program,  for  we  do  want  it  to  be  the  best  ever. 
I  can't  help  wondering,  however,  how  he  can  judge  the  school  program  as  no 
report  of  it  has  ever  been  made  by  me.  It  may  be,  however,  that  my  departure 
from  the  staff  will  satisfy  his  criticism." 

(Penciled  note  with  line  from  next  to  last  paragraph:)  "I've  had  only  one — 
from  Great  Neck,  L.  I.,  where  Land  of  the  Soviets  was  attacked  by  the  Catholic 
Church  on  the  grounds  that  the  pamphlet  attacked  the  R.  C.  church.  When  the 
high  school  teacher  (who  is  an  ardent  admirer  of  the  IPR  &  the  pamphlet  series) 
called  on  the  priest  &  pointed  out  the  only  the  Russian  Orthodox  Church  was 
mentioned  in  the  pamphlet,  the  opposition  ceased  and  the  series  is  still  being 
used  in  Great  Neck." 


Exhibit  No.  956 

10th  February  194.5. 
Owen  Lattimore,  Esq., 

Roland  Vieio  Road,  Rvxton  Jf,  ifarj/land. 

Dear  Owe^t  :  With  immense  profit,  delight,  and  admiration  I  have  just  finished 
reading  SOLUTION  IN  ASIA. 

It  is  a  marvelous  postscript  to  Hot  Springs.  I  only  wish  that  I  had  seen  the 
manuscript  or  page  proofs  in  advance  and  I  would  have  made  a  special  ti'ip  to 
Little,  Brown  &  Co.  to  see  whether  they  couldn't  strike  off  a  hundred  advance 
copies  to  serve  as  the  principal  data  paper  for  the  Conference.  If  every  member 
had  had  and  read  SOLUTION  IN  ASIA  before  the  Conference  began,  the  dis- 
cussions would  have  been  on  a  much  higher  creative  and  responsible  level. 

Personally,  I  feel  deeply  indebted  to  you  for  writing  the  book.  I  believe  that 
the  whole  IPR  and  the  leaders  of  the  United  Nations  will  profit  immensely  by  its 
publication. 

With  all  good  wishes  and  my  warmest  congratulations,  I  am, 
Gratefully  yours, 

Edward  C.  Carter. 


Exhibit  No.  957 

6th  June  1945. 
Owen  Lattimore.  Esq.. 

Roland  Vieio  Road,  Riurton  4,  Maryland. 
Dear  Owen  :  Ernest  Simmons,  of  Cornell,  at  the  meeting  of  the  American- 
Russian  Institute  Board  yesterday,  told  me  he  hoped  you  were  not  going  to  take 
Max  Eastman's  article  in  the  Reader's  Digest  lying  down.  He  asserted  that 
Eastman  could  not  have  read  the  book  and  that  all  he  had  read  was  the  pub- 
lisher's blurb.  I  am  eagerly  looking  forward  to  seeing  you  on  the  evening  of 
June  13th. 

Sincerely  yours, 

Edward  C.  Carter. 


Exhibit  No.  958 

June  18,  1945. 
ECC  from  RD : 

In  answer  to  your  memorandum  of  June  14,  I  certainly  have  no  objection  to 
your  approaching  William  Morris,  John  Hersey,  and  Mrs.  Maurice  T.  Moore  for 
contributions  to  the  American  Council. 

In  view  of  the  letter  from  DeWitt  Wallace,  of  the  Reader's  Digest,  a  copy  of 
which  is  attached.  I  am  talking  to  I.  F.  Stone  about  the  best  approach  to 
Marshall  Field.     Field  is  about  to  come  east  to  talk  to  PINI  about  the  espionage 


5080  INSTITUTE   OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 

case,  and  there  is  a  reasonable  possibility  that,  with  the  Wallace  letter  as  bait, 
I  might  be  able  to  interest  Field  in  seeing  that  the  IPR  did  not  suffer  from  this 
kind  of  an  attack. 

I  have  also  learned  that  Harpers  Magazine  is  embarrassed  by  its  prophets  and, 
through  Jack  Fisher,  I  am  making  arrangements  to  see  Cass  Caufield  when  he 
retnrns  from  Europe  within  the  next  two  weeks  to  investigate  the  possibilities 
of  fi  Isirge  contribution  from  them. 


Exhibit  No.  959 

20th  June,  1945. 
Owen  Lattimore,  Esq., 

Roland  View  Road,  Ruxton  If,  Maryland. 
Dear  Owen  :  Enclosed  is  a  review  for  PACIFIC  AFFAIRS  just  received  from 
Chen  Han-seng.     I  would  deeply  appreciate  it  if  you  would  read  it  and  let  me 
know  whether  it  should  go  into  PACIFIC  AFFAIRS  as  it  stands  or  whether 
you  would  recommend  a  few  changes. 

In  the  latter  event  could  you  in  your  own  inimitable  way  take  your  pen  in 
hand  and  do  the  kind  of  editing  that  will  enable  Chen  Han-seug's  review  to 
represent  his  and  your  best  thought?  As  he  will  be  shortly  coming  to  this  country 
to  join  the  Secretariat  and  to  lecture  at  the  University  of  Washington,  I  am 
particularly  eager  that  in  all  of  his  published  writings  he  puts  his  best  foot 
forward. 

Sincerely  yours, 

Edward  C.  Carter. 


Exhibit  No.  960 

The  Walter  Hines  Page  School  of  International  Relations,  Office  of  the  Director 

The  Johns  Hopkins  University, 

Baltimore,  Md.,  June  25,  1945. 

Mr.  E.  C.  Carter, 

1  East  54th  Street,  New  York  22,  N.  Y. 

Deae  Carter  :  I  have  several  letters  from  you  to  acknowledge. 

First,  I  am  glad  to  have  your  authority  for  scrapping  the  old  Pacific  Affairs 
correspondence. 

Second,  I  shall  shortly  send  you  all  available  back  issues  of  Pacific  Affairs, 
at  the  same  time  giving  you  details  on  the  bound  issues  that  I  need. 

Third,  I  am  returning  herewith  the  copy  of  the  draft  letter  with  Bisson's  notes. 
You  now  have  alternative  wordings  for  dealing  with  the  Manchuria-Russia 
aspect. 

Fourth,  I  am  returning  herewith  the  Chen  Han-seng  review,  with  editorial 
suggestions.  It  so  happens  that  I  had  been  reading  the  Normano  book  myself  for 
the  purpose  of  writing  a  review  for  another  journal.  By  and  large  I  agree  with 
Han-seng,  as  I  usually  do ;  but  I  think  that  as  frequently  happens,  his  talent  for 
twisting  the  knife  in  the  wound  has  run  away  with  him  a  little.  It  would 
be  a  good  tiling  to  submit  my  proposed  revisions  to  someone  like  Bisson,  in  order 
to  be  sure  of  being  fair  to  Han-seng  as  well  as  to  Normano. 
Sincerely, 

Owen  Lattimore. 

OL:ec 


Exhibit  No.  961 

Institute  of  Pacific  Relations, 
Office  of  the  Secretary-General, 
Park  Lane  Hotel,  London,  13th  Sexttemher,  19^5. 
Ray>[0nd  Dennett,  Esq., 

5th  Floor,  1  East  5/tth  Street, 

New  York  22,  N.  Y. 
Dear  Dennett  :  The  pace  has  been  such  that  any  general  report  on  my  progress 
to  date  will  have  to  wait  my  return.     I  have  been  sending  rather  inconsequential 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS  508 i 

scraps  to  Corbett  and  some  of  my  colleagues  in  the  office,  but  I  have  been  so  long 
out  of  personal  touch  with  our  colleagues  on  this  side  of  the  world,  and  I  am 
trying  to  use  every  possible  moment  seeing  people  instead  of  writing  reports. 

I  have,  of  course,  had  hours  and  hours  with  our  various  friends  at  Chatham- 
House.  They  are  deeply  cast  down  by  Amco's  failure  to  accept  their  invitation 
for  a  visit  to  London  in  September.  Most  of  their  reasons  for  desiring  the  visit 
would  be  acceptable  to  all  shades  of  Amco  thought,  but  some  of  them  would^ 
as  you  suspected,  be  challenged  by  everyone. 

Just  before  I  left  you  made  some  cryptic  remark  to  me  about  Willits.  Airmail 
me  a  letter  here  at  this  address  as  to  what  it  was  all  about. 

Also  do  let  me  know  how  you  have  come  on  with  your  Labour  troubles  and 
above  all  please  write  me  fully  as  to  failures  and  successes  on  Finance. 

I  was  both  shocked  and  pleased  to  discover  that  under  the  auspices  of  Lady 
Cripps  and  with  an  introduction  by  the  Master  of  Balliol,  Max  Stewart's  pamphlet 
on  China  has  been  given  a  large  circulation  in  the  United  Kingdom  completely 
independent  of  Chatham  House. 

Austern  will  be  glad  to  show  you  the  list  of  the  faithful  who  turned  out  for  the- 
luncheon  which  Lord  Astor  gave  me  at  Chatham  House  a  few  days  after  my 
arrival.  It  was  most  sporting  of  many  of  them  to  come  under  the  circumstances, 
especially  as  some  of  them  had  to  interrupt  the  first  vacation  they  had  had  for  a 
long  time,  in  order  to  be  pi'esent. 

When  I  return  I  will  endeavor  to  give  you  and  members  of  the  Amco  Board 
and  Staff  an  oral  off-the-record  account  of  my  impressions  of  the  prospects  of 
the  Institute  in  France,  Holland.  Britain  and  the  U.  S.  S.  R. 

By  the  way,  I  know  your  Executive  Committee  cannot  have  reached  a  decision 
as  to  the  year  and  place  of  the  next  I.  P.  K.  Conference.  I  would,  however,  like  to- 
have  your  own  personal,  though  necessarily  tentative  answer,  as  you  will  have 
to  handle  the  donkey  work  for  Amco  wherever  and  whenever  the  Conference- 
is  held.     Specifically,  what  is  your  personal  answer  to  the  following  questions : 

1.  Should  the  next  Conference  be  held  in  1946  or  in  1947? 

2.  As  to  place,  which  would  be  your  personal  preference  as  between  (a)  Canada. 
(6)  United  Kingdom  (c)  China  (d)  India  (e)  Philippines? 

Sincerely  yours, 

Edward  C.  Carter 
Edward  C.  Carter. 


Exhibit  No.  962 

September  26,  1945. 
RD  from  RDC : 

Mr.  Carter  sent  me  a  letter  addressed  to  you  asking  that  I  type  it  up  and  hand' 
it  on.     This  I  have  done. 

He  asked  me  to  change  the  dateline  from  the  letterhead  on  which  lie  wrote  it  to- 
the  Park  Lane  Hotel.  I  note,  however,  that  in  one  of  his  paragraphs  he  asks 
that  you  write  him  "at  this  address". 

The  address  to  which  I  think  you  should  send  your  reply  is  : 

%  Mitrany,  Unilever  House,  Blackfriars,  London,  E.  C.  4,  England. 

I  have  no  idea  whether,  on  his  return  from  France  and  the  Netherlands,  he 
will  be  staying  at  the  Park  Lane  Hotel  or  not.  Therefore,  I  think  it  would  be- 
safer  to  use  the  above  address. 


Exhibit  No.  963 

10/19/45 

Notes  on  Mr.  Carter's  Finances  in  Connection  With  Recent  Trip 

On  July  27,  1945,  Mr.  Carter  left  New  York  in  possession  of  $1,500  worth  of 
express  checks,  $1,000  of  this  was  provided  by  Pacco  and  $500  by  ASRR.  In 
addition  he  had  $130  in  cash.  On  his  return  October  16.  1945,  he  had  $100  in 
express  checks,  $43.00  in  dollars  and  £2.  Mr.  Carter  also  had  a  check  on  a 
New  York  bank  for  $50.00,  an  accommodation  to  a  G.  I.  officer  who  wanted  the- 
equivalent  in  francs. 

88348—52 — pt.  14 12 


5082  INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 

Mr.  Carter's  personal  expenditures  were  principally  as  follows : 

1  Hat  £2-8-11 $9.93 

French  perfumery  720  francs 14.  40 

2  pair  gloves  £1-15-0 7. 11 

Cigarettes 9.  85 

Shaves,  laundry,  cocktails,  theatre  (1) 17.25 

$58.  54 

Transportation  from  Great  Falls,  Montana,  and  throughout  the  Soviet  Union 
and  on  to  Berlin  was  provided  free  by  the  Soviet  authorities.  From  Berlin  to 
London,  Mr.  Carter  paid  ATC  $84.94.  From  London  to  Paris  he  paid  Air  France 
(£7-10-0)  $30.45. 

At  the  request  of  the  Dutch  Embassy  in  Paris  the  RAF  flew  Mr.  Carter  from 
Paris  to  the  Hague  free.  Mr.  Carter  questions  whether  we  will  ever  be  l)illed 
for  this. 

At  the  request  of  the  American  Embassy,  KLM  flew  Mr.  Carter  from  Amster- 
dam to  London.  A  letter  from  the  American  Embassy  to  KLM  indicated  that 
Mr.  Carter  would  be  personally  responsible  for  the  payment  of  the  passage  but 
no  bill  has  been  received  as  yet.  Pacco  should  keep  in  its  reserve  approximately 
£8  ($24.48)  in  case  a  bill  for  this  passage  should  ultimately  turn  up. 

In  making  out  the  expense  account  Mr.  Carter  will  charge  the  IPR  for  nothing 
from  New  York  to  and  in  Russia  and  on  to  Berlin  except  for  IPR  cables  and 
postage  from  Moscow.  He  will  charge  ASRR  i/o,  of  the  air  travel  cost  from 
Berlin  to  New  York  and  will  bill  ASRR  %  of  the  London  Hotel  bill  during 
his  second  stay  in  London. 

Miss  Nora  Ford  Smith  incurred  many  pounds  worth  of  expenses  for  air  mail 
postage  and  cables.  She  will  send  Mr.  Carter  a  total  bill.  Instead  of  paying 
that  bill  the  amount  of  it  is  to  be  regarded  as  available  for  purchase  here  for 
the  Professor  of  IPR  books  and  food  packages. 

The  American  Export  passase  of  $663.75  from  Foynes  to  LaGuardia  was  paid 
by  the  New  York  office.  In  addition  Mr.  Carter  paid  £11-10-0  ($46.69)  from 
Croydon  to  Foynes. 

A  gift  package  of  cigarettes  handed  to  Mr.  Carter  by  Sverdin  in  Moscow  was 
an  expensive  gift.  To  get  it  into  England  Mr.  Carter  had  to  pay  duty  amounting 
to  and  then  because  it  weighed  too  much  to  bring  home  across  the  Atlantic, 

Mr.  Carter  had  to  pay  the  American  Express  Company  10s-6d  (.$2.14)  to  pack 
and  send  it  over  and  presumably  Mr.  Carter  will  have  to  pay  duty  on  it  when 
it  arrives. 

Conversion  rates : 

England— £24-13-0  equals  $100.      ( Approx.  $4.06  per  £. ) 
Belgium — $1.00  equals  2.66  cronen. 
Holland — 1  guilder  equals  approx.  $.40. 
France — approx.  2  cents  per  franc. 

Summary  of  hotel  bills : 

Park  Lane,  London,  8/29-9/4/45.  £28-14-4 $116.  59 

Park  Lane,  London,  9/5-14/45,  £37-8-6 151.  94 

Park  Lane,  London,  9/26-10/2/45,  £33-19-1 137.  86 

Park  Lane,  London,  10/3-9/45,  £28-11-3 115.96 

Park  Lane,  London,  10/10-13/45,  £16-8-7 66.  70 

$589.  05 

Hotel  Mitre,  Oxford,  10/6-7/4.5,  £1-5-0 5.  08 

Hotel  Lancaster,  Paris,  9/14-20/45,  8405  francs 168.  10 

Hotel  Des  Indes,  Hague,  9/22-25/45,  44.60  guilders 17.  84 

780.  07 

Cables  and  Postage,  London,  £2-12-9i/. 10.  71 

Books,   £1-9-1 5.  86 


796.  64 


Exhibit  No.  964 

November  19,  1945. 
To:  ECC. 
From:  RD. 

Herewith  is  a  draft  of  the  Research  section  of  the  Annual  Report.  It  needs 
considerable  redrafting  as  to  style,  but  I  would  appreciate  your  comments  on 
contents. 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 


5083 


Several  questions  occur  to  me  at  once : 

1.  On  pages  three  and  four,  should  there  be  more  extended  discussions  of  the 
Wittfogel  and  Broek  projects,  similar  to  that  in  IPR  in  Wartime,  so  that  their 
significance  would  be  immediately  apparent  to  readers  of  the  present  report? 

2.  Page  7:  Should  this  discussion  on  research  plans  be  extended  to  include 
the  Indian  project  and  others?  The  difficulty  is  that  it  is  hard  to  predict  what 
the  Research  Committee  will  approve  and  hence  there  is  some  danger  of  running 
ahead  of  the  Committeee  in  including  this  in  a  report. 

3.  Page  S:  Are  we  at  liberty  to  reveal  our  Army  and  Government  contracts? 

4.  Should  we  not  include  the  names  of  the  individual  staff  people  who  were 
taken  on  by  the  Government? 

5.  Pages  9-10 :  Is  quite  frankly  a  pet  of  mine  which  I  may  be  writing  too 
heavily  in  this  report,  and  perhaps  it  should  be  deleted  entirely. 


Exhibit  No.  977 


To— 


E.  C.  Carter.  (Attached:  Photo- 
stat Hand-dra-\vn  map.  Photo- 
stat N.  Y.  Times  Map). 

Discussion  on  Collective  Security 
&  Far  East  (Chairman,  Carter). 

E.  C.  Carter 

E.  C.  Carter 

ECC.  (Attached:  Attitt'des  of 
American  Soldiers  in  Berlin- 
District  Toward  Ovr  Allies. 
Sept.  1945). 
ECC.  (Ere.  letter  to  Edward 
Carter  from  AP  of  Jmie  12, 
1946.  and  Llst  Bi-siness &  Kox- 

COMMERCLVL  HOLDINCS  IN  JAPAN 

OF  U.  S.  &  American  Compa- 
nies Having  Patent  License 
OR  Trademari^  Agreements 
"With  Companies  in  Japan 
Proper). 

ECC 

Kate.    (Enc.  July  17  notes) 

Report  of  Conference  of  March  9th 

E.  C.  Carter 

? 

Pencilled    list   names   on   yellow 

paper. 
Memo:  Meeting  Arctic  Institute, 

Apr.  9. 
E.C.Carter.    (Attached  ECC  to 

JP,  April  17,   193.3,  and  F.  V. 

Field  from  E.  C.  Carter,  March 

27   1933) 
L.   T.   Chen.     (Attached  Itr.  to 

L.  T.  Chen  from  E.  C.  Carter 

dated  .Tune  28,  1933). 

" taiilev  Hombeck 

£.  C.  Carter 

Memo  of  Interview  with  Mortimer 

L.    Graves. 
Individual  Travel  Expenditure  for 

past  few  years.     Finance   1936, 

Document  7. 

Selskar  M.  Gunn 

Conversation    between    Mr. 

Arosev,  Prcs.  VOKS,  IMr.  Car- 
ter and  JB. 

Barbara  Wertheim 

Fred  V.  Field 

E.  C.  Carter  (Memo) 

E.  C.  Carter 

Harriet  Moore 

A.  Kantoroyitch 

F.  V.  Field 

Galen  M.  Fisher 

Meeting  of  the  Presidium  of  the 

USSR  IPR  draft. 

M.  E.  Cieeve  (Madge) _ 

William  Holland 


From — 


Eppy 

Ouman,sky 

CD  (Charles  Dollard). 
MC 

RJG 


CP 

Edward. 


Felix  Frankfurter. 
Edward 


J.  B_ 


E.  C.  Carter. 


E.  C.  Carter. 
J.  B 


E.  C.  Carter. 


E.  C.  Carter... 
E.  C.  Carter... 
KB 

Harriet  Moore  _ 
E.  C.  Carter... 
E.  C.  Carter... 
E.  C.  Carter... 
E.  C.  Carter... 


Date 


8/7 

5/6/43 

(Stamped 

7/8/45). 

1/3/46 

Undated. 


Undated. 


Undated. 

7/17 

? 


1/11. 
8/6.. 


Undated . 
4/10/33.... 


6/28/33. 


7/13/33.. 
1 1/29/33. 
12/7/33.. 


2/13/34. 
5/21/34. 


7/18/34.. 
9/25/34.. 
10/22/34. 
11/22/34- 
12/15/34. 
12/25/34. 
12/26/34. 
1/4/35..., 
1/3/35... 


E.  C.  Carter. 
Ned 


1/18/35. 
2/23/35. 


T^-pe  of 
Docu- 
ment 


Photostat. 

Photostat. 

Photostat. 

Original... 
Original... 

Original... 


Original... 

Copy 

Photostat. 
Original... 
Original... 
Original... 


File  Num- 
ber 


107.33 

600.1 

600.2 

131 B.  38 
131B.38 

131B.67 


105. 123 
131B.4 
119.91 
119.63 
104.7 
191.101 

100.  27 

100.  247 


100. 195 


100.110 
100. 135 
100.129 


100. 122 
100.  237 


105.82 

101.26 

100.1 

100.  53 

100.375 

100.31 

100. 104 

100. 168 
100.314 

100.167 

100. 169 


Exhibit 

Num- 
ber 


977A 

978 
979 

980 


981 


982 

983 
984 
985 
986 
987 

988 


990 


991 
992 
993 

994 


995 
996 


907 
998 
999 
1000 
1001 
1002 
1003 
1004 
1005 

1006 
1007 


5084 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 


To— 


Extracts    from    Itr.    fr.    Harriet 

Moore  to  E.  C.  Carter. 

V.  E.  Motvlev -- 

V.  E.  Motylev 

Moscow    Meeting    in    Motylev's 

office. 

ECC 

E.  C.  Carter 

E.  C.  Carter 

F.  V.  Field 

Stanley  K.  Hombeck 

(Attached  letter  from  Stanley  K. 

Hombeck  to  Edward  C.  Carter 

dated  1/30/37.) 

Edward  C.  Carter 

Extract  from  letter,  San  Francisco, 

to  Catherine  Porter  from  Owen 

Lattimore. 

E.  C.  Carter 

Clinning     from     San     Francisco 

Chronicle. 

E.  C.  Carter 

Harry  Emerson  Fosdick 

James  G.  McDonald 

H.  B.  Elliston 

H.  B.  Elliston 

Hall  Borovov 

Edward  C.  Carter.     (Enc.  FVF 

fron  ECC  dated  March  8,  1937, 

and   letter   to    Edward    Carter 

from  J.  P.  Chamberlain.) 

William  L.  Holland 

Jose-ih  P.  Chamberlain 

FVF 

Kate ..- 

Kate  Mitchell 

EVF  (and  others) 

Kate  Mitchell 

E.  C.  Carter 

V.  E.  Motylev 

Joseph  Barnes 

Kate  Mitchell _-- 


From — 


Supplementary  Agenda  for 
Discussion  Between  USSR, 
IPR  &  the  Sec.  Gen.,  Moscow. 

Frederick  V.  Field 

V.  E.  Motylev 

Owen  Lattimore 

Edward  C.  Carter 

Edward  C.  Carter 

Fred  V.  Field 

Virginia  Burdick 

Constantino  Oiimansky 

Names  for  membership,  including 
Alger  Hiss. 

Vi'.  W.  Lockwood 

Mrs.  Edward  C.  Carter.. 

Edward  C.  Carter 

Owen  Lattimore  -.- _. 

Joseph  P.  Chamberlain 

Dr.  John  H.  Finley 

Russell  Shiman. 

Copy  of  memo  attached  from  Div. 

of  FE  Affairs,  Dept.  of  State. 
Copy    of    letter    to    Joseph    W. 
Ballentine. 

E.  C.  Carter.. 

Virginia  Burdick 

I.  F.  Wizon 

Edward  C.  Carter 

Snydor  Walker 

Maxwell  M.  Hamilton 

Carter 

Dr.  Robert  S.  Lynd 

E.  C.  Carter 

Lawrence  R.  Salisbury.. 

Edward  C.  Carter 

Owen  Lattimore 

Edward  C.  Carter.. 

Frederick  Field 

W.  L.  Holland 

E.  C.  Carter 

E.  C.  Carter 


E.  C.  Carter 

Edward  C.  Carter 


Date 


FVF 

V.  E.  Motylev 

Stanley  K.  Hombeck. 
Edward  C.  Carter... 
Edward  C.  Carter 


V.  E.  Motylev. 


Harriet. 


W.  L.  Holland 

Edw.  C.  Carter 

Edw.  C.  Carter 

Edward  C.  Carter. 
Edward  C.  Carter. 
Edward  C.  Carter. 
F.  R.  Scott 


Edward  C.  Carter. 

E.  C.  Carter 

ECC 

Edward  C.  Carter. 
Edward  C.  Carter. 
ECC 

Edward  C.  Carter. 

Y.  P.  Bremman 

Edward  C.  Carter. 
Edward  C.  Carter. 
Edward  C.  Carter. 


Edward  C.  Carter 

Edward  C.  Carter 

Edward  C.  Carter 

R.S.  Bratton,  Lt.  Col 
Joe  (Josenh  Barnes)... 

Edward  C.  Carter 

Edward  C.  Carter 

Edward  C.  Carter 

Edward  C.  Carter 

F.V.  Field 

Philip  J.  Jaffe 

C.  Onmanskv 

Edward  C.  Carter 

E.  C.  Carter 

Edward  C.  Carter 

Edward  C.  Carter 


ECC. 


A.  W.  Dulles.. 

Edward  C.  Carter 

Edward  C.  Carter 

L  F.  Wizon 

Edward  C.  Carter 

Edward  C.  Carter 

Robert  S.  Lynd 

Edward  C.  Carter 

Dr.  Robert  S.  Lynd... 
Edward  C.  Carter... 
Maxwell  M.  Hamilton 

Edward  C.  Carter 

J.  Leigh  ton  Stuart 

Edward  C.  Carter 

E.  C.  Carter 

Jessica  Smith... 

Chen  Han-seng 


3/20/35. 

5/4/35-. 
9/10/35. 
3/31/36. 


5/18/36.. 
6/11/36.. 
7/1S/36.. 
10/19/36. 
1/5/37... 


1/15/37- 
4/18/35. 


1/15/37. 
1/27/37  . 

2/10/37. 
3/1/37.. 
3/2/37.. 
3/2/37.. 
3/2/37.. 
3/3/37.. 
3/4/37.. 


3/5/37... 
3/2/37... 
3/8/37... 
3/8/37... 
.3/11/37. 
3/21/39., 
4/20/37. 
5/15/37. 
5/27/37. 
5/31/37. 
6/18/37. 


8/17/37... 
8/20/37... 
9/7/37-... 
10/18/37- 
11/5/37--, 
11/10/37- 
12/23/37- 
2/24/38.- 
2/25/38.. 
2/25/38.. 


3/17/38. 
3/31/38. 
3/29/38. 
3/31/38. 
3/31/33. 
4/2/38-. 
4/16/38. 
4/14/48. 

4/15/38. 


4/22/38- 
5/9/3?... 
5/2:3/38.- 
5/21/38.. 
0/30/38.. 
6/16/38- . 
12/15/38. 
12/14/38. 
6/20/38- 
6/16/38.. 
6/27/3S.. 
7/19/38.. 
7/20/38.. 
7/2.3/38.. 
8/23/38.. 
9/1/3?... 
9/28/38.. 


Type  of 
Docu- 
ment 


File  Num- 
ber 


100. 158 

100.  56 
100.  287 
100.  64 

100. 100 
100.  28 
133.2 
131 B.  52 
131B.90 


100. 332 
600.4 


100.  294 
100. 321 

100.118 
100. 303 
100. 323 
100.  363 
100.  282 
100. 395 
100. 403 


100. 387 
100. 291 
100.  319 

100. 308 

100. 309 
107.  19 
100.  310 
100. 335 
100.  .330 
100.  389 
100.311 


100. 333 
100. 126 
100. 326 
100.  278 
131B.156 
100.  374 
119.129 
100. 143 
100. 368 


112.61 
105.  328 
100.  59 
105. 196 
100.  144 
100. 149 
191. 145 


Exhibit 
Num- 
ber 


100. 151 
116.13 
119.  60 


191. 131 
191.  247 
100.  34 


191.  254 


106.  28 
191. 148 
105. 169 
105. 32C 
100.  226 
119.56 


1059 

1060 
1061 
1062 
1063 
1064 
1065 
1066 
1067 
1068 
1070 
1071 
1073 
1074 
1075 
1076 
1077 
1078 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 


5085 


To— 


Felix  Frankfuter 

Owen  Lattimorc 

Frederick  V.  Field 

Irving  Friendman 

Frederick  V.  Field 

Edward  C.  Carter 

N.  Hanwcll 

Frederick  P.  Keppel 

Chen  Han-seng  &  Knight 

Harriet  Moore 

Frederick  V.  Field 

Owen  Lattimore 

Wm.  L.  Holland 

C.  Oumansky 

Grenville  Clark 

Constantine  Oumansky., 

Edward  C.  Carter 

Constantine  Oumansky.. 

N.  H.  Hanwell 

Harriett  Moore 

Constantine  Oumansky.. 

E.  C.  Carter 

Owen  Lattimore 

Margaret  R.  Taylor 

Dr.  V.  E.  Motylev 

Kate  Mitchell... 

Motylev 

Sherwood  Eddy 

E.  C.  Carter 

Owen  Lattimore 

PhiliD  J.  Jaffe 

E.  C.  Carter 

PhOip  Jafle 

V.  E.  Motylev... 

V.  E.  Motylev.. 

Philip  C.  Jessup 

Edward  C.  Carter... 

Frederick  V.  Field 

Constantine  Oumansky. . 
Kenneth  Durant 


From — 


Edward  C.  Carter.. , 
Edward  C.  Carter... 
Edward  C.  Carter... 
Edward  C.  Carter... 
Edward  C.  Carter... 
M.  G.  Shippe  (Asia- 
ticus). 

ECC 

Edward  C.  Carter 

Biffgerstaff  ECC 

Edward  C.  Carter... 
Edward  C.  Carter... 
Edward  C.  Carter... 
Edward  C.  Carter... 

Edward  C.  Carter 

Edward  C.  Carter 

Edward  C.  Carter... 

Herbert  S.  Little 

Edward  C.  Carter... 
Edward  C.  Carter... 
Edward  C.  Carter... 
Edward  C.  Carter... 

John  H.  Oakie 

Edward  C.  Carter... 

Edward  C.  Carter 

Owen  Lattimore 

E.  C.  Carter 

Edward  C.  Carter 

Edward  C.  Carter... 

Sherwood  Eddy 

Edward  C.  Carter 

Edward  C.  Carter... 

Philip  J.  .Taffe 

Edward  C.  Carter 

Edward  C.  Carter 

Edward  C.  Carter 

Edward  C.  Carter 

Evans  F.  Carlson 

Edward  C.  Carter.  . 
Edward  C.  Carter  . 
Edward  C.  Carter     . 


Date 


9/29/38.. 
10/11/38. 
10/16/38. 
10/17/38. 
10/20/38. 
5/28/38.. 


11/1/38... 
11/4/38... 
11/9/38... 
-1/9/3S... 
12/15/38.. 
12/15/38-. 
I2/20/38-. 
1/10/39... 
1/10/39... 
1/18/39... 
1/23/39... 
2/2/39.... 
2/13/39... 
2/21/39... 
3/14/39... 
3/23/39... 
3/28/39... 
4/19/39... 
4/21/39  .. 
5/20/39.  - 
6/29/39... 
7/3/39-... 
6/24/.39... 
7/11/39... 
7/11/39... 
8/11/39... 
8/24/39... 
9/S/39-.-. 
9/11/39... 
9/15/30... 
9/21/.^J... 
10/1./39.. 
12/3/39 -. . 
12/11/39.. 


Type  of 
Docu- 
ment 


Carbon 


Telegram. 
Telegram. 
Telegram. 


File  Num- 
ber 


119.  58 
100. 189 
105.  161 
119.62 
100. 153 
105. 150 

131B.86 
116.16 
100.  145 
100.  409 
100.414 
102.  30 
119.117 
100.  IS 
100.60 
100.  61 
100.411 
100. 296 
105.  193 
119.113 
100.  295 
100.  264 

131B.95 
191. 195 
100. 288 


100.  299 
100. 271 


100. 268 
104.66 
104.9 
105.7 
100.6 
100. 299 
191.  270 
106.49 
101. 45 
100. 293 
100.  211 


Exhibit 
Num- 
ber 


1079 
10-0 
10S2 
lO'S 
10S4 
1085 

1086 
1087 
1088 
1089 
1090 
1092 
1093 
1094 
1095 
1097 
1098 
1099 
1100 
1101 
1102 
1103 
1104 
1105 
1106 
1107 
1108 
1109 
1110 
1111 
1112 
1114 
1115 
1116 
1117 
1118 
1119 
1120 
1121 
1122 


Exhibit  No.  977-A 

52  Smith  Terrace, 
Stapleton,  8.  I.,  August  7. 
Mr.  E.  C.  Carter, 

Institute  of  Pacific  Relations,  New  York. 

Dear  Mr.  Carter  :  The  enclosed  rough  sketch  gives  the  situation  today  as  it 
looks  on  a  larger  map  on  which  I  have  been  moving  pins  carefully  since  my 
arrival.  There  are  no  actual  maps  from  China  more  recent  than  V-J  day,  and 
the  boundaries  of  areas  are  therefore  proximate  and  arrived  at  by  linking  to- 
gether the  respective  known  points  (generally  district  towns)  marking  the 
limits  of  control  of  the  two  parties.  The  only  accurate  houndary  is  that  of  the 
Shensi-Kansu-Ninghsia  region  (west  of  the  Yellow  River,  with  Yenan  at  the 
center)  which  has  been  a  stable  administrative  entity  for  some  years. 

The  tendency  at  present  (and  the  situation  is  changing  rather  rapidly)  is  for 
the  Central  (KMT)  troops  to  push  through  along  the  railway  lines.  However, 
there  is  also  a  tendency  on  the  part  of  the  Communist-led  forces  to  filter  back 
and  take  railway  points  behind  the  extreme  points  of  KMT  advance.  Thus  the 
Communists  are  back  in  several  stations  of  the  Tsingtao-Tsinan  and  Taiyuan- 
Tungkwan  (South  Tungpu)  railways,  with  the  result  that  what  were  once  KMT 
salients  are  now  KMT  pockets.  These  situations  change  daily  as  both  sides 
sometimes  withdraw  from  points  where  they  are  threatened  with  encirclement 
and  then  come  back,  very  soon  afterwards,  when  they  have  been  reinforced  and 
feel  that  their  communications  are  secure.  The  enclosed  map,  however,  gives 
the  over-all  situations  along  the  railways  accurately,  as  it  is  quite  obvious  that, 
even  though  the  Eighth  Route  may  withdraw  from  the  15-20%  of  any  given 
railway  line  that  it  holds  to  block  KMT  traffic,  it  will  at  once  seek  to  reoccupy 
other  places  representing  an  equal  fraction  of  the  line,  though  in  a  different  and 
currently  more  vulnerable  place. 


5086 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 


The  actual  area  of  Communist  influence  is  greater  than  shown,  because  where 
regular  forces  have  been  withdrawn  to  avoid  being  pinned  down,  or  to  reinforce 
more  important  points,  the  local  guerillas  and  their  organization  remain.  An 
attempt  has  been  made  to  show  such  an  area  in  the  cross-hatched  red  lines 
south  of  Shanghai  and  Nanking,  where  no  regular  New  Fourth  Army  troops 
remain.  Other  such  areas  exist  both  north  and  south  of  Hankow  along  the 
Pinghan  and  Canton-Hankow  lines,  notably  around  Changsha.  The  long  di- 
agonal red  pocket  between  Sian  and  Ichang  represents  the  line  of  breakthrough 
of  the  formerly  surrounded  Hupeh-Anhwei-Honan  border  pocket,  once  closer  to 
Hankow.  This  "floating  kidney"  will  tend  to  move  north,  toward  a  junction 
with  the  Eighth  Route  Army  in  the  region  of  Yenan,  or  perhaps  that  sovith  of 
Taiyuan,  depending  upon  where  a  KMT  weak  spot  is  found, 
Sincerely, 

Eppy. 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 


5087 


HOW    CHJNA    IS    DfVJDEO    SEtWEEM 
NATIONAtfSTS    AND    COMWUHJSTS 


"L  ^Axi^^vV^^^^,^«i^*^^JiL■■^';^  ^^^'^^.'■•^^•^.'■^^  ^-s— t  if  ^iA<^;i=ai  a\.w-y' 


,^^^<,  y''^yt^,o«*'^££A*^.!Lj«..j?!V^ 


5088 


INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 


y^^       PACIFIC 


MM 

«        108      »0»      MB 


OCEAN 


rwumm 

Ha 

»^TW^^^ 

{rT?A   USS   ControlM  by  KuomintMC 

BHI   ConbolM  by  Conlmunil^ 

Ovnocrals 


OA 


CHINA,  showing  Kuomintang  and  Communist  areas 

WHERE  ARE  WE 
HEADING? 


BV 


SUMNER   WELLES 


INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  508^ 

Exhibit  No.  978 
Discussion  on  Coltective  Security  in  the  Pacific  and  the  Far  East 

May  6,  1943,  8: 15  p.  m.,  700  Jackson  Place,  Washington 

Carter,  Chairman. 

Present :  Mrs.  Alexander,  Sir  Gurj  Bajpai,  Hugh  Borton,  de  Voogd,  Farley, 
Greene,  Hiss,  Johnstone,  Lockwood,  Martin,  Meisling,  Pramoj,  Shoemaker,  Zafra. 

Mr.  Carter  stated  that  the  purpose  of  these  meetings  was  to  stimulate  think- 
ing around  the  problems  of  collective  security  which  appear  to  be  different  for 
the  Pacific  area  and  the  Far  East,  compared  with  those  that  exist  in  Europe. 
These  questions  should  be  considered  now  because  so  much  international  political 
action  lias  been  Europe-centered  or  concerned  with  the  American  hemisphere 
that  relatively  little  attention  has  been  paid  to  the  problems  of  collective  secu- 
rity in  the  Far  E^.st.  The  Far  East  has  tended  to  be  ignored  in  most  of  the 
scholarly  efforts  on  postwar  organization.  It  is  thought  that  the  discussion 
might  form  a  basis  for  an  essay  by  one  of  the  members. 

It  was  decided  that  a  few  minutes  should  be  spent  on  the  statement  on  the 
first  page  of  the  agenda,  to  see  whether  there  is  general  concensus  that  it  is  a 
reasonable  forecast. 

There  was  some  discussion  of  paragraph  2  and  the  meaning  of  the  word  ag- 
gression as  used  in  the  last  sentence.  Mr.  Carter  suggested  that  for  pui'poses 
of  this  discussion  it  should  be  limited  to  armed  aggression  or  military  occupa- 
tion. Shoemaker  suggested  that  one  of  the  most  likely  dangers  would  be  that 
trouble  might  arise  between  two  sections  of  China,  with  Russia  coming  into  the 
picture  and  making  claims  China  would  not  want  to  recognize.  Bajpai  sug- 
gested that  there  ought  to  be  someone  at  these  meetings  qualified  to  speak  for 
Russia. 

Shoemaker  thought  it  was  almost  certain  that  Russia  would  desire  a  Pacific 
outlet  and  Dairen  is  a  logical  one.  This  would  be  a  point  of  conflict  with  China, 
as  would  be  Inner  and  Outer  Mongolia  and  the  Communist  elements  in  China. 

Pramoj  suggested  border  difficulties  between  Thailand  and  French  Indo-China. 

Mr.  Cordell  Hull  statement  on  restoring  the  French  Empire  was  brought  up  at 
this  point.  Hiss  said  that  the  statement  was  made  a  long  time  ago  and  it  was 
a  statement  of  intention  with  reference  to  a  particular  action,  not  a  promise 
having  in  mind  action  regarding  Pacific  colonies.  As  it  was  worded  it  had  to 
do  with  the  "integrity"  of  the  French  Empire. 

Lookvrood  said  that  one  general  comment  on  the  statement  in  the  agenda  is 
that  if  it  is  intended  as  an  inclusive  statement  on  security  as  a  whole  a  little 
more  attention  should  be  given  to  general  economic  and  social  setting  of  postwar 
development.  The  problem  of  establishing  the  basis  of  security  will  be  a  mat- 
ter of  what  machinery  can  be  elaborated  for  dealing  with  these  issues  as  well 
as  what  is  going  to  be  done  about  the  economic  future  of  Japan  or  economic 
rivalries  in  the  Pacific  or  the  future  of  the  open  door  and  access  to  the 
resources  of  Southeast  Asia,  or  problems  of  economic  and  social  reconstruction 
in  China. 

There  was  further  discussion  of  the  possibility  of  minor  or  major  border  dis- 
putes breaking  out  between  Pacific  countries,  and  the  likelihood  of  American 
or  Soviet  for'^es  interfering  in  thpse.  It  was  more  or  less  agreed  that  there 
would  be  no  large-scale  hostilities  in  the  immediate  years  after  the  war. 

There  was  some  discussion  of  what  kind  of  a  settlement  or  security  system 
would  be  set  up — emergency  or  short-term — carefully  planned  and  long-term. 

Hiss  said  that  we  ought  to  distinguish  between  a  perfect  paper  settlement 
and  a  more  viable  day  to  day  arrangement  that  might  grow  oiit  of  developments- 
during  the  war  and  the  early  stages  of  the  peace.  Good  will  will  make  possible- 
the  satisfactory  handling  of  a  good  many  problems  that  could  not  be  met  with- 
qlut  it  in  spite  of  all  careful  preparations.  In  the  Pan-American  system  this  is 
a  pertinent  point.  The  Inter  American  agreements  mentioned  in  the  agenda  are 
important  primarily  because  they  stated  something  that  had  already  largely  been 
worked  out  and  accepted  as  a  basis  of  relationship. 

Lockwood  said  the  Pan-American  agreements  work  because  there  is  peace 
rather  than  there  being  peace  because  there  are  agreements. 

There  was  inconclusive  discussion  of  the  applicability  of  the  points  on  page 
two  to  the  Far  Eastern  Situation. 

Johnstone  said  that  granted  we  want  a  collective  security  system  in  the  Pa- 
cific, whether  on  a  regional  or  world  bases,  what  could  be  the  basis  for  agreement 
among  the  nations  interested  in  the  Pacific  for  such  a  system?     Is  it  just  a 


5090  INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 

simple  agreement  that  we  are  soing  to  act  to  prevent  aggression,  or  is  some- 
thing more  necessary?  One  would  assume  that  you  can't  have  a  system  unless 
it  is  an  agreement.  It  is  quite  possible  that  there  will  be  a  general  agreement 
for  the  joint  use  of  bases  and  employment  of  force  in  the  Pacific,  immediately 
after  the  war.  When  more  normal  conditions  are  restored  and  troops  moved 
back  within  their  own  boundaries,  many  people  will  feel  that  it  may  not  be 
necessary  to  continue  joint  use  of  bases.  At  that  point  when  the  period  of 
large-scale  use  of  occupation  forces  cames  to  an  end  more  suitable  arrangements 
will  have  to  be  made.  Unless  some  machinery  is  set  up  fairly  soon  after  hos- 
tilities end  it  may  be  very  diflicult  to  do  so  later. 

Bajpai  asked  if  there  were  any  common  interests  among  the  Pacific  countries. 

Hiss  ."^aid  it  was  a  questiun  of  various  periods  of  time.  He  hoped  there  would 
be  an  effort  to  secure  an  increasing  community  of  interest ;  that  present  and  de- 
^  eloping  military  collaboration  would  l)ring  an  increasing  marking  cnit  and  find- 
ing of  common  interests.  Every  effort  should  be  made  toward  reaching  an 
agreement  today.  This  ought  to  be  supplemented  or  incorporated  in  further 
agreements. 

Bajpai  said  that  of  course  everyone  recognizes  that  it  is  impossible  at  this 
stage  to  envisage  all  those  points  either  of  agreement  or  clash  of  interest,  mak- 
ing for  association  or  separation  hereafter.  Would  it  be  correct  to  say  that  the 
United  Nations  are  all  interested  in  the  maintenance  of  peace  in  the  Far  East 
to  the  extent  that  they  would  collaborate  with  one  another  to  use  force  against 
aggression  in  the  Far  East? 

Hiss  said  that  you  could  not  say  at  the  present  time  that  they  are. 

It  was  agreed  that  the  United  Nations  would  have  to  have  a  community  of 
interest  before  they  could  maintain  peace  in  the  Far  P^ast  and  this  question  should 
he  the  first  one  explored  at  the  next  meeting. 


Exhibit  No.  979 

Mexico  City,  July  8,  1945. 
Dr.  Edward  C.  Carter, 

Russian  War  Relief,  Neic  York,  N.  Y.: 

Will  be  delighted  to  see  you  here  any  day  at  your  convenience.  Am  sure 
Russian  War  Relief  leaders  in  Mexico  would  welcome  opportunity  discuss  with 
you  their  problems  and  take  advantage  your  great  experience.  Eye,  too,  will 
be  glad  to  discuss  same  problems  with  you,  since  they  come  under  my  present 
jurisdiction,  and  to  renew  our  personal  contact.    Warmest  regards. 

OUMANSKY. 


Exhibit  No.  980 
■Charles  Bollard,  Executive  Associate 

Carnegie  Corporation  of  New  York, 

522  Fifth  Avenue, 
New  York  18,  N.  Y.,  January  3,  1946. 

(Handwritten :)  M.  C. :  Do  you  know  whether  the  Army  did  any  testing  later 
than  the  enclosed?     EC,  Jan.  24/46. 

Mr.  Edward  C.  Carter, 

Institute  of  Pacific  Relations, 

1  East  5-',th  Street,  Nero  York  22,  N.  Y. 

Dear  Carter  :  I  think  these  are  the  reports  referred  to  in  your  note  of  Decem- 
ber 27.  If  not,  please  try  me  again.  While  both  of  them  are  technically  in  the 
•clear,  I  think  it  would  be  well  to  clear  with  Buck  Lanham  before  using  any  of 
the  data  in  anything  that  you  may  prepare  for  public  consumption. 

You  are  w-elcome  to  keep  these  for  your  files. 
Sincerely, 

DOLLARD. 

CD:RN 

ENC. 
ECC: 

These  "attitude"  surveys  appeared  in  a  publication  called  "What  the  Soldier 
Thinks."     I  remember  seeing  that  magazine  in  January  4G  and  I  feel  sure  it 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS  5091 

will  be  continued  on  a  limited  scale.     Surveys  were  of  considerable  value.     Shall 
I  try  and  get  a  more  recent  copy  dealing  with  the  East? 

M.  C. 


EESTEICTED 

Classification  cancelled  by  authority  of  Brig.  Gen.  Paul  W.  Thompson  Theater 
Chief,  Information  and  Education  Theater  Service  Forces,  European  Theater, 
by 

Lt    Col    C.    D.    LEATHERMAN, 

(Name  and  Grade  of  officer  cancelling  classification  and  date  of  can- 
cellation) :  Oct  4,  1945. 

ATTITUDES  OF  AMERICAN  SOLDIERS  IN  THE  BERLIN  DISTRICT 

TOWARD  OUR  ALLIES 

(Based  on  a  sample  of  700  men  surveyed  22-25  August  1945  in  the  Berlin 

District.) 

Research  Branch,  Information  and  Education  Division,  Headquarters,  Theater 
Service   Forces,   Euroiiean   Theater,    September    1945 

Report  No.  E70-93 
Copy  No.  24 

FOREWORD 

1.  The  information  upon  which  this  report  is  based  was  collected  in  a  survey 
of  a  sample  of  soldiers  in  the  Berlin  District  during  the  period  22  to  25  August 
1945. 

2.  The  sample  includes  representative  units  from  Headquarters  troops  in  the 
Berlin  District  as  well  as  a  cross  section  of  men  in  the  82d  Airborne  Division  and 
attached  troops.  Within  each  unit  selected,  a  random  sample  was  drawn  so 
that  all  types  of  men  had  a  proportional  chance  of  being  included  in  the  survey. 

3.  As  in  previous  Research  Branch  studies,  the  men  who  filled  out  question- 
naires were  assured  of  anonymity.  No  names  or  serial  numbers  were  placed  on 
the  questionnaires,  and  it  was  explained  to  the  men  that  the  purpose  of  the  survey 
was  simply  to  secure  their  frank  and  and  honest  opinion. 

4.  It  is  important  to  keep  in  mind  that  the  findings  presented  here  do  nol 
purport  to  be  indicative  of  attitudes  held  by  troops  in  other  areas.  As  a  matter 
of  fact,  the  Berlin  District  is  a  unique  situation  for  our  troops  in  the  European 
Theater. 

5.  Data  have  just  been  returned  from  the  field  and  have  been  tallied  from  a 
sample  that  is  representative  of  the  entire  theater.  When  these  data  are  com- 
pared with  attitudes  of  a  cross  section  of  men  in  the  ETO  in  late  April,  it  is 
found  that  attitudes  toward  the  English  and  Russians  have  not  changed  ap- 
preciably ;  however,  attitudes  toward  the  French  were  much  less  favorable  in 
August  than  in  April.  Troops  in  Berlin  express  somewhat  more  favorable  atti- 
tudes toward  the  English,  and  also  toward  the  Germans,  but  slightly  less 
favorable  attitudes  toward  the  French  than  do  troops  in  the  entire  theater. 
Also,  the  Berlin  troops  express  considerably  more  skepticism  about  how  we  shall 
be  able  to  get  along  with  Russia  in  the  future  than  do  a  cross  section  of  American 
troops  in  the  European  Theater. 

MAIN    FINDINGS 

1.  A  large  majority  of  the  American  soldiers  (85%)  in  the  Berlin  area  say 
they  have  a  favorable  attitude  toward  the  English.  A  smaller  proportion,  but 
still  a  substantial  majority  (61%),  report  favorable  attitudes  toward  the  Rus- 
sians. Less  than  half  of  them  (42%)  say  they  have  a  favorable  opinion  of  the 
French. 

2.  Most  of  our  soldiers  who  have  contacts  with  Allied  soldiers  say  they  get 
along  very  well  or  fairly  well  with  them.  Twenty-three  percent  said  they  had 
no  contact  with  English  soldiers,  28  percent  said  they  had  no  contact  with  Rus- 
sian soldiers,  and  48  percent  said  they  had  no  contact  with  French  soldiers.  Of 
those  who  have  contact  with  Allied  soldiers,  91  percent  say  they  get  along  fairly 
well  or  very  well  with  English  soldiers;  75  percent  say  they  get  along  fairly 


5092 


INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 


well  or  very  well  with  Russian  soldiers ;  and  60  percent  say  they  get  along  fairly 
well  or  very  well  with  Fi'ench  soldiers. 

3.  Those  who  have  known  some  English,  Russian,  and  French  soldiers  per- 
sonally are  slightly  more  favorable  in  attitude  toward  the  English,  Russian, 
and  French  people  and  soldiers. 

4.  Educational  status  seems  to  be  only  slightly  related  to  like  and  dislike  for 
the  various  Allies. 

5.  Men  who  have  had  combat  experience  are  somewhat  more  favorable  toward 
the  Russians  and  somewhat  less  favorable  toward  the  French  than  are  noncom- 
bat  men.  The  two  groups  do  not  differ  in  their  opinion  of  the  English.  Combat 
men  are  no  more  nor  less  favorable  toward  the  Germans  than  are  noncombat 
men. 

6.  There  is  a  widespread  feeling  of  confidence  that  we  shall  be  able  to  get 
along  well  with  England  from  now  on,  more  than  90  percent  of  the  men  express- 
ing this  attitude.  A  substantial  majority  (65%)  say  that  we  will  get  along 
well  with  France  in  the  years  ahead.  There  is  considerable  skepticism  as  to 
how  well  we  shall  get  along  with  Russia  and  only  30  percent  of  the  men  say  they 
think  that  we  shall  get  along  well  with  her ;  a  substantial  minority  anticipate 
war  with  her  sometime  in  the  next  25  years. 

7.  The  overwhelming  majoi-ity  say  they  expect  England  (80%)  and  the 
United  States  (93%)  to  cooperate  with  other  nations  to  settle  disputes  peace- 
ably.   Only  half  of  them  (51%)  think  Russia  will  cooperate. 

8.  The  better  educated  men  and  those  less  well  educated  differ  only  slightly 
in  their  attitudes  on  international  relations. 

9.  Men  who  have  been  in  combat  do  not  differ  appreciably  from  the  noncombat 
men  in  their  attitudes  on  international  relations. 

10.  As  might  be  expected,  those  who  have  a  generally  favorable  attitude  to- 
ward the  Russian  people  are  also  more  likely  to  be  more  optimistic  about  the 
possibility  of  working  out  good  international  relations  with  Russia  and  to  ex- 
press more  confidence  in  the  Russian  government's  intentions. 

Detailed  Findings 


ATTITUDES  OF  PERSONAL  LIKES  AND  DISLIKES 

General  Attitudes 

A  large  majority  of  the  American  soldiers  (85%)  in  the  Berlin  area  say  they 
have  a  favorable  attitude  toward  the  English.  A  smaller  proportion,  but  still  a 
substantial  majority  (61%),  i-eport  favorable  attitudes  toward  the  Russians. 
Less  than  half  of  them  (42% )  say  they  have  a  favorable  opinion  of  the  French. 

For  comparison,  the  same  question  was  aked  about  Germans.  About  three 
men  in  every  five  (59%)  reported  a  favorable  attitude  toward  the  Germans. 

Question:  "What  sort  of  opinion  do  you  have  of  the  English  (Russian,  French, 
German)  people?"^ 

Anther  unfavornblo 


Vory 
PeroontQgo  oneworingi   fovorable 


Fairly  favorable 


English 


Russian 


Rpenoh 


Qonson 


32ii 


53% 


9%\ 


52SJ 


756 


35% 


55% 


fJZry  unfavornblo 
/fnhdecided  or  no 


10?; 


1^' 


answer 


1.     '"V 


2% 


25% 


8^ 


33% 


7Z% 


-w 


z% 


iii 


1^ 


^  In  interpreting  tliese  replies  it  must  be  kept  in  mind  that  in  general,  the  contacts  with 
the  Enjrlish,  French,  and  Germans  have  been  of  longer  duration  and  have  included  civilian 
contacts  while  the  Russian  contacts  have  been  shorter  and  limited  to  Russian  soldiers  and 
displaced  personnel. 


INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 


5093 


The  replies  of  the  men  in  the  Berlin  area  are  more  favorable  toward  the 
English  and  less  favorable  toveard  the  French  than  were  those  of  a  cross  section 
of  ETO  troops  surveyed  in  April  1945.^ 


Cross  sec- 
tion survey, 
April  1945 

Berlin  area 

survey, 
August  1945 

Percentage  saying  they  were  very  favorable  or  lairly  favorable  to— 

Enelish - - - 

Percent 

72 
68 

Percent 

85 

French      -  

42 

Most  of  our  soldiers  who  have  contacts  with  the  Allied  soldiers  say  they 
get  along  very  well  or  fairly  well  with  them. 

In  answer  to  the  question,  "How  well  do  you  get  along  with  the  English 
(Russian,  French)  soldiers?"  :  23  percent  said  they  had  no  contact  with  English 
soldiers,  28  percent  said  they  had  no  contact  with  Russian  soldiers,  and  48  per- 
cent said  they  had  no  contact  with  French  soldiers. 

Of  those  who  have  contact  with  Allied  soldiers,  the  following  percentages  say 
they  get  along: 


With  English  soldiers 


With  Russian  soldiers 


With  Fronch  soldiers 


Very  well 

Fnlrly  vajII 

/Hot  30  well 
//iJot  well  Dt 

52% 

39% 

5 

*-3% 

n 

•    « 

26% 

im 

16 

%     5k 

h 

23% 

yi% 

13% 

10% 

17% 

ell 


Those  who  have  known  some  English,  Russian,  and  French  soldiers  personally 
are  slightly  more  iavorable  in  attitude  toward  the  English,  French,  and  Russian 
people  than  are  those  who  have  not. 

In  the  case  of  the  Russians,  the  relation  between  personal  acquaintanceship 
and  attitude  is  greater  than  it  is  in  the  case  of  the  English  or  French. 


Among  men  vrho  have 
known — 


No  soldiers 
personally 


Some  soldiers 
personally 


Percentage  of  men  who  have  very  favorable  or  fairly  favorable  opinions  of- 

The  English  people 

The  Russian  people 

The  French  people 


Percent 


81 
59 
41 


Percent 


71 
46 


Similarly,  those  men  who  know  some  Allied  soldiers  personally  are  more  likely 
to  say  they  get  along  with  English  (Russian,  French)  soldiers  very  well  or 
fairly  well. 


*  Comparable  data  are  not  available  on  the  Russians  or  the  Germans. 


5094  INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 


Percentage  of  men  who  say  they  get  along  with- 

English  soldiers 

Russian  soldiers 

French  soldiers 


Men  who  have  known — 


No  soldiers 
personally 


89 
72 
51 


Some  soldiers 
personally 


92 
84 
69 


This  relationship  does  not  necessarily  mean  that  getting  to  know  Allied  soldiers 
personally  causes  a  more  favorable  attitude  though  this  is  probably  true  in  many 
instances.  It  is  also  likely  that  getting  to  know  other  soldiers  is  itself  an  indi- 
cation of  a  previously  existing  favorable  attitude. 

It  is  important  to  recognize  that  while  personal  acquaintanceship  is  related  to 
favorableness  of  attitude,  mere  length  of  time  the  soldier  was  stationed  in  Eng- 
land, France,  and  Berlin  has  no  relation  to  what  men  say  their  attitudes  ai'e 
toward  the  English,  French,  and  Russians.  The  only  attitudes  studied  which 
seem  to  be  related  to  time  spent  in  the  Berlin  area  are  those  toward  the  Germans. 
The  men  who  have  been  in  the  area  for  a  month  or  more  are  somewhat  less 
favorable  toward  the  Germans  than  are  those  who  have  been  there  less  than 
a  month. 

It  is  also  interesting  to  note  that  educational  status  seems  to  be  only  slightly 
related  to  the  attitudes  reported  above.  High  school  graduates  are  no  more  nor 
less  favorable  than  are  those  with  less  education. 

Men  who  have  had  combat  experience  are  somewhat  more  favorable  toward 
the  Russians  and  somewhat  less  favorable  toward  the  French  than  are  non- 
combat  men.  The  two  groups  do  not  differ  in  their  opinions  of  the  English. 
Combat  men  are  no  more  nor  less  favorable  toward  the  Germans  than  are  non- 
combat  men. 

SPECIAL  LIKES    AND   DISLIKES 

In  addition  to  rating  the  degree  to  which  they  were  favorable  or  unfavorable 
in  attitude  toward  the  various  Allies,  the  men  were  asked  to  state  what  special 
things  they  like  or  dislike  about  them. 

The  following  is  a  summary  of  the  most  frequently  mentioned  things  which 
they  like  or  dislike. 

Like  About  the  English 

About  half  of  the  men  mentioned  some  characteristics  that  they  dislaked  about 
the  English  people.    Most  frequently  mentioned  were: 

1.  Friendly,  hospitable,  generous,  kind,  etc. 

2.  Courage,  guts,  self-confidence,  see  things  through,  etc. 

3.  They  are  a  lot  like  we  are. 

Dislike  About  the  English 

About  half  of  the  men  mentioned  some  characteristics  that  they  disliked  about 
the  English.    Most  frequently  mentioned  were  : 

1.  Superior,  conceited,  stuck-up,  reserved,  unfriendly,  etc. 

2.  Traditionalism,  unprogressiveness,  etc. 

3.  Take  too  much  credit  and  give  us  too  little  credit  for  winning  the  war. 

Like  About  the  Russians 

About  half  the  men  mentioned  one  or  more  characteristics  they  liked  about 
the  Russinns.     The  things  most  frequently  mentioned  were : 

1.  Friendly,  good  hearted,  etc. 

2.  Jolly,  care-free,  happy-go-lucky,  etc. 

3.  Good  fighters,  courage,  fight  for  their  country,  guts,  never-say-die  spirit, 
etc. 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS  5095 

4.  Sturdy,  vigorous,  full  of  vitality,  hard  working,  etc. 

5.  Treat  the  Germans  rough  like  they  said  they  would  and  as  they  should 
be  treated. 

Dislike  About  the  Russians 

About  half  the  men  listed  something  about  the  Russians  which  they  disliked. 
Those  most  frequently  mentioned  were : 

1.  Dirty,  sloppy,  ill-kempt  appearance,  etc. 

2.  Ignorant,  stupid,  uneducated,  etc. 

3.  Crude,  uncultured,  rude,  ill-mannered,  etc. 

4.  Arrogant,  conceited,  think  tliey  won  the  war  alone,  etc. 

5.  Brutal,  excessively  cruel  to  Germans,  rape,  etc. 

6.  Steal,  loot. 

Like  About  the  French 

About  a  fourth  of  the  men  listed  something  they  liked  about  the  French  people. 
The  most  frequently  mentioned  are : 

1.  Friendly,  hospitable,  etc. 

2.  Cheerful,  easy-going,  know  how  to  have  a  good  time,  etc. 

3.  Helped  all  they  could,  tried  to  do  their  share  in  winning  war,  etc. 

Dislike  About  the  French 

About  two-thirds  of  the  men  listed  one  or  more  characteristics  they  disliked 
about  the  French.     Most  frequently  mentioned  are : 

1.  Dirty,  filthy,  unsanitary,  etc. 

2.  Mercenary,  grasping,  want  to  get  something  for  nothing,  etc. 

3.  Lazy,  backward,  no  ambition,  no  spirit,  etc. 

4.  Undependable,  irresponsible,  etc. 

5.  Loose  morals. 

Like  Aboiit  the  Germans 

About  half  of  the  men  listed  one  or  more  things  they  liked  about  the  Germans. 
Most  frequent  items  were : 

1.  Clean,  neat,  orderly,  etc. 

2.  Indu.strious,  good  workers,  etc. 

3.  Intelligent,  educated,  resourceful,  etc. 

4.  Friendl.v,  good  manners,  treat  you  well,  etc. 

5.  Look  and  act  like  Americans  in  many  ways. 

Dislike  About  the  Germans 

About  two-thirds  of  the  men  mentioned  something  they  disliked  about  Ger- 
mans.    The  most  frequent  items  were : 

1.  Dishonest,  two-faced,  treacherous,  etc, 

2.  Fascistic,  militaristic  ideas,  still  believe  Hitler  had  right  idea,  etc. 

3.  Easily  led,  can't  think  for  themselves,  etc. 

4.  Superiority  complex,  arrogant,  etc. 

5.  They  don't  accept  any  responsibility  or  guilt  for  the  war. 

6.  Self-pity,  whining,  complaining,  fawning,  all  to  get  sympathy. 

ATTITUDES  OF  INTERNATIONAL  RELATIONS 

The  general  picture  which  one  gets  from  the  men's  replies  is  that  many  of 
them  are  in  doubt  and  suspicious  about  Russia  and  a  substantial  minority  antici- 
pate war  with  her  sometime  in  the  next  25  years.  In  contrast  there  is  a  great 
deal  of  confidence  that  we  shall  he  able  to  get  along  well  with  England  and  only 
slightly  less  confidence  about  our  relations  with  France. 

Hoio  Will  We  Get  Along  With  Other  Nations? 

Four  men  in  every  ten  say  they  are  either  in  doubt  as  to  how  we  will  get  along 
with  Russia  (26%)  or  that  they  expect  we  will  fight  Russia  sooner  or  later 
(14%).  Only  about  one  man  in  ten  expresses  this  opinion  regarding  England 
and  France. 


5096 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 


Qnestiont  "How  do  you  think  we  will  get  along  with  England  (France, 
Russia)  from  now  on?" 


^awere  t 


Peroentage  answering: 
Russia  France  England 


We  will  get  along  very  well 

We  will  disagree  about  some 
things  but  manage  to  get 
along  


We  will  have  some  serious  dis- 
agreements but  we-  won't  fight" 
each  other     


W«  will  very  likely  fight  each 
other  sooner  or  later   


Undecided 


No  answer 


3^ 


95i 


30^ 


18% 


\IA 


2% 


1% 


5256 


22? 


10% 


1% 
3% 


K2% 


39% 


-w 


9% 


26% 


When  asked,  "Do  you  think  the  United  States  will  get  into  another  big  war 
within  the  nest  25  years  V"  23  percent  said,  "yes" ;  38  percent  said,  "undecided" ; 
.and  37  percent  said  "no".    Two  percent  did  not  answer. 

In  addition,  the  men  were  asked,  "If  you  think  the  US  will  be  in  another  big 
war,  who  do  you  think  the  US  will  be  fighting  against?"  Twenty-nine  percent 
of  the  men  named  one  or  more  countries.  Twenty-five  percent  of  the  men  named 
Russia.  The  highest  percent  of  mention  any  other  nation  received  was  Japan, 
mentioned  by  3  percent  of  the  men. 

Cooperation  in  Settling  Disputes 

The  overwhelming  majority  say  they  expect  England  (80%)  and  the  United 
States  (93%)  to  cooperate  with  otber  nations  to  settle  disputes  peaceably.  Only 
half  of  them  (51%)  think  Russia  will  cooperate. 


INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 


5097 


qneatlont  "Which  do  you  think  the  US  (England,  Russia)  is  most 

likoly  to  do  about  international  problems  in  the  future?" 


Answera^ 


Try  to  oooperate  with  other  notions 
and  tiT"  to  aottle  disputes 
peaooably 

Try  to  hove  nothing  to  do  with 

disputes  between  other 

countries  ...  


Try  to  settle  things  their  own  way 
without  cooperating  with  other 
nations  


No  answer 


Percentages  answering: 


Russia 


England 


United 

States 


51% 


12% 


3256 


5r 


80SI 


3% 


s% 


9? 


'   2% 


Confidence  in  the  English  and  Russian  Governments 

The  men  express  much  less  confidence  that  the  Russian  government  will  be 
"on  the  up-and-up"  in  dealing  with  the  US  than  will  the  English  government. 

Qufletlont  "How  much  confidence  do  you  have  that  the  English 
(Russian)  government  will  be  on  the  up-and-up  in 
dealing  with  the  US?" 


Anawera; 


A  great  deal  of  confidence 


Some  confidence 


Not  much  confidence 


No  confidence  at  all  . 
88348— 52— pt.  14 13 


Percentages  answering! 


BuBsian 

Government 


25% 


A2% 


26% 


No  answer. 


JUL 


English 
Government 


1%^ 


*-3% 


*-2% 


5098 


INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 


The  better  educated  man  and  those  less  well  educated  differ  only  slightly  in 
their  attitudes  on  international  relations. 

Men  who  have  been  in  combat  do  not  differ  appreciably  from  the  non-combat 
men  in  their  attitudes  on  internatioua)  relations. 

As  might  be  expected,  those  who  have  a  generally  favorable  attitude  toward 
the  Russian  people  are  also  mca-e  likely  to  be  more  optimistic  about  the  possi- 
bility of  working  out  good  int«;rnatior.al  relations  with  Russia  and  to  express 
more  confidence  in  the  Russian  government's  intentions.  The  following  charts 
will  illustrate  this  relationship. 

Question:  "How  do  you  think  we  will  get  along  with  Russia  from  now  on?" 

Among  those  who  hove   ,    . 


Percentage  saying  .    .   . 

Wo  v/111  get  along  very  well 


Favorable  attitudes 
toward  the  Russian 
people 


Unfavorable 

attitudes  toward 

the  Russian  people 


We  vd.ll  disagree  about  some  things 
but  manage  to  get  along  


We  will  have  some  serious  disagree- 
ments but  vre  won't  fight  each  other 

Wg  will  very  likely  fight  each 
other  sooner  or  later   

Undeolded  

Ko  answer  


12$ 


38$ 


15$ 


9$ 


ZlS 


2$ 


15$ 


26$ 


26$ 


27$ 


^tS 


^73. 


Question :  "Which  do  you  think  Russia  is  most  likely  to  do  about  international 
relations  in  the  future?" 

Among  those  who  have   .    .   • 


Percentage  saying  she 


Favorable  attitudes  Unfavorable 
toward  the  Russian         attitudes  tov7ard 
people the  Russian  people 


Will  cooperate  with  other  nations  and 
try  to  settle  disputes  peaceably  .    . 


■Will  try  to  have  nothing  to  do  with 
disputes  betvreon  other  countries   .    . 


Win  try  to  settle  things  their  own 
way  without  cooperating  with  other 

nations 

No  answer     .   .   . 


-3$ 


31$ 


12$ 


50$ 


'W 


INSTITUTE   OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 


5099 


Question:  "How  much  confidence  do  you  have  that  the  Russian  government 
will  be  on  the  up-and-up  in  dealing  with  the  US?" 

Among  those  who  have   .   .   • 


Percentage  aoying  .    .   . 
A  great  deel  of  confidence 


Favor fible  attitudes  Unfavorable 
tov;ard  the  Russian         attitude  a  toward 
people the  Russian  people 


Some  confidence 


Hot  nruch  confidence  or 
T.o  confidence  at  all 


No  answer 


33% 


ijb% 


205b 


^1% 


\1% 


yn 


i»% 


■JS 


It  cannot  be  assumed  from  these  data  that  by  changing  soldiers'  attitudes  in 
the  direction  of  greater  personal  favorablfness  toward  Russian  people  that  one 
will  effect  change  in  their  international  attitudes.  However,  it  is  very  likely 
that  such  personal  attitudes  are  likely  to  be  accompanied  by  a  greater  willing- 
ness to  view  the  problems  of  our  relations  with  Russia  in  a  less  prejudiced, 
more  pudicious  frame  of  mind. 

Soldiers  Suggestions  for  Improving  Allied  Relations 

The  men  were  asked  to  write  out  any  suggestions  they  had  for  improving- 
relations  among  Allied  soldiers  in  the  Berlin  area.  About  six  men  in  every  ten 
offered  one  or  more  suggestions. 

By  far  the  most  frequent  type  of  suggestion  centered  around  the  idea  of 
increasing  opportunities  for  friendly  contact  with  individuals  in  other  Allied 
forces.     Typical  of  these  suggestions  were : 

"More  mixing  of  all  Allied  troops  in  sports,  joint  recreational  activities."' 
"Have  facilities  like  clubs,  canteens,  etc.,  where  men  can  meet." 
"Have  dances  and  other  social  events  of  interest  to  all  troops." 
"Give  men  more  freedom  and  facilities  for  transportation  to  visit  soldiers 
in  the  other  forces." 

"Have  joint  classes,  discussion  groups,  speakers  at  meetings  open  to  all 
interested  Allied  soldiers." 
Less  frequently  mentioned  were : 

"Decrease  contacts  with  Allied  soldiers,  let  each  keep  to  his  own  area." 
"Have  a  more  uniform  policy  in  Berlin  and  let  all  Allied  forces  follow  it." 
"More  control  of  Russians." 


CHANGES  IN  ATTITUDES  OF  SOLDIERS  IN  THE  EUROPEAN  THEATER 
TOWARD  OUR  ALLIES   FROM  APRIL  1945  TO  AUGUST  1945 

(Based  on  a  Comparison  of  2  Cross-sectional  Surveys  :  Survey  1 :  Among  3.795 
Enlisted  Men  Queried  25  April  to  5  May  1945.  Survey  2 :  Among  2,9811 
Enlisted  Men  Queried  14  to  24  August  1945) 

(Research  Branch,  Information  and  Education,  Headquartei's,  Theater  Service 
Forces,  European  Theater,  September  1945) 


Report   No.    ETO-102. 
Copy  No.  8 


HOW  the  study  was  made 


1.  Information  on  men's  attitudes  and  opinions   was  secured  by  means  of 
anonymous  questionnaires  filled  out  by  two  representative  cross  sections.     One 


5100 


INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 


survey  was  conducted  during  the  period  from  25  April  to  5  May  1945  among  a 
cross-section  sample  of  3,795  white  enlisted  men.  The  other  was  conducted  dur- 
ing the  period  from  14  to  24  August  1945  among  a  sample  of  2,981. 

2.  Each  sample  was  designed  to  give  proper  representation  to  all  arms  and 
services  and  types  of  outfits.  Men  in  Air  Forces,  Field  Forces,  and  Service  Forces 
units  were  included  in  the  proportions  found  in  the  Theater  as  a  whole.  Within 
each  unit  selected,  a  random  sample  was  drawn  so  that  all  types  of  men  had  a 
proportional  chance  of  being  included  in  the  survey. 

3.  As  in  previous  Research  Branch  studies,  the  men  who  filled  out  question- 
naires were  assured  of  anonymity.  No  names  or  serial  numbers  were  placed  on 
the  questionnaires,  and  it  was  explained  to  the  men  that  the  purpose  of  the 
survey  was  simply  to  secure  their  frank  and  honest  opinions. 

OVEB-ALL  OPINION   Gl'S   HAVE  OF  ENGLISH   AND   FRENCH  PEOPLE 

In  the  four  months  following  VE-day  a  considerable  shift  took  place  in  soldiers' 
attitudes  toward  the  French.  During  the  same  period  no  appreciable  changes 
took  place  in  attitudes  toward  the  English. 

QUESTION:     "?)hnt  sort  of  opinion  do  you  have  of  the  English  people?" 
"Vfhat  sort  of  opir.ion  dc  .vcu  have  of  the  rrench  people?" 


English  People 

April     August 
19A5         19A5 


French  People 


April 
1W5 


Au£[ust 

19^5 


Very  Favorable 


Fairly  Favorable 


Rather  Unfavorable 


Very  Unfavorable 
No  answer     »   •   . 


21^6 


545& 


16^ 

2 


21^ 


31 


39!K 


31^ 


19^ 


JE 


Whereas  just  prior  to  VE-day  as  many  soldiers  said  they  thought  as  well 
of  the  French  people  as  of  the  English  (about  7  in  every  10  said  they  felt  "very" 
or  "fairly"  favorable  toward  them),  in  August,  75%  of  the  soldiers  thought 
favorably  of  the  English  but  only  45%  thought  well  of  the  French. 

The  fact  that  there  was  a  smaller  proportion  of  soldiers  who  indicated  that 
they  thought  favorably  of  the  P'rench  in  August  as  compared  to  April  is  not 
the  result  of  the  changing  composition  of  the  Theater  during  the  elapsed  period 
of  time  but  rather  is  a  true  reflection  of  differences  in  men's  attitude  between 
the  two  dates.* 


'  In  this  as  well  as  In  other  comparisons  of  April  and  Augnst  findings  appearing  in  this 
report,  detailed  analysis  shows  that  differences  are  not  the  result  of  a  changed  composition 
of  the  Armed  Forces  in  Europe  in  August  as  compared  with  April,  except  insofar  as  time 
in  Army  and  time  overseas  is  concerned  where,  of  course,  the  4-month  lapse  of  time  must 
be  taken  into  account. 


INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 


5101 


OVEE-ALL  OPINION  OF  FEENCH  NO  BETTEB  THAN  OF  GEBMANS 

The  two  charts  below  indicate  that,  in  general,  the  expressed  opinion  is  no 
more  favorable  toward  the  French  people  than  toward  the  German  and  that 
attitudes  expressed  toward  both  French  and  German  people  is  considerably 
less  favorable  than  toward  English  people. 

QlgSTION:      (August  Survey)  What  sort  of  opinion  do  you  have  of 
the   (Fnpllsh.   French.  Gernwn)  people? 


'Very- 
favorable 


'Fairly 
fav   • 


French  people 


German  people 


English  people 


21^ 


39^ 


kl% 


5k% 


'Pather 
imfav.  ■ 


'Very     No 
unfdv  '  ans, 


31^ 


19?6 


33^ 


12^ 


16^ 


QtJESTIOK;     Leaving  aside   for 
the  raomant  the  fact  that  thoy 
are  our  enemies  or  cur  allies, 
which  £ne  of  the  follcv^ing  do 
you  like  best  .lust  as  pocple— 
the  French  peop'le,  the  German 
people,  or  t)te  English  people? 

Answers      C^^^^ 


The  tvpes  of  reasons  men  gave  for  disliking  the  English  or  French  were  the 
same  for  both  surveys  (report  of  April  findings— Research  Report  No.  E-12.5 — 
lists  cliief  reason  soldiers  mention).  Reasons  men  advance  for  liking  or  dis- 
liking the  Germans,  along  with  other  data  on  attitudes  toward  Germans,  are 
presented  in  Research  Report  No.  E-134. 

EFFECT   ON   ATTITUDES  OF  TIME  SPENT  IN   COUNTRY 

Men  who  have  spent  considerable  time  in  all  three  countries  have  substan- 
tially the  same  attitudes  toward  the  people  of  each  of  the  three  countries  as 
do  all  soldiers  surveyed.  As  was  pointed  out  in  the  report  of  the  April  survey 
there  is  no  evidence  to  support  the  tlieories  that  better-educated  men  have  more 
favorable  attitudes  toward  our  Allies  or  that  the  longer  men  are  overseas,  the 
worse  their  attitudes  toward  our  Allies  become.  On  the  other  hand,  there  is 
some  evidence  to  suggest  that  the  longer  men  remain  in  a  particular  country 
the  more  favorable  their  attitude  becomes  to  the  people  of  that  country.  This 
holds  for  Germany  as  well  as  for  France  and  England. 

For  example : 


6102 


INSTITUTE   OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 


ATTITUDE  TOWARD  ENGLISH  PEOPLE   ... 


Time  spent  in  England 

'Very                  Fairly             'Rather     'Yeny        Ko 
favorable'         fav.'                     unfav.' unfav. '   ans. 

No  time  ••••«••«• 

18? 

53? 

13? p    13? 

18? 

5655 

18?     ( 

S    ...2? 

■   '  L 

4  to  8  mos     

14? 

53? 

20? 

7    ...1? 

Over  8  mos 

28^ 

55? 

12?  4    . 

.  .1? 

ATTITU- 
Tine  sioent  in  France 

DE  TOWARD  FRENCH  PEC] 

•Very           'Fairly 
fffvwraTDla'      fav,  • 

=LE  ... 

tRather 

unfav. ' 

•Very 

unfav. ' 

MO 
ans. 

Less  than  4  mos.^-  ,   ,   . 

r 

5 

35% 

33^ 

20? 

7 

4  to  8  njoa  •••••• 

...1* 
.256 

•F 

U-? 

3L? 

21? 

Over  8  mos.  »   •  *   . 

8                    UU% 

31? 

15?      .. 

Attitude  toward  German  people  seems  to  be  even  more  closely  related  to  time 
spent  in  the  country  than  patterns  shown  above  for  Britain  and  France. 

Among  men  who  spent  no  time  in  Germanj  34  percent  say  they  have  a 
favorable  opinion  of  German  people. 

Among  men  who  spent  less  than  4  tcceks  in  Germany  42  percent  say  they 
have  a  favorable  opinion  of  German  people. 

Among  men  who  spent  between  //  and  8  loeeks  in  Germany  54  percent  say 
they  have  a  favorable  opinion  of  German  people. 

Among  men  who  spent  over  8  weeks  in  Germany  59  percent  say  they  have 
a  favorable  opinion  of  German  people. 
Althou.yh  time  spent  in  country  and  attitude  toward  people  of  the  country 
are  related,  analysis  reveals  no  appreciable  relationship  between  time  in  one 
country  and  attitude  toward  people  of  other  countries.  For  example,  time 
spent  in  Germany  (for  men  who  have  also  spent  some  time  in  England  and 
France)  does  not  appear  to  appreciably  affect  attitudes  men  have  toward  the 
English  or  the  French. 


DECREASE  IN  FEELING  THAT  WE  SHOULD  HELP  ALUES  GET  BACK  ON  THEIR  FEET 

In  the  August  as  well  as  in  the  April  survey,  more  soldiers  were  favorable 
to  the  idea  of  helping  to  feed  our  Allies  after  the  war  than  the  proportion  who 
felt  we  should  help  our  Allies  by  sending  them  money  and  materials.  However, 
a  slightly  snuiiler  proportion  of  men  in  August  as  compared  to  April  thought  we 
should  send  help  along  these  lines. 

These  two  questions  were  asked  the  men : 

1.  "After  the  war,  some  of  our  Allies  will  need  help  in  feeding  their  people. 

Do  you  think  the  United  States  should  send  food  to  these  countries 
even  if  it  meant  that  we  would  have  to  keep  on  rationing  food  in  our 
own  country  for  a  while  to  do  it?" 

2.  "After  the  war,  soyyie  of  our  Allies  will  need  money  and  materials 
to  help  them  get  back  on  their  feet. 

Do  you  think  we  should  let  them  liave  money  and  materials  to  help 
them  get  back  on  their  feet,  even  if  it  meant  that  we  should  have  to 
pay  higher  taxes  to  do  it?" 


INSTITUTE   OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 


5103 


SZVV  TOOD? 


April    August 
1945    19AS 


-2- 

HELP  WITH  MONEY 
AND  MATERIALS? 


April 
1945 


August, 
194^5 


SHOULD 


SHOULD  NOT 


NO  ANSWER 


58% 


39^ 


t 


h% 


49J6 


2* 


385S 


^Tfo 


3s: 


29% 


b&% 


Consistent  with  findings  shown  ahove  is  the  small  decline  in  proportion  of 
men  ^ho  feel  we  should  do  everything  we  can  to  help  Frauce  get  back  on  her 
feet.  Men  were  asked  to  tell  whether  they  agreed  or  disagreed  with  the 
statement : 

"We  should  do  everything  we  can  to  help  France  get  back  on  her  feet  as  soon 
as  possible." 

In  April:  60'%  of  men  surveyed  Agreed  with  statement. 
In  August:  51%  of  men  surveyed  Agreed  with  statement. 

OTHER  SHIFTS  IN  ATTITUDES  TOWARD  FRENCH 

Some  Change  in  Belief  That  France  Will  Again  Be  A  Strong  Nation.  More 
men  in  August  than  in  April  felt  that  French  nation  is  too  weak  and  split  up 
to  ever  amount  to  anything  again. 

Men  were  asked  if  they  agreed  or  disagreed  with  the  following  statement :  ''The 
French  nation  is  so  weak  and  split  up  that  it  will  never  amount  to  anything 
again." 

In  April:   73%  of  men  surveyed  Disagreed  with  statement. 
In  August:  62%  of  men  surveyed  Disagreed  with  statement. 
Fairly  Large  Change  In  Belief  That  French  People  Sincerely  Like  Americans. 
Men  were  asked  if  they  agreed  or  disagreed  with  the  following  statement :  "Most 
French  people  sincerely  like  Americans." 

In  April:  73%  of  men  surveyed  Agreed  with  statement. 
In  August:  52%  of  men  surveyed  Agreed  with  statement. 

APPRAISAL    OF    allies'    WAR    EFFORT    UNCHANGED 

About  the  same  proportions  of  men  feel  that  our  major  Allies — Britain  and 
Russia — have  done  as  good  a  job  as  possible  of  fighting  this  war.  Even  as 
regards  France,  who  suffers  in  other  respects  a  decline  in  favorable  attitudes, 
there  is  no  appreciable  decrease  since  April  in  soldiers'  respect  for  her  con- 
tribution in  war  effort. 

Statement:    "Considering  everything,  the    (specified  people)    have  done   as 
good  a  job  as  possible  of  fighting  this  war." 
Specified  People — 

Russians — More  than  19  men  in  every  20  surveyed  Agreed  with  statement 
in  both  April  and  August  surveys. 

British — More  than  16  in  every  20  surveyed  Agreed  with  statement  in  both 
April  and  August  surveys. 


5104 


INSTITUTE   OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 


French — About  10  men  in  every  20  surveyed  Agreed  with  statement  in  both 
April  and  August  surveys.  (In  April,  slightly  more  than  half  the  men 
agreed.  In  August  just  slightly  less  than  half — but  the  difference  is  too 
small  to  be  significant.) 

AIMS   OF   OUE   ALLIES   REMAIN   UNCHANGED   IN   EYES  OF  SOLDIERS 

In  August  just  as  in  April  most  men  had  faith  in  the  war  aims  and  the  future 
course  of  action  that  England  and  Russia  are  likely  to  take.  In  each  survey 
about  as  many  men  expressed  faith  in  Russia  as  faith  in  England  and  no  change 
in  the  level  of  these  attitudes  took  place  between  the  two  dates. 

Statement :  "(Specified  country)  is  more  interested  in  dominating  or  controlling 
the  world  than  she  is  in  building  a  truly  democratic  world." 

In  April  and  in  August  about  7  in  every  10  men  surveyed  DISAGREED 
with  this  statement  as  it  applies  to  both  Russia  and  to  Britain. 
Statement:  "The  (specified  country)  will  try  as  much  as  possible  to  work  out 
a  just  and  lasting  peace." 

In  April  and  in  August  about  8  in  every  10  men  surveyed  AGREED  with 
this  statement  as  it  applies  to  both  Russia  and  to  Britain. 

RELATIONS   WITH   RUSSIA  AND   ENGLAND   AFTER  THE   WAR 

No  changes  have  taken  place  in  the  4-month  period  between  surveys,  in  soldiers' 
attitude  toward  our  postwar  relations  with  Russia  and  England. 

Question:  "How  do  you  think  we  will  get  along  with  (specified  country)  after 
the  war?" 

Russia  England. 


April 
194? 


August 
1%5 


April 


August 
1945 


"We  will  get  alone  very 
well"  


"We  will  disagree  about 
some  things  but  manage 
to  get  along" 


Undecided  *  .  .  .   . 

"We  -will  have  some  ser- 
ious disagreements  but 
we  won't  fight  each  otli- 
er" 

"We  will  very  likely- 
fight,  each  other  .sooner 
or  later" 


Wo 


yi% 


15/. 


195^ 


13S 


yi% 


39/c 


16^ 


19^ 


9^ 


17^ 


■:>% 


vi% 


'M. 


i&^ 


^yf" 


18$ 


III  the  April  surve.y  comparable  questions  were  also  asltod  about  France  and 
China,  but  these  were  not  repeated  in  Augu:;t.   (See  Research  Branch  Report 
a   E-125.) 


^■Includes  a  few  men  who  die  not  ansv<er  the  question. 


INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 


5105 


Exhibit  No.  981 

ECC  from  R JG : 

I  am  at  present  having  a  card  file  made  of  all  corporation  prospects.  By  now 
I  have  accumulated  eight  or  ten  lists,  many  of  which  have  duplications.  Each 
card  will  give  the  name  of  the  corporation,  source,  and  individual  to  contact. 
When  it  is  completed  I  thought  you  and  I  could  go  over  it  to  decide  what  method 
of  approach  to  use  on  each  one.  Some  few  you  will  probably  want  to  contact 
personally.  Others  should  get  a  letter  and  others  we  probably  won't  bother 
with  at  all  for  awhile.  But  it  seemed  a  simpler  approach  to  have  all  the  infor- 
mation in  one  place. 

If  you  would  like  to  give  this  list  back  to  me  I  will  include  the  names  on  it 
with  the  rest  of  the  names  I  have.  I  know  there  are  some  on  this  list  which  I 
already  have  on  other  lists. 

(Pencilled  note:)  Have  carded  all  of  these  along  with  our  other  corp.  pros- 
pects 6/21/46. 

R.  J.  G. 


(Pencilled  note  :)  RJG :  Note  &  Return  to  ECC  who  hasn't  seen  it  yet. 

American  Council, 
Institute  of  Pacific  Relations,  Inc., 

June  12,  1946. 

Washington  Office,  744  Jackson  Place  NW.,  Washington  6,  D.  C.     Telephone  District  8665 

Mr.  Edwabd  C.  Caetee, 

IPR,  1  East  54th  Street,  Netv  York  22,  N.  Y. 

Dear  Mr.  Carter  :  Attached  are  two  lists  which  I  spoke  of  yesterday  when 
you  were  here  and  which  should  be  useful  in  campaigning  among  big  corporations 
interested  in  the  Far  East. 

You  will  be  interested,  I  think,  in  the  opinion  of  Mr.  Blair  Bolles,  of  the  Foreign 
Policy  Association,  on  the  outlook  for  the  IPR  here.  He  thinks  it  will  take 
six  or  seven  mouths'  hard  work  to  lay  the  base  for  a  sound  job  of  membership 
expansion  and  enlargement  of  program.  He  does  not  believe  that  the  IPR  should 
hope  or  expect  to  get  all  its  financial  support  in  Washington  for  the  local  office. 
The  FPA  here  gets  about  $2,500  a  year  from  its  membership  and  the  rest  from 
the  New  York  office,  which  the  Washington  unit  exists  to  serve.  I  judge  that  the 
total  budget  of  the  Washington-FPA  is  above  $15,000  a  year.  Bolles  said  that  a 
staff  of  four  people  is  the  minimum  he  thinks  either  FPA  or  IPR  needs  in  order 
to  do  a  first  class  job.  He  says  you  have  to  plug  very  hard  to  get  the  information 
you  need  in  order  to  serve  outside  offices ;  no  automatic  flow  system  from  gov- 
ernment sources  will  work.  He  adds  that  he  thinks  IPR  can  and  should  do 
more  community  service  here  than  FPA  can  do. 
Sincerely, 

[s]     I.  A.  P. 

Busines&  and  noncommercial  holdings  in  Japan  of  United  States  organizations 
(total  value  of  interest  is  as  of  December  1,  1941) 


Name 

Address 

Value 

All  America  Radio,  Inc 

67  Broad  St.,  New  York 

$8,  494 
38  801 

American  Foreign  Insurance  Association 

80  Maiden  Lane,  >;ew  York 

American  Magnesium  Metals  Corp 

800  Ohio  St.,  Pittsburgh 

327  600 

Associated  Merchandising  Corp 

1440  Broadway,  r\ew  York  _     .- 

11,231 

AmpriVan  PrPsidpnf  T.inps; 

311  California  St.,  San  Francisco 

4,036 
460  526 

American  Trading  Co.,  Inc 

96  Wall  St.,  New  York 

Anderson,  Clayton  &  Co 

Cotton  Exchange  Bldg.,  Houston 

33  554 

Associated  Press 

50  Rockefeller  Plaza,  New  York 

5  721 

Baker  &  Co.,  Inc.  (precious  metals) 

113  Astnr  St.,  NewaikS,  N.  J        

118,  266 

Can ier  Corp  .  - - --. 

900  S.  Geddes  St.,  Syracuse 

67  308 

Commercial  Pacific  Cable  Co 

67  Broad  St.,  New  York            

8,129 

Dorr  Co.,  The  (engineers) 

570  Lexington  Ave.,  New  York 

114  149 

Eastman  Kodak  Co 

343  State  St.,  Rochester 

213, 424 

Ford  Motor  Co.  (2  units  in  Japan) 

Dearborn.  Mich  __ 

5,403,873 
2,614,973 

General  Motors  Corp 3044  West  Grand  Blvd.,  Detroit 

5106 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 


Business  and  noncommercial  holdings  in  Japan  of  United  States  organizations 
{total  value  of  interest  i!<  as  of  December  1,  19 il) — Coutiuued 


isiame 


Address 


Value 


Goodrich,  B.  F.,  Co 

Go?ho  Co.,  Inc.  (Cotton  agents) _ 


Hanovia  Chemical  &  Mfg.  Co.  (2  units) . 


Hanson-Van    Winkle-Munning    Co.     (electro- 
plating &  polishing). 

International  Automatic  Electric  Corp 

Internationa!  Business  Machines  Corp 

International  Nickel  Co 

International  Standard  Electric  Corp.  (7  units). 

Irwin-Harrisons-Whitney,  Inc.  (tea) 

Locw's,  Inc 

Metro-Goldvvyn-Mayer  Co 

National  Cash  Register  Co.  (2  units) 

Natioaal  City  Bank 

Nichibei  Securities  Co.,  Ltd 


Otis  Elevator  Co 

Paraffine  Co.,  Inc 

Paramount  Pictures,  Inc.  (2  units) 

RCA  Communications,  luc 

RKO  Radio  Pictures,  Inc 

Sales  Afiiliates,  Inc.  (beauticians'  stuff) .-_ 

Singer  Sewing  Mad.ine  Co 

Standard  Brands  of  Asia,  Inc 

Standard  Oil  Co.  (N.  J.) 

Standard- Vacuum  Oil  Co.  (.3  units) 

Tide  Water  Associated  Oil  Co 

Titan  Co.  (titanium  products)  2  units 

Twentieth  Century-Fo.x  Film  Corp 

United  Artists  Corp 

United  Engineering  &  Foundry  Co 

United  Press  Associations 

Universal  Pictures  Co.,  Inc 

Warner  Brothers-First  National  Pictures. 

Watch  Tower  Bible  &  Tract  Society 

Western  Electric  Export  Co 

William  Wrigley,  Jr.,  Co 


500  S.  Main  St.,  Akron,  Ohio 

c/o  Alien  Property  Custodian,  1577  Mercan- 
tile Bank  Bldg..  Dallas,  Texas. 

233  New  Jersey  Railroad  Ave,  Newark  5, 
N.J. 

Matawan,  N.  J 


1033  W.  Van  Buren  St.,  Chicago 

Madison  at  57th,  New  York 

67  Wall  St.,  New  York 

67  Broad  St.,  New  York 

50  S.  Front  St.,  Philadelphia 

1540  Broadway,  New  York 

1540  Broadway,  New  York 

Main  &  K  Sts.,  Dayton,  Ohio 

55  Wall  St.,  New  York 

c/o  Oinco  of  Alien  Property  Custodian,  417 
Montgomery  St.,  San  Francisco. 

260  Eleventh  Ave.,  New  York 

175  Brannan  St.,  San  Francisco 

New  York 

66  Broad  St.,  New  York 

1270  Sixth  Ave.,  New  York _--. 

730  Fifth  Ave.,  New  York 

149  Fiftli  Ave.,  New  York.__ 

595  Madison  Axe.,  New  York 

30  Rockefeller  Plaza,  Now  York 

26  Broadway,  New  York 

17  Battery  Place,  New  York 

111  Broadway,  New  York 

444  W.  56th  St.,  New  York 

729  Seventh  Ave.,  New  York 

First  National  Bank  Bldg.,  Pittsburg 

220  E.  42nd  St.,  New  York 

1250  SLxth  Ave.,  New  York 

321  W.  44th  St.,  New  York 

124  Columbia  Heights,  Brooklyn 

195  Broadway,  New  York 

410  N.  Michigan  Ave.,  Chicago 


$334, 080 
138,  555 

84, 414 

37,008 

6,111 

318.375 

3,896 

2,  645, 245 

405, 887 

513, 493 

65, 296 

928,  507 

12, 630 


349, 164 

154. 101 

571.619 

5, 342 

246,  274 

5,733 

2, 323, 195 

18,  877 

2,181 

5.  580. 812 

1,  549.  613 

249, 852 

284, 899 

37,  520 

1,5^1,177 

14, 823 

150.942 

270. 932 

43. 023 

87, 172 

23, 400 


AMERICAN    COMPANIES   HAVING   PATENT  LICENSE   OK  TRADE-MAKK  AGREEMENTS   WITH 

COMPANIES  IN  JAPAN  PGOPEE 


Ajax  Electrothermic  Corp.,  Ajax  Park,  Trenton  5,  N.  J. 

Ajax  Electric  Furnace  Corp.,  1108  Frankford  Ave.,  Philadelpliia,  Pa. 

American  Cyananiid  Co.,  30  Rockefeller  Plaza.  New  York,  N.  Y. 

American  Magnesium  Metals  Corp.,  800  Ohio  St.,  Pittsburgli,  Pa. 

Baker  &  Co.,  113  Astor  St.,  Newark  ^,  N.  J. 

Bendix  Aviation  Corp.,  11th  floor,  Fisher  Bldg.,  Deti'oit.  Mich. 

Bohn  Aluminum  &  Brass  Corp.,  1400  Lafayette  Bld.ii.,  Detroit  26,  Mich. 

California  Institute  of  Technology,  1201  E.  California  St.,  Pasadena  4. 

Carrier  Corp.,  900  S.  Geddes  St.,  Syracuse,  N.  Y. 

Chemical  Construction  Corp.,  30  Rockefeller  Plaza,  New  York,  N.  Y, 

China  Electric  Co.,  Ltd.,  67  Broad  St.,  New  York,  N.  Y. 

Douglas  Aircraft  Co.,  Santa  Monica,  Calif. 

E.  I.  du  Pont  de  Nemours  &  Co.,  Wilmington  98,  Del. 

Gasoline  Products  Co.,  26  .Journal  Square,  Jersey  City,  N.  J. 

General  Cable  Corp.,  420  Lexington  Ave.,  New  York,  N.  Y. 

General  Railway  Signal  Co..  801  West  Ave.,  Rochester,  N.  Y. 

B.  F.  Goodrich  Co.,  Akron,  Ohio. 

Gray  Processes  Corp.,  26  Journal  Sq.,  Jersey  City,  N.  J. 

Hanovia  Chemical  &  Mfg.  Co.,  233  New  Jersey  Railroad  AVe.,  Newark  5.  N.  J. 

Hooker  Electrochemical  Co.,  Buffalo  Ave.  &  47th  St.,  Niagara  Falls,  N.  Y. 

International  General  Electric  Co.,  .570  Lexington  Ave.,  New  York,  N.  Y. 

International  Standard  Electric  Corp.,  67  Broad  St.,  New  York,  N.  Y. 

Kidde,  Walter  &  Co.,  Inc.,  675  Main  St.,  Belleville,  N.  J. 

Libbey-Owens-Ford  Glass  Co.,  Nicholas  Bldg.,  Toledo,  Ohio. 

Eli  Lilly  &  Co.,  Indianapolis,  Ind. 

Merco  Nordstrom  Valve  Co.,  400  N.  Lexington  Ave.,  Pittsburgh,  Pa. 

Merrill  Co.,  582  Market  St.,  San  Francisco,  Calif. 


INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  5107 

Northern  Equipment  Co.,  1945  Grove  Drive.  Erie,  Pa. 

Kadio  Corporation  of  America,  Rockefeller  Center,  New  York,  N.  Y. 

Saint  Regis  Paper  Co.,  230  Park  Ave.,  New  York,  N.  Y. 

Sperry  Gyroscope  Co.,  Inc.,  40  Flatbush  Avenue  Extension,  Brooklyn,  N.  Y. 

Stanco,  Inc.,  216  W.  14tli  St.,  Nevp  York,  N.  Y. 

Standard  Oil  Co.  (N.  J. ) ,  30  Rockefeller  Plaza,  New  York.  N.  Y. 

Standard  Oil  Development  Co.,  26  Broadway,  New  York,  N.  Y. 

Stewart-Warner  Corp.,  1826  Diversoy  Parkway,  Chicago,  111. 

Texaco  Development  Corp.,  26  Journal  Square,  Jersey  City,  iN.  J. 

Titan  Co.,  Ill  Broadway,  New  York,  N.  Y. 

Universal  Oil  Products  Co.,  310  S.  Michigan  Ave.,  Chicago,  111. 

Western  Electric  Co.,  Inc.,  195  Broadway,  New  York,  N.  Y. 

Western  Electric  Export  Co.,  Ditto. 

Westinghouse  Air  Brake  Co.,  Wilmerding,  Pa. 

Westinghouse  Electric  &  Mfg.  Co.,  Pittsburgh,  Pa. 

Weston  Electric  Instrument  Corp.,  014  Frelinghuysen  Ave.,  Newark  5,  N.  J. 


Exhibit  No.  982 

(Pencilled  note:)  Urgent. 

Mr.  Carter:  The  attached  article  on  the  CIC  is  to  appear  in  the  September 
22nd  Survey.  Its  history  is  as  follows :  Hugh  Deane  submitted  a  short,  which 
KB  and  Bob  Barnett  wanted  Hugh  to  rewrite  a  little  more  ol)jectively,  giving  a 
little  more  on  the  other  side  of  the  question.  Hugh's  second  piece  also  fell  short 
of  what  was  required,  so  I  secured  Hugh's  OK  on  KB's  rewriting  the  article,  the 
final  piece  to  be  signed  by  both  KB  and  Hugh.  Hugh  has  seen  the  article  in  its 
present  form  and  has  .iust  wired  that  he  is  returning  it  special  delivery  with  his 
comments,  and  he  added  the  phrase  "en  garde"  which  may  .suggest  that  he  is 
unwilling  to  sign  it  in  its  present  form.  We  shall  presumably  have  his  comments 
tomorrow  morning. 

In  case  Hugh  is  unwilling  to  sign  the  piece,  KB  is  also  unwilling  to  sign  it.  I 
therefore  suggested  some  such  device  as  this:  indicating  that  the  article  had 
been  written  by  the  staff  of  the  American  Council,  on  the  basis  of  sources  given 
in  the  text  and  of  first-hand  material  supplied  by  Hugh  Deane.  I  will  suggest 
this  formula  to  Hugh  after  I  have  heard  from  you. 

Do  you  approve  the  piece  as  it  stands?  If  we  cannot  have  the  the  double  signa- 
ture, do  you  approve  my  suggestion  about  authorship?  (Pencilled  note  :)  Please 
let  me  have  your  answer  Friday  morning. 

CP. 

The  piece  has  gone  to  the  printer  and  galleys  should  be  here  tomorrow  after- 
noon {Friday).  I  am  sorry  to  have  to  bother  you  with  the  matter  at  this  late 
date,  but  the  possibility  of  "a  hitch  about  authorship  makes  it  necessary. 

CP. 

Thursday  p.  m. 


Exhibit  No.  983 

(Handwritten:) 

Seislin,  July  17. 

Dear  Dear  Ket:  Well  I  have  been  to  Manchukuo  and  got  in  &  out  alive.  I 
place  our  invitation  to  the  Emperors  Garden  Party  on  the  top  of  my  (your) 
office  bag  at  every  frontier  &  where  every  Japanese  gendarme  can  see  it  & 
though  the  questions  continue  they  are  in  a  mellow  atmosphere.  In  one  Man- 
churian  city  in  an  important  Govt,  office — the  Japanese  chief  was  called  out  of 
the  office  to  the  phone.  His  Chinese  assistant  quick  as  a  flash  took  a  piece  of 
paper  out  of  his  pocket  &  wrote  "Don't  believe  a  word  they  tell  you."  Then  a 
moment  later  on  another  piece  he  wrote  "I  can't  talk."  When  I  looked  straight 
into  his  eyes  as  you  have  seen  me  some  time  "intense  sympathy"  he  wrote  again 
"Meet  in  front  of  Station  at  6.30.  He  appeared  at  7— driving  along  a  side  street 
in  a  half-covered  Russian  Troika — I  walked  alone  for  two  blocks  down  a  side 
street  and  then  stepped  into  the  Troika  &  we  zigzagged  first  to  a  Russian  Res- 
taurant where  I  dropped  him  &  drove  on.  Then  I  joined  him  at  a  Chinese  Res- 
taurant across  the  street — we  talked  &  talked  &  talked.     I'll  tell  you  all  when 


5108  INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 

we  meet.  When  we  started  back  to  my  Hotel — Air  raid  drill  was  on  sirens 
blew — tlae  streets  filled  with  amateur  patriots  with  arm  bands  who  began  wildly 
putting  out  shop  lights,  bicycle  light,  &  fairly  leaped  on  our  driver  &  blew  out 
his  coach  lights — later  gendarmes  insisted  that  we  alight  &  we  walked  on  until 
a  block  from  my  hotel  he  said  goodbye.  I  wonder  whether  he  was  agent  provo- 
cateur or  Chinese  patriot — I  think  the  latter.  Don't  mention  this  I  beg  of  you 
until  we  meet.  I  don't  want  to  get  the  lad  shot.  (You  can  tell  this  to  John.) 
After  leaving  him — I  had  a  devil  of  a  time  in  the  hotel — the  lights  were  out 
because  of  the  air  raid  drill  &  I  had  to  pack  in  the  dark,  paying  bill  in  the  dark, 
drive  to  the  station  in  a  lightless  taxi  &  catch  my  train  in  a  station  that  was 
dim  &  where  you  first  bumped  into  luggage  coolies,  next  excited  passengers, 
next  the  muskets  of  hurrying  soldiers  &  got  into  a  train  with  an  armed  & 
armoured  engine  &  an  armed  »&  armoured  caboose.  It  was  one  more  hectic  and 
amusing  get  away  as  I  had  only  about  20  minutes  and  had  to  get  two  bags  out 
of  the  handgepack. 
Much  love, 

Edward. 

JtTLY  19. 

Well,  here  I  am  in  Vladivostok  harbor — what  a  contrast  with  Korea !  It 
is  cool  &  there  is  a  little  mist  hanging  over  the  lovely  hills  that  are  much  like 
the  Korean  Hills  &  not  unlike  the  Japanese  sea — I  am  guessing  which  is  Brem- 
man  of  those  on  the  dock.  The  Siberia  Maru  is  a  very  comfortable  ship.  It 
does  a  regular  triangle  or  quadrant  every  ten  days,  Tsuruga,  Seislin,  Raslin, 
Vladivostok.  I  am  the  first  foreign  passenger  in  a  long  time  to  board  the  ship 
at  Seislin.  There  are  many  who  board  it  at  Tsuruga.  There  were  two  Soviet 
women  attached  to  the  Embassy  in  Tokyo  and  two  Japanese  F.  O.  men  on  board, 
one  going  to  Berlin  the  other  to  be  consul  general  in  Vladivostok. 

Later  :  I  am  now  on  shore  in  the  same  hotel  with  Bremman. 


Exhibit  No.  984 

Report  of  Conference  of  March  9th 

A  conference  of  leaders  in  the  academic  field  was  held  at  the  Institute  of 
Pacific  Relations  on  March  9th  to  devise  a  scheme  for  meeting  the  emergency 
demand  for  people  with  unusual  qualifications,  primarily  in  the  language  field, 
without  unduly  dislocating  the  academic  system  or  disrupting  future  sources 
of  supply. 

what  are  the  main  government  needs  in  this  respect 

1.  IntelViience  officers  for  all  forces. — Requirements:  all-round  knowledge  of 
the  language  in  question,  especially  reading  script  and  printed  matter,  and  mil- 
itary knowledge. 

2.  Economic  analysis. — Requirements :  ability  to  read  the  language,  and 
knowledge  of  the  economic  situation  of  the  country  in  question. 

3.  Interpreters  with  troops. — Requirement:  ability  to  speak  the  language. 

4.  Diplomatic  advisers. — Requirements :  ability  to  read  the  language,  and 
knowledge  of  the  political  situation. 

5.  Communications  Intelligence. — Requirements :  ability  to  read  script  and 
printed  matter  and  speak  the  language,  and  a  thorough  general  knowledge  of 
the  country. 

6.  Propaganda. — Requirement :  ability  to  read,  speak,  and  write  the  language, 
and  a  thorough  knowledge  of  the  country  and  the  people. 

7.  Censorship. — Requirement:  ability  to  read  all  forms  of  writing  of  the 
language. 

8.  Reserve  categorii,  including  those  engaged  in  basic  or  special  studies,  and 
those  working  on  long-terra  government  projects  or  on  research  related  to 
government  needs. 

Note. — Since  it  will  be  impossible  for  some  time  to  find  sufficient  personnel 
in  the  above  categories  who  combine  all  the  necessary  qualifications,  the  func- 
tions of  each  category  could  be  divided.  (For  example,  the  work  of  economic 
analysis  could  be  shared  between  economics  and  linguists.) 


ESrSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC   RELATIONS  5109 

HOW   IS   THE  GOVERNMENT   AT   PRESENT   RECRUITING    SUCH   PERSONNEI.? 

The  governruent  is  already  taking  some  people  with  a  knowledge'  of  Russian, 
Chinese,  and  Japanese  from  academic  sources,  but  so  far  chiefly  from  the  periph- 
ery. There  is  a  danger,  however,  that  its  demands  will  soon  involve  disloca- 
tion of  the  academic  system. 

The  present  method  of  recruiting  varies  with  the  different  departments.  Thus 
the  Army  may  encounter  difficulties  in  recruiting  specialists  under  existing 
regulations.  On  the  other  hand,  the  F.  B.  I.,  the  Marines,  and  the  Navy  are 
freely  enrolling  them  as  the  need  arises 

The  supply  of  those  with  a  knowledge  of  Russian  and  Chinese  is  still  sufficient 
to  meet  the  present  demand  without  seriously  affecting  academic  organizations. 
But  in  the  case  of  Japanese,  the  supply  is  already  practically  exhausted. 

WHAT  ARE  THE  NONACADEMIC  SOURCFS  FROM  WHICH  THE  GOVERNMENT'S   NEEDS 

MIGHT  BE  MET? 

1.  Japanese  language. —  (a)  Second-generation  Japanese.  The  government  is 
still  reluctant  for  political  reasons  to  use  this  group.  Moreover,  few  of  them 
can  read  Japanese ;  and  even  those  who  speak  the  language  frequently  speak  only 
patois.  Those  who  can  read  and  speak  well  have  usually  received  their  train- 
ing in  Japan  and  are  therefore  under  suspicion.  However,  the  latter  are  one  of 
the  few  groups  who  could  read  script. 

(b)  Businessmen. — Very  few  are  able  to  read  and  wi-ite  Japanese.  Those  with 
speaking  knowledge  would  be  valuable  if  they  could  be  used  on  active  service, 
but  most  of  them  are  above  the  age  limit  for  such  work.  However,  their  speak- 
ing knowledge  could  be  made  use  of  in  the  fields  of  Communications  Intelligence 
and  Propaganda. 

(c)  Missionaries:  Some  have  reading  and  writing,  as  well  as  speaking,  knowl- 
edge of  the  language ;  and  although  the  majority  would  be  over-age  for  active 
service,  this  group  might  be  an  important  source  of  supply.  However,  it  is 
doubtful  how  many  would  be  willing  to  work  against  Japan  in  view  of  their  con- 
nections with  that  country  and  of  the  fact  that  by  so  doing  they  would  probably 
be  unable  to  continue  their  activities  in  Japan  after  the  war  was  over. 

Missionaries  with  knowledge  of  Chinese,  on  the  other  hand,  could  learn  to  read 
Japanese  fairly  quickly  and  would  not  be  subject  to  the  same  scruples  as  the 
missionaries  from  Japan. 

(d)  White-Russian  emigres  from  Manchuria  and  Koreans  knowing  Japanese, 
It  is  probable  that  few  would  be  able  to  read  or  write  the  language;  and  the 
political  allegiance  of  both  groups  would  be  suspect. 

(e)  Chinese  could  possibly  be  used  to  read  and  write  Japanese. 

2.  Chinese  language. — The  supply  is  still  adequate  to  meet  the  present  demands- 
of  the  government.     If  the  demand  grows,  Chinese  could  be  used. 

3.  Russian  language. — The  supply  is  plentiful ;  and,  if  necessary,  new  personnel 
can  be  trained  comparatively  quickly. 

4.  Siamese  and  Malay  languages. — Missionaries  are  at  present  the  chief  source 
of  supply,  but  there  are  not  enough  of  them  to  meet  possible  demands.  However^ 
since  the  reading  and  writing  problem  is  not  great  in  the  case  of  these  languages, 
the  training  of  new  personnel  would  not  be  difficult.  Another  possible  source  of 
supply  would  be  British  Malaya. 

5.  Dutch  language. — No  problem. 

6.  Political  and  economic  analysts. — The  chief  problem  here  is  to  utilize  the 
present  supply  with  a  minimum  of  wastage,  and  to  conserve  the  present  facili- 
ties, and  develop  new  ones,  for  training  additional  personnel.  Newspapermen, 
State  Department  officials,  and  students  and  research  workers  abroad  would  be 
a  valuable  source  of  supply  in  this  category.  Steps  should  be  taken  to  ensure 
that  such  people  will  be  available  in  the  case  of  emergency  and  not  interned 
abroad. 

Conclusion. — As  regards  languages,  the  situation  is  already  acute  only  in  the 
case  of  Japanese.  However,  there  is  no  machinery  for  making  the  liest  use  of 
available  personnel  in  all  the  above  categories :  and  there  is  no  adequate  organ- 
ization for  the  training  of  new  personnel.  For  two  reasons,  therefore,  it  is 
essential  that  the  academic  world,  in  cooperation  with  the  government,  should 
devise  some  scheme  to  meet  these  deficiencies.  First  because  its  cooperation  is 
essential  to  the  efficient  working  out  of  such  a  scheme,  which  is  of  vital  importance 
to  the  whole  national  defense  organization ;  and  secondly  because,  in  the  absence 
of  such  a  plan,  the  whole  academic  system  would  be  dislocated  by  the  haphazard 
extraction  of  teachers  and  students  for  government  service. 


51    0  INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 

PROPOSALS  FOE  THE  MORE  EFFICIENT  UTILIZATION  AND  TRAINING  OF  PERSONNEL  IN  THE 

ABOVE  FIELDS 

A  committee  representing  the  various  academic  institutions,  learned  societies, 
etc.  should  be  set  up  to  offer  its  services  to  the  government  in  the  tasli  of  worliing 
out  a  well  integrated  plan  on  a  national  scale.  The  first  step  in  the  drawing  up 
of  such  a  plan  must  be  to  compile  a  list  of  available  personnel  in  the  above  fields 
and  to  classify  them  according  to  their  special  ability.  The  questionnaire  already 
issued  by  the  government  with  a  view  to  creating  a  national  roster  in  this  con- 
nection is  just  beginning  to  get  under  way.  This  roster  will  do  the  mechanical 
work  satisfactorily;  l)nt  it  cannot  show  initiative  in  selection,  and  it  cannot  sell 
its  services  to  the  departments. 

Thus,  when  the  preliminary  listing  and  classifying  have  been  completed,  a 
sclieme  must  be  devised  by  which  the  personnel  can  be  utilized  with  the  maxi- 
mum efficiency.  Both  as  a  means  of  conserving  the  limited  supply  of  specialists 
and  as  an  aid  in  coordinating  tlie  work  of  the  various  government  departments, 
it  would  be  desirable,  in  the  case  of  the  kind  of  work  that  lends  itself  to  such 
treatment,  to  set  up  a  central  information  bureau,  possibly  through  the  agency 
of  the  National  Resources  Planning  Board.  Without  such  centralization  the 
available  supply  of  specialists  would  soon  be  exhausted,  and  the  present 
practice  of  duplication  of  work  in  the  various  departments  would  be  perpetuated. 
A  possible  nucleus  for  such  a  central  information  bureau  in  the  Far  Eastern 
JBeld  already  exists  in  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations. 

In  coordination  with  the  above  scheme  for  the  most  efficient  utilization  of 
existing  pei-sonnel,  machinery  should  be  devised  for  the  training  of  new  personnel 
In  languages  and  the  social  sciences.  The  establishment  of  some  kind  of  Na- 
tional Training  School  would  preserve  intact  and  even  extend  the  existing 
teaching  facilities  and  would  guarantee  a  continued  supply  of  new  personnel. 
It  would  also  enable  those  doing  important  research  work  to  continue  their 
studies  or  to  undertake  special  studies  in  accordance  with  government  needs. 

Such  a  school  could  either  be  centralized  or  decentralized.  If  it  were  cen- 
tralized at  Wasliington,  where  members  of  government  departments  could  attend 
after  office  hours,  the  government  might  be  more  inclined  to  provide  the  neces- 
sary funds.  On  the  other  hand,  centralization  would  disorganize  the  training 
centers  already  established;  and  the  value  of  part-time  study  in  the  present 
emergency  situation,  particularly  in  the  case  of  the  Japanese  language,  is 
doubtful.  (In  the  latter  connection,  the  question  of  organizing  evening  classes 
wherever  the  necessary  facilities  exist  was  also  discussed,  and  it  was  agreed 
that  the  matter  should  be  further  investigated.) 

The  teaching  facilities  for  such  a  National  Training  School  are  adequate, 
except  in  the  case  of  the  Japanese  language,  which  presents  a  special  difficulty. 
{Similar  problems  will  arise  if  the  government  should  require  specialists  in  such 
langauL:;es  as  Malay,  Turkish,  and  Arabic.)  Limited  facilities  exist  for  the 
teaching  of  the  reading  and  writing  of  Japanese  print  and  script  in  this  country. 
And  in  the  case  of  spoken  Japanese,  students  could  be  sent  to  Hawaii;  or  mis- 
sionaries and  second-generation  Japanese  might  be  used  for  training  purposes, 
though  few  are  trained  teachers.  It  was  agreed  that  a  conference  of  all  teachers 
of  Japanese  should  be  held  to  discuss  the  problem. 

THE  PROBLEM  OF  DOCtTMENTS,  DICTIONARIES,  ETC. 

Steps  should  be  taken  to  lay  in  a  stock  and  to  ensure  the  future  supply  of 
documents,  newspapers,  periodicals,  etc.  from  potential  enemy  countries  and 
from  countries  with  which  commnnications  are  likely  to  be  blocked.  The  chief 
deficiency  at  present  is  in  Russian  and  Japanese  materials.  In  the  former  case, 
inquiry  needs  to  be  made  as  to  what  agencies  or  governments  are  holding  up 
such  materials.  In  the  latter  case,  the  defir-iency  should  be  made  up  by  increased 
purchases  from  Japan.  The  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations  has  already  increased 
its  purchases  of  such  materials  slightly  and  is  attempting  to  organize  delivery 
through  neutral  countries  in  the  event  of  war.  It  was  suggested  that  the 
Japanese  section  of  the  American  Council  of  Learned  tSocieties,  and  some  of 
the  universities,  should  take  similar  steps  on  as  large  a  scale  as  possible;  and 
that  the  Library  of  Congress  should  be  encouraged  to  increase  its  activities  along 
these  lines. 

A  special  problem  arises  in  the  case  of  Japanese  dictionaries,  textbooks,  etc., 
the  supply  of  which  in  this  country  is  already  practically  exhausted.  Since 
they  would  be  extremely  costly  to  reproduce,  an  adequate  number  should  be 


INSTITUTE   OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  5111 

ordered  from  Japan  immediately.  Snch  purchases  covild  best  be  made  through 
the  State  Department.  It  was  agreed  that  tlie  problem  would  be  taken  up 
immediately  by  the  Japanese  teachers  at  the  conference. 

GENERAL  CONCLUSION 

It  was  agreed  that  Mr.  Mortimer  Graves  should  be  entrusted  with  the  task 
of  taking  all  necessary  steps,  with  the  assistance  of  anyone  he  thought  fit,  for 
the  implementation  of  the  above  proposals.  It  was  suggested  that  the  aid  of 
Mr.  Philip  Moseley  should  be  enlisted  in  connection  with  the  drawing  up  of 
a  new  national  roster ;  and  that,  as  the  essential  first  step,  all  the  proposals 
put  forward  at  the  conference  should  be  takeu  up  with  Washington  as  soon  as 
possible. 

NOTE  ON  FAB  EASTERN  INSTITUTE  AT  CORNELL 

A  two  months  intensive  course  in  Chinese  and  Japanese  is  being  given  at 
Cornell  this  summer.  This  course,  for  which  scholarships  are  available,  will 
be  the  equivalent  of  a  normal  one-year  course.  In  view  of  the  emergency  need 
for  Japanese  linguists,  students  should  be  encouraged  to  attend  this  summer 
school. 


The  conference  was  attended  by : 


Knight  Biggerstaff,  Cornell 
Kurt  Rloch,  I.  P.  R. 
Hugh  Borton,  Columbia 
E.  C.  Carter,  I.  P.  R. 
Samuel  N.  Cross,  Harvard 
Carrington  Goodrich,  Columbia 
Mortimer  Graves,  A.  C.  L.   S.,  Wash- 
ington 
W.  L.  Holland,  I.  P.  R.,  Berkeley 
Elizabeth  Jorgensen,  I.  P.  R. 
Cieoi-ge  O.  Kennedy,  Yale 
Owen  Lattimore,  Johns  Hopkins 
John  Leaning,  I.  P.  R. 
W.  W.  Lockwood,  A.  C.  I.  S.,  Princeton 
John  Marshall,  Rockefeller  Foundation 
Harriet  Moore,  A.  R.  I. 
E.  O.  Reischauer,  Harvard 
G.  T.  Robinson,  Columbia 
David  N.  Rowe,  Princeton 


Exhibit  No.  985 
[Telegram] 

Washington,  D.  C,  Jan.  11    1129A. 
Edward  C.  Carter  : 

Delighted  to  see  your  son  Tuesday  11 :  30  at  the  Court. 

Felix  Frankfurtee.    1130.1151A. 


Exhibit  No.  986 
(Handwritten :) 

Aug.  6. 

It  is  difficult  to  answer  your  very  thoughtful  letter  re  office  space  because 
I  don't  know  yet  whether  Chen  Han  N-seng  will  have  returned  to  China  as 
Holland  desires  or  whether  he  will  still  be  in  N.  Y.  The  problem  is  simplified 
through  Bill  Holland's  not  coming.  The  Amerasia  space,  i.  e.,  beyond  Amerasia 
seems  a  solution. 

(Inserted  here  is  a  sketch  of  the  office  layout,  with  the  following  initials 
and  names :  EFC 
Orrick 
McDonald 
KM     ECC) 


5112  INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 

If  Chen  returns  before  I  do  I  guess  we  can  manage  to  squeeze  into  our  present 
space.  I  don't  think  card  tables  will  do.  I  think  you  should  continue  in  my 
office — I  would  rather  like  to  work  in  yours. 

We  are  having  a  peaceful  crossing.  Bremman  is  a  store  house  of  information. 
I  am  also  lucky  in  that  your  friend  &  Tommy  White's  is  in  the  next  compartment — 
Col.  Faymonville.  He  has  been  out  in  Vladivostok  for  the  visit  of  the  U.  S. 
Asiatic  Squadron.  If  every  American  had  his  wise  and  comprehensive  out- 
look on  the  U.  S.  S.  R.  there  would  be  great  possibilities  of  cooperation  between 
U.  S.  and  U.  S.  S.  R. 

This  carriage  is  very  wobbly.  I  have  run  out  of  stationery  as  you  see — so 
I  am  afraid  my  letters  will  bother  and  bore  you  because  of  their  sloppiness.  I 
envy  you  your  clear  distinguished  handwriting  &  your  lovely  blue  writing  paper. 

Aua.  7. 

It  has  been  hot  but  today  is  lovely  and  cool.  I  hope  when  I  get  to  Moscow  to  be 
able  to  reach  you  by  cable  or  phone.  Bremman  and  I  got  up  at  4  a.  m.  to  get 
your  cable  at  Irkutsk  but  every  one  there  swore  there  was  no  cable  from  you 
anywhere  in  the  city.  I  saw  a  lovely  sunrise  over  Baikal  but  that  hardly  made 
up  for  the  lack  of  a  cable  from  you. 

This  is  our  longest  and  I  hope  our  last  separation. 
Love, 

Edwaed. 

Carter, 

Tourist  Bureau,  HarMn. 
Cable  care  Stationmaster,  Birobidjan,  whether  leaving  as  planned. 
No  answer. 


Exhibit  No.  987 

Arthur  Paul,  Daisy  Paul,  reserved  Don't  mention  Vluz 

Hrepilad  Fall  Camincho 

N.  Y.  Bus  Ma  for  Roosevelt 

Crm.  Smith     Boat 

Wash. 

Harriman  Clifford  Durr 

pro  court  Liberty  Able  friend 

Thurman  Arnold  FCC     South  Conf 

Abe  Fortas,  50,000  income  Little  money 

RS  :  Albert  Friendly,  Post  Raymond  Swing 

William  Cochrane,  Bait.,  wife  Cli 

Mary  Gresham,  Govt.  Folk  good.  I.  P.  R. 

Robert  Lamb  Anne  Wheeler 

C.  I.  O.  now  Williams  F.  E.  State 

AI.  Baiting  daylete 

Miss  Nathausen  2  children 

Pub.  Rel.  Bait. 

Lincoln  Bid. 


Exhibit  No.  988 

Meeting;  Arctic  Institute;  April  9;  ECC;  OL;  FD ;  HM ;  Schmidt;  Motiliet 

Harondab 

Schmidt  is  head  of  all  the  work  north  of  the  62nd  parallel,  it  is  about  one-third 
of  the  U.  S.  S.  R. 

The  first  thing  that  had  to  be  developed  in  the  Arctic  was  science.  This 
began  in  1917,  but  since  1929  the  development  has  been  very  raijid.  Every  region 
of  the  north  has  its  permanent  arctic  station,  where  work  is  carried  on  during  the 
whole  year. 

The  second  thing  to  be  developed  was  transportation.  This  is  the  key  to  the 
arctic.  The  aim  is  to  get  a  route  across  the  north  sea.  In  19.S2  the  Sibinjakov 
made  the  first  complete  trip  in  one  season.  In  19,33  was  the  Cheliuskin  expedi- 
tion in  19P>4  the  Litlcn  got  through  and  in  19.35  they  opened  a  regular  route  for 
commercial  vessels,  four  ships  made  the  trip.    In  1936  six  will  go  from  West  to 


INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  5113 

East ;  two  from  East  to  West ;  6  as  far  as  the  Kolyma ;  8  to  the  Lena  and  40 
to  the  Yennisea.     More  than  300,000  tons  of  cargo  will  be  carried. 

River  transportation  is  very  important.  The  basin  of  the  Lena  is  larger 
than  Western  Europe  and  this  has  to  be  developed.  Since  1933  ships  have  gone 
to  the  mouth  of  the  Lena.  Now  they  have  their  own  shipbuilding  wharf  on  the 
Lena. 

The  next  thing  is  the  geological  survey  in  order  to  begin  the  production  of 
minerals.  There  is  zinc  and  lead  and  niclcel.  There  is  rock  salt  near  the  Taimir 
penninsula.  This  is  very  important  because  there  is  no  salt  in  the  Soviet  Far 
East.  They  have  had  to  get  salt  for  the  fishing  industry  trom  Odessa  and 
from  Western  Siberia.  In  1938  there  will  be  5,000  worliers  there  and  they 
will  produce  150  tons  per  year. 

The  Yennisea  is  navigable  for  ocean  ships  as  far  as  Igarka,  450  km.  from 
the  mouth.  Last  year  many  foreign  steamers  came  there  for  timber,  which  is 
shipped  down  the  river  from  Western  and  Eastern  Siberia.  One  even  took  timber 
to  South  Africa.  River  transport  on  the  lower  Yennisea  has  existed  since  before 
the  Revolution. 

There  is  no  need  to  colonize  the  north,  because  there  is  better  land  to  be 
settled  elsewhere  in  the  U.  S.  S.  R.  There  they  plan  to  have  more  machines 
than  men.  There  is  one  labor  camp  on  the  Yennisea,  but  there  is  not  much  use 
for  criminal  labor  there,  everyone  wants  to  work  in  the  Arctic.  The  population 
in  the  asiatic  part  of  the  north,  north  of  62nd  parallel  is  900,000  of  which  150,000 
are  the  native  tribes. 

Aviation  has  been  widely  developed.  There  is  regularly  daily,  all-year  serv- 
ice down  the  great  rivers,  the  Ob,  the  Yennisea,  the  Lena,  etc.  There  are  oc- 
casional services  East  and  West  between  the  rivers  to  the  fur  centers  or  to  the 
mines.  They  find  it  cheaper  to  transport  the  men  and  equipment  for  the  mines 
by  air.    The  airplanes  also  help  with  the  navigation,  to  locate  the  ice  flows,  etc. 

At  present  they  have  a  general  rough  geological  survey  of  the  whole  region 
and  on  a  basis  of  this  they  are  doing  more  specialized  surveys.  In  1936  there 
will  be  12  geological  expeditions  to  different  parts  of  the  North. 

In  1935  the  most  important  product  of  the  region  was  timber.  This  is  shipped 
from  the  interior.  In  1936  they  expect  that  minerals  will  be  the  most  im- 
portant. The  Lena  and  the  Yennisea  are  open  about  4  or  4V^  months  for 
shipping. 

The  native  peoples  are  helped  by  the  Institute  of  Northern  Peoples.  Every 
tribe  has  its  schools  and  at  present  they  are  concentrating  on  training  teachers 
from  the  native  peoples.  There  are  already  native  technical  experts,  ship  cap- 
tains, wireless  operators,  etc. 

When  Schmidt  was  in  the  U.  S.  he  found  everyone  very  friendly  to  him. 
Roosevelt  was  interested  in  his  work  and  questioned  him  very  carefully  on  all 
the  details. 

Conditions  in  Alaska  are  better  than  in  the  North  here.  The  climate  is  not  as 
severe.    But  in  the  north  of  Canada  they  are  worse. 

The  Soviet  weather  forecasts,  based  on  their  observations  in  the  North,  are 
very  good  and  far  ahead  of  other  countries.  The  U.  S.  siiould  establish  similar 
stations  for  this  purpose  in  the  north  of  Canada. 

Reindeer  are  to  be  increased  for  meat  production,  but  they  will  not  be  used 
more  widely  in  transportation.  At  present  there  is  agriculture  in  the  north, 
in  Igarka  and  Franz  Joseph  Land.  It  is  just  for  raising  vegetables.  In  the  next 
few  years  they  plan  to  have  agriciilture  for  fresh  vegetables  in  all  the  places 
where  there  are  people.    There  is  no  grain  grown  there. 

The  work  in  the  mines  goes  on  all  the  year. 

At  present  there  is  a  50-60  percent  increase  in  transportation  facilities  every 
year.  The  growth  of  transportation  over  the  next  twenty  years  will  depend  on 
the  development  of  mining. 


Exhibit  No.  989 

ApEir.  19,  1933. 
ECO  from  JB : 

OWEN  LATTIMORE 

You  will  remember  that  when  Lattimore  was  first  suggested  as  a  memlier  of 
the  American  Council  I  was  inclined  to  support  the  proposal.  It  is  true  that  he 
is  not  an  economist,  but  the  following  reasons  would  weigh  very  heavily  in  my 
mind  in  favor  of  inviting  him :    (1)  as  far  as  I  know,  he  is  not  reputed  to  be  in 

88348 — 52— pt.  14 14 


5114  INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 

the  pay  of  any  frovernraent ;  (2)  he  has  a  remarkable  background  of  personal 
experience  in  Manchuria  and  China;  (3)  he  has  written  what  is  perhaps  the 
best  book  in  existence  on  Manchuria;  (4)  although  he  is  not  an  economist,  he 
is  thoroughly  familiar  with  what  the  economists  are  interested  in.  In  other 
words,  he  understands  the  nature  of  the  pressures  which  impinge  on  the  Far 
East,  and  although  I  myself  think  that  he  overweights  the  cultural  or  Spen- 
glerian  analysis,  he  never  loses  sight  of  reality;  (5)  he  has  a  very  understand- 
ing and  sympathetic  attitude  toward  the  Soviet  Union,  and  (6)  our  job  at  the 
Banff  Conference  is  not  only  to  break  political  issues  down  into  their  economic 
units,  but  also  to  put  them  together  again.  In  this  second  job,  Lattimore  would 
have  a  very  great  deal  to  contribute. 


April  17,  1933. 
ECC  to  JB : 

I  wrote  Fred  saying  that  Lattimore  had  offered  to  be  a  member  of  the  Ameri- 
can Group  at  Banff  but  that  we  had  misgivings  as  to  whether  it  was  more 
important  to  have  him  than  some  of  the  others  who  we  felt  w^ould  help  more 
on  our  economic  program. 

Now  I  have  the  following  cable  from  Fred  dated  Honolulu,  April  14: 
"Matsukata  :  I  Strongly  Recommend  Lattimore." 
This  would  mean  more  if  you  also  joined  in  the  recommendation.  What  is  your 
reaction?  Attached  is  a  copy  of  the  letter  I  sent  Fred. 

March  27,  1933. 
Mr.  F.  V.  Field, 

Institute  of  Pacific  Relations, 

Honolulu,  Hawaii. 

Dear  Fred  :  Owen  Lattimore  is  coming  home  from  Mongolia  and  Manchuria 
across  Canada  just  at  the  time  of  the  Banff  Conference,  and  he  is  very  eager 
to  attend.  This  news  came  to  us  after  the  Selection  Committee  had  met,  and  it 
looks  as  though  we  were  going  to  have  the  very  greatest  difficulty  in  keeping 
down  the  American  group  to  25.  So  it  will  be  hard  to  find  a  place  for  Lattimore. 
But  before  the  Selection  Committee  finally  passes  on  his  name,  we  should  like 
to  know  wliether  you  feel  strongly  that  he  should  be  secured,  even  though  that 
might  mean  increasing  the  size  of  the  American  group.  Please  send  a  full 
statement  of  your  views  as  to  the  importance  or  otherwise  of  having  him,  at 
the  earliest  possible  moment. 
Sincerely  yours, 

Edward  C.  Carter. 


Exhibit  No.  990 

June  28,  1933. 
Mr.  L.  T.  Chen, 

China  Council,  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations, 

J23  Boulevard  de  Montigny,  Shanghai. 

Dear  Mr.  Chen  :  Here  is  a  copy  of  a  letter  of  introduction  which  I  have  given 
at  his  request  to  General  Yakhontoff.  The  General  is  very  eager  to  get  the 
backing  of  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations  in  making  a  study  of  Communism 
in  China.  He  felt  that  his  wide  contacts  in  Russia  and  in  the  Far  East  fitted 
him  uniquely  to  make  such  a  study  and  that  he  might  be  employed  jointly  by  the 
China  Institute,  the  American  Council  and  the  Pacific  Committee  of  the  I.  P.  R. 
in  the  U.  S.  S.  R. 

We  have  told  him  that  the  I.  P.  R.  was  not  in  a  position  to  sponsor  his  study. 
We  do  not  know  where  the  funds  would  come  from. 

A  further  difficulty  is  that  we  do  not  think  that  General  Yakhontoff  stands  in 
the  first  rank  as  a  scholar.  He  is  more  in  the  class  of  a  popular  lecturer  than  a 
research  worker  of  high  qualifications. 

I  think  it  would  be  a  friendly  act  for  you  to  see  him  when  he  calls  and  talk 
with  him  about  his  plans,  but  I  do  not  think  there  is  any  reason  for  you  to  go 
out  of  your  way  to  render  him  special  favors  or  give  a  great  deal  of  time  to  him. 
Sincerely  yours, 

Edward  C.  Cabteb. 

ECC:W 


INSTITUTE   OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  5115 

June  28,  1933. 
Mr.  L.  T.  Chen, 

China  Council,  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations, 

123  Boulevard  de  Montigny,  Shanghai. 

Deab  Mr.  Chen  :  This  is  to  introduce  General  Victor  Yakhontoff,  who  hopes  to 
visit  China  in  September  and  October  to  get  material  for  lectures  and  for  a  book 
on  Communism  in  China.  He  was  formerly  a  General  in  the  liussian  Imperial 
army ;  later  he  was  an  attach^  in  the  Russian  embassy  in  Tokyo ;  after  the 
Revolution  he  was  an  emigre  and  settled  in  America.  More  recently  he  has 
re-established  friendly  relations  with  people  in  Moscow  interested  in  the  study 
of  foreign  affairs.  He  is  the  author  of  "Russia  and  the  Soviet  Union  in  the  Far 
East."    He  recently  became  an  American  citizen. 

Inasmuch  as  General  Yakhontoff  lectures  quite  widely  before  men's  women's 
clubs  in  America  and  is  making  a  serious  effort  to  continue  as  an  objective 
student  of  Far  Eastern  affairs,  any  help  that  you  can  give  him  will  be  deeply 
appreciated. 

Sincerely  yours, 

Edward  C.  Carter. 

ECC:W 


Personal. 


Exhibit  No.  991 

July  13,  1933. 


Dr.  Stanley  K.  Hornbeck, 

State  Department,  Washington,  D.  C. 

Dear  Hornbeck  :  As  you  know,  a  group  of  scientific  workers  in  the  U.  S. 
S.  R.  who  have  specialized  on  a  study  of  the  economic,  ethnic,  cultural,  and  po- 
litical problems  of  the  Far  East  has  been  definitely  organized  as  the  Soviet 
Group  of  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations.  The  head  of  this  group  was  elected 
unanimously  at  the  Shanghai  Conference  as  the  Soviet  member  of  the  Pacific 
Council,  the  international  governing  body  of  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations. 

Sir  Robert  Borden,  the  Honorable  Newton  W.  Rowell  and  Vincent  Massey, 
the  outstanding  leaders  of  the  I.  P.  R.  in  Canada,  are  exceedingly  anxious  to 
have  a  Soviet  representative  at  the  Banff  Conference.  Unfortunately  the  ofiicial 
attitude  of  the  Canadian  Government  is  such  that  it  is  illegal  for  members  of 
the  Communist  Party  to  visit  and  live  in  the  Dominion  of  Canada.  Prime 
Minister  Bennett,  however,  is  so  interested  in  the  success  of  the  Banff  Conference 
that  he  has  privately  informed  the  Honorable  Newton  W.  Rowell  that  the  Ca- 
nadian immigration  ofiicers  at  all  points  of  entry  in  the  Dominion  will  be  in- 
structed to  facilitate  the  arrival  and  departure  for  Banff  of  all  accredited 
members  of  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations  en  route  for  the  Banff  Conference. 
Some  months  ago  he  gave  a  personal  assurance  of  this  to  Mr.  Rowell  after  Mr, 
Rowell  raised  the  question  of  the  legal  and  administrative  obstacles  that  might 
arise  in  the  case  of  a  Soviet  representative. 

To  make  doubly  certain  that  there  is  no  embarrassment  and  unfortunate 
incident  accompanying  the  arrival  of  a  Soviet  representative,  Mr.  Rowell  has 
(again  reopened  the  matter  with  Prime  Minister  Bennett.  As  a  result,  I  am  able 
to  send  to  yovi  herewith  a  copy  of  a  letter  just  received  from  Escott  Reid,  the 
Secretary  of  the  Canadian  Institute,  conveying  to  me  formally  a  copy  of  a  recent 
letter  from  Prime  Minister  Bennett  to  the  Honorable  Newton  W.  Rowell. 

It  so  happens  that  it  would  be  of  the  greatest  value  to  the  American  Council 
in  developing  its  program  of  studies  of  Russian  practice  and  policy  in  the  Far 
East  if  it  were  possible  for  us  to  get  permission  from  the  State  Department  to 
ensure  that  the  Soviet  member  of  the  Banff  Conference  was  able  to  visit  New 
York  for  conference  with  the  ofiicers  and  staff  of  the  American  Council  both  be- 
fore and  after  the  Banff  Conference. 

If  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations  group  in  Moscow  is  finally  able  to  send 
a  representative  to  Banff,  the  chances  are  three  to  one  that  they  will  send  as 
the  sole  member  or  as  Chairman  of  a  group  of  two  or  three,  Karl  Radek  whose 
article  in  Foreign  Affairs  a  few  months  ago  you  must  have  read.  He  is  a  member 
of  the  Communist  Party  and,  as  you  know,  he  has  been  specializing  for  some 
time  on  Soviet  policy  in  the  Far  East. 

I  would  like  to  inquire  from  you  what  steps  the  American  Council  should  take 
in  order  that  we  might  be  able  to  cable  Karl  Radek  that  if  it  is  possible  for  him 


5116  INSTITUTE   OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 

to  visit  New  York  on  his  way  to  and  from  Banff,  the  State  Department  will 
attend  to  the  necessary  formalities. 

I  do  not  know  sufficiently  the  present  policy  and  division  of  responsibility  in 
the  State  Department  in  such  a  matter  but  have  wondered  whether  it  will  be 
possible  for  you  to  discuss  the  question  with  Mr.  Phillips  and  enlist  his  interest 
in  finding  a  solution  to  the  problem  which  confronts  the  American  Council.  There 
is  no  one  in  Washington  better  qualified  than  you  to  explain  to  Mr.  Phillips  the 
purpose  and  importance  of  the  scientific  studies  of  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Rela- 
tion. If  any  personal  reference  would  help,  you  might  remind  Mr.  Phillips  that 
I  was  a  classmate  of  his  at  Harvard  and  that  our  fellow  classmate,  Charles  Dana 
Draper,  whom  he  knows,  is  my  brother-in-law. 

If  some  formal  communication  from  the  American  Council  addressed  to  the 
Secretary  of  State  is  called  for,  will  you  kindly  let  me  know  what  sort  of  letter 
I  should  send  in  place  of  this  purely  personal  inquiry. 

With  kindest  personal  regards,  I  am 
Sincerely  yours. 


ECC/NH 


Exhibit  No.  992 


Edward  C.  Carter. 


November  29,  1933. 


JB  to  ECC : 

The  following  men  at  Harvard  should  be  interested  in  the  Russian  field : 

Cross,  Samuel  A. — Professor  of  Russian,  working  in  the  medieval  period.  An 
expert  on  the  Chronicles.  Former  commercial  attache,  with,  I  think,  chemical 
training.  Pretty  anti-Soviet  personally,  but  a  good  American  citizen.  Said  to 
be  really  good  at  the  language.  You  will  remember  that  Elisieff  spoke  very 
highly  of  him,  and  of  the  six  or  eight  young  men,  including  one  of  the  Coudert 
boys,  who  are  working  for  him. 

Fainsod,  Merle— Y'oung,  married  a  classmate  of  Betty  Field's,  took  his  Ph.  D. 
in  Government  two  years  ago.  Spent  last  year  in  Russ'a,  working  on  the  Third 
International,  and  is  preparing  a  monograph  for  publication  on  this.  Thor- 
oughly intelligent,  a  protege  of  Holcombe's  personally,  at  present  a  tutor  in 
government. 

Langer,  William — Modern  European  history.  One  of  the  best  men  in  this  field 
in  America.  Teaches  History  30,  Archie  Coolidge's  old  course,  and  therefor 
partly  inheritor  of  Coolidge's  Russian  tradition.  Has  no  special  competence 
in  Russian,  but  an  interest  in  it.  Works  for  Foreign  Affairs,  and  is  the  special 
friend  of  Mosely's.     On  the  board  of  the  Fletcher  School. 

Holcombe — You  know. 

Elliott,  W.  Y. — Government,  at  present  titular  head  of  the  department.  A  special 
colleague  of  Lowell's,  expert  on  the  British  empire,  on  which  he  has  written  a 
big  book. 

Emerson,  Rupert — Government,  relatively  young.  Has  married  a  Russian,  his 
own  Russian  background  uncertain.  Said  to  have  spent  the  past  year  in  the 
Far  East.     Recommended  by  Cross.     Spoken  well  of  by  Moseley. 

Blake,  Robert — Head  of  the  library.  A  very  important  fellow  in  Harvard  poli- 
tics. Knows  only  a  little  Russian,  but  knows  Georgian,  Armenian  and  about 
twenty  other  peripheral  languages.  Dug  up  Mount  Athos  with  Kirsopp  Lake. 
Very  much  interested  in  the  Russian  field. 

Pope — Fine  Arts.  The  greatest  master  of  Persian  art  alive,  and  personnally  said 
to  be  an  advance  Bolshevik.  Went  through  Russia  two  years  ago  with  Eddie 
Warburg,  who  has  told  me  that  he  knows  no  Russian  but  is  sold  on  the  Soviet 
Union.  Knows  quite  a  lot  about  icons,  and  might  be  interested  from  the  point 
of  view  of  Russian  art. 

Hopper,  Bruce — You  know.     Away  on  a  sabbatical  in  Russia. 


INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  5117 

Exhibit  No.  993 

Memoeandum  of  Interview  With  Mortimer  L.  Graves 

.  Thursday,  December  7,  1933 

Present:  Edward  C.  Carter  and  Joseph  Barnes. 

Speaking  from  meinory  Mr.  Graves  said  that  the  exi)enditure  budget  for  the 
Harvard  Summer  School  of  Chiuese  Studies  was  as  follows : 

24  assistances  @  125  and  62.50 $2,500 

3  inst.  P  $800 2,  400 

2  sub.  @  $400 800 

22  spec.  lect.  @  $50 1, 100 

Adm.  40  @  $5 200 


$7,000 

Income  budget  was  as  follows : 

Tuitions  40  and  45 $1,800 

Harvard   Yenching 1,  8.50 

Society  of  Japanese  Studies 850 

Carnegie  Corporation  and  American  Council  Learned  Societies 2,  500 

$7,  000 

There  were  forty  students  registered ;  sixteen  paid  their  way  entirely,  twenty- 
four  were  assisted,  eight  at  $(J2.50  per  person  and  sixteen  at  $125  per  person. 
The  charge  for  board  and  room  for  six  weeks  ranged  from  $70  upward  according 
to  accommodation.     The  tuition  fee  was  $45  for  the  six  weeks. 

Graves  expressed  delightful  desire  that  the  American  Council  of  Learned 
Societies  was  not  to  have  the  credit  for  taking  the  initiative  for  the  proposed 
Russian  Language  School  but  expressed  a  deep  and  sincere  desire  to  cooperate 
to  the  full  with  the  I.  P.  R.  in  putting  the  school  across. 


Exhibit  No.   994 


Finance  193G 
Document  7 


Individual  Travel  Expenditure  Foe  the  Past  Few  Tears 
I — Administration 

193-'t 
Edward   C.   Carter 

Left  New  York  January  1934,  visited  Toronto.  Winipeg  and  San  Francisco 
prior  to  sailing  for  Honolulu.  Left  Honolulu,  after  a  two  weeks'  visit,  for  Japan. 
After  a  four  weeks'  stay  in  Japan,  he  sailed  from  Kobe  to  Manila  for  a  short 
visit.  He  returned  to  China  early  in  April  and  visited  the  following  cities: 
Canton,  Shanghai,  Nanking,  Tientsin,  Peiping,  and  Ting  Hsien.  He  left  for 
Moscow  early  in  May,  visiting  Hsinking  en  route.  He  left  Moscow  the  end  of 
May  and  visited  Amsterdam,  The  Hague,  Leyden,  Paris,  Geneva  and  London 
and  returned  to  New  York  the  end  of  June. 

He  remained  in  the  United  States  until  the  fall  with  the  expection  of  visits 
to  Toronto  and  Montreal  in  July  and  October. 

Early  in  November  he  purchased  a  round-the-world  trip  ticket  via  London, 
Marseilles,  Bombay,  Hongkong,  Shanghai  and  San  Francisco  in  order  to  take 
advantage  of  the  saving  possible  on  purchasing  a  round-the-world  ticket.    Re- 


5118  INSTITUTE   OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 

mained  in  London  from  the  middle  of  November  xmtil  early  in  December,  He 
then  visited  I'aris,  Amsterdam,  The  Hague  and  Moscow,  returning  to  London 
January  2,  1935. 

Total  Expenditure,  $4,777.48. 

19S5 

After  a  week's  stay  in  London  and  a  brief  visit  in  Paris  he  sailed  from  Mar- 
seilles to  Bomiiay.  Remained  in  India  from  January  24  to  February  7  visiting 
Bombay,  Delhi,  Nagpur  and  Wardha.  Traveled  to  Shanghai  via  Hongkong. 
He  remained  in  China  until  April  2  visiting  Hankow,  Nanking,  Tientsin  and 
Peiping.  Left  for  Japan  to  attend  the  interim  research  confei'ence  in  Tokyo. 
On  May  14,  he  sailed  from  Japan  to  Honolulu  where  he  remained  until  June 
3rd.  He  sailed  from  Honolulu  to  Australia,  arriving  in  Sydney  on  June  18. 
In  Australia  he  visited  Sydney,  INIelbnurne  and  Brisbane.  Left  Australia  on 
July  5  for  New  Zealand  where  he  remained  until  July  27,  visiting  Auckland, 
Wellington,  Christchurch,  Dunedin,  Invercargill,  Oamaru,  Hastings,  and  Napier. 
He  left  New  Zealand  for  Los  Angeles  spending  August  5th  in  Honolulu.  He 
visited  Los  Angeles,  San  Francisco  and  Yosemite.  He  reached  New  York  late 
in  August. 

During  the  autumn  he  visited  Washington,  D.  C,  Seattle,  Portland,  Vancouver, 
Edmonton,  Regina,  Saskatoon,  Winnipeg,  Toronto  and  Montreal. 

Total  Expenditure,  $5,077.30. 

1936 

He  visited  Washington,  D.  C,  Cleveland,  Chicago,  San  Francisco,  and  returned 
to  New  York  to  sail  for  London  on  March  11.  He  visited  Amsterdam,  The  Hague 
and  Leyden,  Moscow,  Geneva,  Paris,  and  returned  to  London.  Sailed  for  New 
York  on  May  7th. 

At  the  end  of  May  he  visited  Ottawa  to  attend  the  meetings  of  the  Canadian 
Institute  Studies  Conference.  June  and  July  spent  on  work  in  connection  with 
preparing  for  the  Yosemite  Conference  at  Lee,  Mass. 

In  July  he  received  a  $500  advance  toward  his  Yosemite  travelling  expenses. 

Total  Expenditure,  first  7  months,  $1,996.35. 

Kate  Mitchell 

Miss  Mitchell  accompanied  Mr.  Carter  on  all  of  the  above  mentioned  visits 
with  the  exception  of  his  visits  to  the  west  coast  and  Canada  in  1935  and  his 
visits  to  Chicago,  San  Francisco,  Amsterdam,  The  Hague,  Leyden,  and  Moscow, 
and  Ottawa  in  1936. 

No  expense  to  the  Institute  was  involved  in  Miss  Mitchell's  travel. 

Elsie  Fairfox-Cholmeley 

Miss  Cholmeley  joined  the  Secretariat  staff  on  January  9,  1935,  and  accom- 
panied Mr.  Carter  on  his  visits  to  India,  China,  Japan,  Honolulu,  Australia,  New 
Zealand,  and  returned  to  the  United  States,  visiting  Los  Angeles,  San  Francisco, 
and  Yosemite.  She  did  not  accompany  Mr.  Carter  on  his  trips  to  the  west  coast 
and  Canada  during  1935. 

No  expense  to  the  Institute  was  involved  in  Miss  Cholmeley's  travel  during 
1935. 

The  details  of  Miss  Cholmeley's  travel  during  1936  will  be  found  under  item 
VI— Staff  and  Staff  Exchange. 

n — ^PAcmc  AFFAIES 

1934 
Owen  Lnttimore 

Mr.  Lattimore  left  New  York  in  September  1934  for  Peiping,  visiting  Honolulu 
en  route. 

Total  Expenditure,  $1,200.00. 

1935 

Mr.  Lattimore's  travel  in  China  during  1935  was  paid  for  by  a  grant  from 
the  International  Research  Fund. 

1936 

Left  Peiping  in  March,  visited  Moscow,  Amsterdam,  London,  and  returned  to 
New  York  in  May. 


INSTITUTE   OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  5119 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Lattimore  were  given  travelling  grants  to  enable  them  to  attend 
the  Yosemite  Conference. 

Total  Expenditure,  first  7  months,  $2,034.39. 

Ill — RESEARCH 

193Ii 

W.  L.  Holland 

Early  in  1934  he  visited  Toronto  and  Winnipeg  en  route  to  Japan  vt'here  he 
established  his  headquarters  in  Tokyo.    He  also  visited  China  during  1934. 

Total  Expenditure,  $5GS.98. 

2935 

In  March  1935  he  travelled  to  Shanghai  to  meet  Mr.  Carter  and  participate 
in  staff  conferences  with  Mr.  Carter,  Mr.  Lasker,  Mr.  Lattimore,  Miss  Tylor 
and  Miss  Mitchell  in  Shanghai,  Nanking  and  Peiping  as  well  as  to  confer  with 
members  of  the  China  Council.  In  June  1935,  he  visited  Manila,  Hcmgkong, 
Shanghai,  Nanking,  Teiping,  Tientsin,  and  Dairen.  He  left  Japan  in  July  and 
spent  some  time  in  Honolulu,  relurniug  to  New  York  the  end  of  August ;  since 
which  time  his  headquarters  have  been  in  New  York  and  Stockbridge. 

In  December  he  paid  a  short  visit  to  Toronto. 

Total  Expenditure,  $892.98. 

1936 

Mr.  Holland  visited  Ottawa  in  May  1936  to  attend  the  Canadian  Institute 
Studies  Conference.  He  lias  also  been  given  a  travelling  grant  in  connection  with 
attending  the  Yosemite  Conference. 

Total  Expenditure,  first  7  months,  $280.25. 

1935 

Carl  L.  Alsierff 

Dr.  Alsberg  was  given  a  grant  towards  his  travelling  expenses  in  connection 
with  attending  the  interim  research  conference  in  Tokyo  in  April. 

Total  Expenditure,  $300.00. 

1936 
Pardoo  Lowe 

Incidental  travel  and  travelling  grant  in  connection  with  attending  Yosemite 
Conference. 

Total  Expenditure,  $191.06.  , 

VI STAFF  AND   STAFF  EXCHANGE 

1935 
Ricliard  Pyke 

Mr.  Pyke  was  given  a  grant  of  $150  toward  his  expenses  in  connection  with 
coming  to  the  United  States.  He  visited  Toronto,  Montreal,  and  Ottawa  in 
December. 

He  was  given  a  grant  of  $1,000  to  purchase  a  round-trip  ticket  from  New  York 
to  Shanghai. 

Total  Expenditure,  $1,226.58. 

1936 

Mr.  Pyke  visited  Toronto  early  in  1936  in  connection  with  arranging  for  his 
readmission  to  the  United  States. 

He  left  for  the  Far  East  in  February  visiting  Seattle,  Vancouver,  and  Honolulu 
en  route.  He  spent  3  weeks  in  Japan  visiting  Tokyo,  Nagaya,  Kobe,  Kyoto,  and 
Mara.  He  spent  about  8  weeks  in  China  visiting  Shanghai,  Nanking,  Peiping,  and 
Tientsin.  He  spent  a  week  in  Manchuria  visiting  Hsinking.  Mukden,  and  Dairen. 
The  advance  of  $1,000  given  Mr.  Pyke  during  1935  practically  covered  all  his 
travel  to  and  in  the  Far  East  and  return. 

Total  Expenditure,  first  7  months,  $63.54. 


5120  INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 

19S5 
Charlotte  Tyler 

Miss  Tyler  left  the  United  States  in  the  fall  of  1934  and  visited  London.  Left 
London  for  the  Far  East  via  Singapore,  Slam,  and  Indo  China.  She  spent  some 
time  in  Shanghai  and  accompanied  the  Secretary  General  to  Nanking  and  Peiping 
where  she  maintained  her  headquarters  until  March  1936. 

Total  Expenditure,  $1,000.00. 

1936 

She  returned  from  Peiping  via  Moscow,  and  London  to  attend  the  Yosemite 
Conference. 

Total  Expenditure,  first  7  months,  $306.25. 

Note.— Miss  Tyler's  salary  and  travel  is  paid  from  a  special  earmarked  grant 
from  the  Payne  Fund. 

1936 
Elsie  Fairfax-Cholmeley 

Miss  Cholmeley  visited  Canada  in  January  1936  for  purposes  of  readmission  to 
the  United  States. 

Total  Expenditure,  first  7  months,  $97.02. 

1936 
Harriet  Moore 

Miss  Moore  left  New  York  on  March  11  and  paid  short  visits  to  London  and 
Amsterdam,  and  accompanied  Mr.  Carter  to  Moscow  where  she  remained  until 
the  latter  part  of  INIay.  She  then  returned  to  the  United  States  to  assist  in  con- 
ference preparation. 

Total  Expenditure,  first  7  months,  $600.00. 


Exhibit  No.  995 

Februart  13,  1984, 
Selsker  M.  Gunn,  Esq., 
Rockfeller  Foundation, 

1,9  West  J,9th  Street,  New  York  City. 

Dear  Gunn  :  It  is  impossible  to  tell  you  how  highly  we  all  appreciated  the 
information  and  the  insights  which  you  and  Mrs.  Gunn  gave  us  here.  We  only 
wish  we  could  have  pumped  you  for  10  weeks  instead  of  10  hours. 

I  am  hoping  that  you  will  have  a  long  talk  with  Barnes  and  Holland  almost 
immediately  after  you  arrive  in  New  York,  for  Barnes  is  leaving  for  Russia  and 
Siberia  a  few  days  after  your  arrival,  and  similarly  Holland  about  the  first  of 
March  is  leaving  New  York  for  the  Pacific  Coast,  Honolulu,  and  Japan. 

First  of  all  I  hope  you  can  in  confidence  sketch  to  Barnes  and  Holland  your 
general  plan  for  China.  It  is  of  the  utmost  importance  that  they  get  as  full 
a  picture  of  your  analysis  of  China's  needs  as  you  so  vividly  gave  to  me.  To 
understand  what  is  in  your  mind  will  be  invaluable  to  Holland  when  he  goes  to 
the  Far  East,  and  to  Barnes  when  he  goes  to  Russia.  I  know  you  want  to  discuss 
with  them  the  Standard  of  Living  study,  particularly  with  reference  to  China. 

I  hojie  you  and  Mrs.  Gunn  can  go  over  to  the  Fifty-second  Street  office  and  more 
generally  give  the  background  of  your  studies,  not  only  to  Barnes  and  Holland 
but  also  to  Lattimore,  Miss  Tjler,  and  Lasker. 

Any  help  that  any  of  them  can  give  you  in  return  will  be  gladly  given. 

I  don't  think  I  told  you  that,  when  we  saw  Kerakhan  in  Moscow  in  1931, 
he  told  us  that  the  Institute's  researches  in  China  and  Japan  would  be  equally 
valuable  whether  the  Far  East  remained  capitalist  or  became  communist.  He 
afl3rmed  that  these  basic  researches  on  food  and  population,  trade,  tariffs,  in- 
dustrialization, and  farm  management  must  form  the  basis  for  any  socially  valid 
public  policy.  Similarly  I  have  the  feeling  that  your  program  of  education 
and  research  for  rural  reconstruction  in  China  will  prove  equally  indispensable 
whether  China  goes  communist  or  not.  I  think  this  is  an  important  point  for 
you  to  bear  in  mind,  for  it  may  be  that  some  of  your  trustees  will  want  to  veto 
your  proposals  because  they  think  that  China  is  going  communist. 

Holland  and  Barnes  you  must  see  soon  after  your  arrival,  as  they  wiil  be 
leaving  the  city  very  soon.    A  little  later,  when  your  initial  rush  is  over,  I  hope 


INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  5121 

you  can  give  a  little  time  to  Miss  Tyler  to  tell  her  what  you  know  of  the  Basic 
English  situation  in  the  Far  East. 

If  there  are  any  memoranda  that  would  be  of  use  to  me  in  China,  1  hope 
that  you  will  send  them  to  me  in  care  of  the  China  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations, 
123  Boulevard  de  Montigny,  Shanghai.  I  wish  now  that  I  had  been  forehanded 
enough  to  get  from  you  a  list  of  the  twenty  or  thirty  Chinese  whom  you  found 
the  wisest  and  most  promising.  If  you  could  possibly  spare  the  time  to  send 
me  the  names  and  cities  and  a  brief  "Who's  AVho"  regarding  the  people  I  ought 
to  see  without  fail.    You  would  be  rendering  the  I.  P.  R.  a  great  service. 

With  deepest  appreciation  for  all  that  you  did  for  us  here,  and  with  kindest 
regards  from  us  all  to  you  both,  I  am 
Very  sincerely  yours, 

Edwakd  C.  Carter. 
ECC/H 

Exhibit  No.  996 

Conversation  Between  Mr.  Arosev,  President  op  VOKS,  Mr.  Carter,  and  J,  B., 

Interpreter 

May  21,  1934. 

Mr.  Carter  began  by  explaining  that  this  was  his  third  trip  to  the  Soviet 
Union.  On  each  of  his  previous  trips,  he  had  made  every  effort  possible  to  work 
out  arrangements  for  cooperation  between  the  I.  P.  R.  and  Soviet  social  scien- 
tists interested  in  the  Pacific  area.  The  results  of  these  efforts  were  by  no 
means  insignificant.  The  degree  of  cooperation  actually  achieved  today  was  far 
higher  than  when  he  first  came  here  in  1929.  On  the  other  hand,  he  was  equally 
convinced  that  it  did  not  yet  begin  to  correspond  to  the  volume  and  importance 
of  the  work  being  done  here  or  of  that  with  which  the  Institute  is  familiar 
outside  the  Soviet  Union.  The  main  purpose  of  his  present  trip  was  to  try  to 
improve  these  arrangements,  if  possible,  through  a  better  organization  of 
Soviet  representation  in  the  I.  P.  R. 

Mr.  Arosev  began  by  saying  that  he  wished  to  be  entirely  frank  and  open 
with  us.  As  he  had  told  JB  previously,  the  question  was  unfortunately  not 
one  simply  of  scientific  cooperation.  From  what  he  had  been  able  to  learn 
of  the  Institute,  it  was  obvious  that  it  was  at  least  in  large  part  a  political 
institution. 

Mr.  Carter  explained  that  this  was  only  partly  true.  The  subject  matter  of 
the  Institute's  research  is  political,  but  its  own  organization  and  activity  is 
entirely  nonpolitical.  The  Institute  is  a  research  organization  which  works 
through  the  scientific  bodies  and  workers  of  different  countries,  and  must  con- 
sequently take  into  account  the  political  situation  of  those  bodies  and  scholars, 
but  it  is  not  itself  a  political  body. 

Mr.  Arosev  replied  that  in  tlie  Soviet  Union  there  were  no  private  bodies  or 
individuals.  The  nearest  exception  to  this  rule  is  VOKS,  which  is  organized 
on  the  same  lines  as  TASS,  the  Soviet  News  Agency.  But  even  with  these,  we 
must  understand,  it  is  inevitable  that  any  activity  carried  on  by  anyone  in  the 
Soviet  Union  in  cooperation  with  other  nationals  has  a  political  significance.  It 
was  for  this  reason  that  he  himself  was  eager  to  straighten  out  the  question. 
The  inclusion  of  Dr.  Petrov's  name  on  the  Pacific  Council,  whatever  the  mis- 
understanding as  to  his  action  in  accepting  election  three  years  ago,  was  today 
merely  an  empty  formality,  and  both  sides  would  profit  by  clearing  the  question 
up.  The  very  misunderstanding,  by  which  Dr.  Petrov  feels  that  he  accepted 
the  position  as  President  of  VOKS  while  the  record  shows  that  he  did  so  as  an 
individual,  is  representative  of  the  situation  here  and  indicates  the  need  for  a 
clear  understanding  of  the  Soviet  position  in  principle,  an  understanding  which 
could  be  worked  out  only  in  responsible  quarters  when  the  question  had  the  wide 
political  significance  which  is  inevitable  in  joining  officially  the  Institute  of 
Pacific  Relations. 

Mr.  Carter  agreed  completely  with  the  desirability  of  arriving  at  such  an 
understanding,  and  stated  that  it  was  the  principal  reason  for  his  visit  to 
Moscow.  He  pointed  out  that  in  reality  it  was  the  substance  of  cooperation 
which  interested  him,  and  that  the  form  or  formula,  although  it  was  important 
to  straighten  out,  was  after  all  of  secondary  importance.     The  increase  of 


5122  INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 

direct  contacts  between  other  research  institutions  and  those  of  the  Soviet 
Union,  and  a  wider  exchange  of  documents  and  materials  are  the  real  desiderata 
which  the  Institute  had  in  mind. 

Mr.  Arosev  expressed  his  gratitude  for  this  statement,  which  left  him  in  a 
better  position  to  understand  the  motives  of  the  Institute.  For  these  purposes, 
VOKS  was  the  ideal  organization  in  the  Soviet  Union.  It  is  independent,  it  is 
responsil)le  to  no  one  and  it  unites  in  its  contacts  with  foreign  countries  all  the 
organizations  of  the  Soviet  Union  in  the  arts  and  sciences. 

The  main  question  at  the  moment,  he  felt,  was  to  secure  the  understanding  in 
principle  about  which  he  liad  spoken.  If  that  decision,  which  under  the  circum- 
stances could  be  made  only  by  very  responsible  people,  should  be  favorable,  he 
would  iind  no  difficulty  at  all  in  the  Soviet  Union.  He  had  been  in  his  new  post 
only  25  days,  but  he  was  convinced  that  VOKS  could  be  made  a  significant  link 
between  the  Soviet  Union  and  foreign  scientists.  In  regard  to  the  Institute,  he 
and  other  officials  had  lacked  hitherto  any  concrete  idea  of  what  the  Institute 
wanted. 

Mr.  Carter  stated  that  we  are  now  in  a  position  to  supply  such  a  statement  in 
written  form,  if  desirable,  as  a  formal  outline  of  the  aims  and  objectives  of  the 
Institute  and  the  part  which  the  Soviet  Union  would  be  desired  to  play  in  their 
attainment.  He  wondered  if  Mr.  Arosev  would  care  to  advise  him  as  to  the  form 
and  method  of  presenting  such  a  statement. 

Mr.  Arosev  said  tliat  he  would  try  as  quickly  as  possible  to  secure,  on  the  basis 
of  the  large  amoimt  of  information  which  they  now  had  as  a  result  of  our  visit,  a 
definite  ruling  on  the  question  in  principle.  He  hoped  to  be  able  to  secure  this 
by  May  2Gth,  when  he  wished  we  would  telephone  him.  Then  we  could  submit 
such  a  concrete  statement  as  we  had  mentioned,  and  he  could  guarantee  that  if 
the  decision  in  principle  should  be  favorable,  we  would  find  every  aid  and  coopera- 
tion in  carrying  out  our  plans. 

Mr.  Carter  then  described  in  some  detail  the  history  of  the  Institute's  relations 
with  the  Soviet  Union.  In  1929,  through  the  warm  interest  of  Commissar  Lit- 
vinov,  Mr.  Alexandre  Romm  of  TASS  was  sent  to  the  Kyoto  Conference  as  an 
observer.  In  1931,  Vice  Commissar  Karakhan  spoke  with  cordiality  of  the  re- 
search work  of  the  Institute,  and  of  the  keen  interest  in  it  which  was  felt  by 
Soviet  scientists,  and  assured  a  responsible  group  of  Institute  representatives 
that  individual  cooperation  on  the  part  of  Soviet  scientists  was  entirely  accept- 
able to  the  government  authorities.  At  that  time  he  recommended  that  VOKS  be 
used  as  the  agency,  and  in  the  same  year  Dr.  Petrov  who  was  then  President  of 
VOKS  accepted  his  election  to  the  Pacific  Council  of  the  Institute.  This  formal 
representation  of  the  Soviet  Union  in  the  Institute  bad  not  developed  as  might 
have  been  hoped.  In  other  ways,  liowever  (Mr.  Carter  referi'ed  to  JB's  presence 
in  Moscow  for  the  past  two  months,  the  survey  he  had  made  of  research  societies 
in  the  Soviet  Union,  and  to  the  last  number  of  Prohlemii  Kitapa,  which  contains 
the  translation  of  an  I.  P.  R.  data  paper)  we  have  been  successful  in  working 
out  larger  and  more  fruitful  cooperation  than  we  have  ever  had  before. 

He  concluded  by  repeating  his  assurances  that  he  was  only  too  eager  to  conform 
to  any  suggestion  which  might  be  forthcoming  as  to  the  formula  of  cooperation. 
He  would  wait  until  the  2nth  for  the  decision  which  Mr.  Arosev  had  promised, 
particularly  since  he  planned  to  be  in  Moscow  again  in  the  fall. 

JB  added  personally,  since  he  knew  Mr.  Arosev  from  a  previous  meeting,  that 
he  wished  to  assure  him  that  the  invitation  was  by  no  means  a  political  gesture. 
The  persistence  and  zeal  of  Institute  representatives  in  Moscow  in  attempting  to 
work  out  some  answer  to  this  problem  reflected  no  desire  on  the  part  of  any 
nation  or  group  to  use  the  Soviet  Union  for  political  purposes.  It  reflected  rather 
our  increasing  conviction  of  the  importance  of  Soviet  studies,  as  witnessed  by  the 
fact  that  some  of  us  have  learned  the  Russian  language  and  spent  considerable 
periods  here,  and  also  to  some  extent  the  impossibility  of  securing  any  sort  of 
really  definite  answer  from  Soviet  authorities.  If  Mr.  Arosev  could  secure  a 
definite  answer,  even  if  it  should  be  negative,  it  would  probably  be  an  assistance 
to  the  substance  of  what  we  want  to  secure. 

Mr.  Arosev,  concluding,  assured  Mr.  Carter  that  he  had  no  desire  to  continue 
"feeding  us  with  empty  promises."  While  we  were  here,  we  should  feel  free  to 
commend  VOKS  in  any  way  possible.  If  the  answer  is  in  the  affirmatve,  VOKS 
will  officially  bend  every  effort  to  advance  our  projects  here.  If  it  is  in  the  nega- 
tive, however,  VOKS  will  still  be  only  too  happy  to  help  us  in  any  way  possible 
that  does  not  commit  it  to  our  policies.  He  reminded  us  that  it  would  be  hard  toi 
convince  anyone  in  the  Soviet  Union  that  the  Institute  is  not  political.  Any 
organization  in  which  England,  Japan,  China  and  the  United  States  are  working, 


INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  5123 

because  of  the  delicate  relations  between  those  countries,  is  of  necessity  political. 
In  this  case,  political  significance  is  like  the  fat  in  wliich  a  cutlet  is  fried.  It 
may  be  butter  fat,  or  sunflower  seed  oil,  but  you  can't  fry  a  cutlet  without  fat. 
Mr.  Arosev  took  a  list  of  Banff  Conference  members,  and  asked  a  few  additional 
questions  concerning  the  central  headquarters  of  the  Institute  and  the  role  of 
Pacific  Council  members.  He  liad  already  been  given  a  pretty  complete  sheaf  of 
documents,  including  Pacific  Affairs,  a  list  of  A.  C.  members.  Empire  in  the  East, 
a  check  list  of  publications,  the  Harvard  Summer  School  circular,  etc. 


Exhibit  No.  997 

July  18,  1934. 
Miss  Barbaea  Wb^itheim, 

129  East  52nd  Street,  New  York 

Dear  Miss  Wertheim  :  This  is  to  formalize  the  invitation  that  I  have  already 
given  you  orally  to  go  to  Tokyo  this  autumn  for  one  year  to  act  as  Research. 
Assistant  to  W.  L.  Holland,  the  Institute's  International  Research  Secretary  and 
S.  Uramatsu,  Secretary  of  the  Japanese  Council  of  the  I.  P.  R. 

You  would  thus  be  serving  both  the  Pacific  Council  and  the  Japanese  Council 
and  the  division  of  your  work  would  be  made  by  a  three-cornered  understanding 
between  Mr.  Holland,  Mr.  Uramatsu  and  yourself.  At  the  time  of  your  arrival 
Mr.  Holland  and  Mr.  Uramatsu  will  be  occupying  offices  in  the  same  building. 
As  they  are  working  together  in  the  closest  collaboration  there  will  be  no  diffi- 
culties whatsoever  in  working  out  your  program  so  that  your  work  for  Mr.  Ura- 
matsu and  Mr.  Holland  will  be  complementary. 

In  order  that  you  may  know  just  what  has  transpired  since  first  I  talked  with 
you  I  now  wish  to  quote  my  cable  to  Holland.     It  reads  as  follows : 

"Cable  could  you  Uramatsu  use  I5arbara  Wertheim  one  year  from  Novem- 
ber volunteer  research  worker.     Shiman  Barnes  endorse." 
It  was  sent  on  July  12.     On  July  14,  Mr.  Holland  cabled  me  from  Tokyo  in  reply, 
as  follows : 

"Wertheim  valuable  and  welcome." 

At  your  convenience  v/ould  you  please  let  me  know  whether  you  would  prefer 
to  sail  some  time  in  October,  or  whether  you  would  prefer  to  wait  until  early 
November  ? 

Mr.  Barnes  informs  me  that  the  American  Council  will  be  willing  to  give  you 
leave  of  absence  for  the  period  of  your  sojourn  in  Japan  and  also  six  to  eight 
weeks'  leave  this  summer  as  soon  as  you  have  completed  your  current  assign- 
ments. 

In  the  autumn  before  you  go  I  would  be  glad  to  make  suggestions  for  a  short 
period  of  reading  and  work,  preparing  to  assuming  responsibilities  in  the  Tokyo 
office. 

With  kindest  regards,  I  am 
Sincerely  yours, 

Edward  C.  Carter. 


Exhibit  No.  998 

129  East  52nd  Street, 
New  York  City,  September  25,  1934. 
Mr.  Frederick  V.  Field, 

Office. 
Dear  Fred  :  Would  you  let  me  know  whom  of  the  following  you  would  like  to 
meet  before  I  sail?    Sooner  or  later,  under  the  most  easy  and  natural  auspices, 
I  assume  that  you  will  want  to  establish  personal  contacts  with  all  whom  you 
don't  know  already. 

Arthur  W.  Packard  David  H.  Stevens  Stanley  K.  Hornbeck 

Robert  M.  Lester  Henry  S.  Haskell  Henry  R.  Luce 

Frederick  P.  Keppel  Miss  Ella  Crandell  Maurice  Wertheim 

Raymond  B.  Fosdick  Edwin  R.  Embree  Martin  Egan 

Henry  Allen  Moe  Richard  Walsh  James  D.  Mooney 

If  there  are  other  people  not  listed  above  whom  you  would  like  me  to  establish 
contact  with  for  you,  please  do  not  hesitate  to  call  on  me. 
Sincerely  yours, 

Edward  C.  Carter. 


5124  INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 

Exhibit  No.  999 
KB  to  ECC : 

This  memorandum,  which  contains  my  ideas  of  what  may  be  accomplished  by 
the  Institute  in  the  Soviet  Field,  falls  into  two  parts : 

I.  Long-term  objectives. 

II.  The  immediate  steps  necessary  in  order  to  accomplish  I. 

I.  The  long-term  objectives  embody  an  ideal  state  of  things  which  is  admit- 
tedly impossible  of  accomplishment  for  many  years.  I  would  like  to  see  all 
activities  which  have  been  proved  of  value  by  one  national  council  incorporated 
in  the  work  of  the  other  councils  with  such  modification  as  the  peculiar  needs  and 
situation  of  each  may  necessitate.  Keen  interest  by  all  national  councils  in  the 
work  carried  on  in  the  other  countries,  with  active  cooperation  in  such  work 
would  be  an  integral  part  of  this  Utopian  picture.  A  description  of  this  picture 
from  the  Soviet  angle  falls  into  the  following  three  divisions : 

A.  The  Soviet  Council  in  relation  to  the  other  member  countries. 

B.  The  Pacific  and  National  Councils  in  relation  to  the  Soviet  Union. 

C.  Activities  impossible  without  the  active  support  of  the  Soviet  and  other 
national  councils. 

A.  1.  The  Soviet  Council  must  ultimately  be  as  active  on  the  International 
committees,  in  the  preparation  for  the  conferences  and  in  the  conferences 
them.selves  as  any  other  council.  This  will  take  a  long  time  to  bring  about, 
due  to  financial,  political  and  geographic  reasons.  But  there  seems  to  be  no 
reason  why  these  difficulties  should  be  insurmountable  once  the  Soviets  are 
convinced  of  the  advantages  accruing  to  their  own  research  and  scholarship 
from  such  active  cooperation.  This  conviction  can  only  be  given  by  actual 
requests  for  information  and  studies  and  by  the  reciprocal  rendering  of 
concrete  assistance  to  the  Soviet  workers  in  the  Pacific  field. 

2.  Under  the  auspices  of  the  Soviet  Council,  a  survey  should  be  made  in 
the  Soviet  Union  of  the  facilities  afforded  research  workers  to  acquire  the 
lanuua^'es  of  the  other  members  of  the  Institute.  Should  the  survey  show 
that  facilities  are  provided,  adequate  to  the  building  of  a  body  of  research 
workers  equipped  to  function  in  the  various  fields,  no  further  action  would 
be  necessary.  Should  the  opposite  be  the  case,  action  should  be  taken  to 
remedy  the  situation. 

3.  Coordination  of  the  studies  carried  on  in  the  Soviet  Union  of  the  prob- 
lems of  the  other  member  countries  should  be  one  of  the  functions  of  an 
active  Soviet  Council. 

4.  Tlie  Soviet  Council  should  possess  an  up-to-date  record  of  organisations 
and  personnel  interested  in  the  problems  of  the  Pacific  area. 

5.  The  Soviet  Council  should  investigate  whether  a  need  exists  in  the  Soviet 
Union  for  the  issue  of  periodical,  timely  information  on  the  problems  of  the 
Pacific  Area.  It  is  possible  that  the  magazines  already  published  absorb 
all  demand  for  such  information.  On  the  other  hand,  some  such  service  as 
the  American  Council  is  giving  in  its  biweekly  memoranda  might  fill  a  real 
lack  in  providing  a  section  of  the  population  of  the  USSR,  which  would  not 
otherwise  be  reached,  with  authoritative  accounts  of  Pacific  incidents  and 
situations. 

B.  Before  going  into  detail  on  B  and  C,  I  would  like  to  recapitulate  the  situa- 
tion of  the  various  national  councils  as  I  know  it  re  the  Soviet  Union. 

Australia— Lack  of  interest  coupled  with  suspicion.  Lack  of  research 
workers  in  the  Soviet  field  and  even  of  people  acquainted  with  the  Russian 
language. 

New  Zealand — Ditto  but  even  stronger. 

Canada— Ditto.     Feeling  towards  the  Soviets  reminiscent  of  1920. 

Netherlands — Admittance  of  possible  value  of  Soviet  material  in  their 
work,  but  unable  to  use  it  through  lack  of  people  acquainted  with  the  lan- 
guage and  unwilling  to  through  general  fear  of  communism. 

Great  Britain— Luke-warm  attitude  towards  Soviet  Affairs.  However, 
something  is  being  done  in  the  Soviet  field,  e.  g.,  in  Birmingham,  and  people 
can  be  found  in  Great  Britain  who  handle  the  language. 

China— Language  facilities  exist,  but  people  found  in  possession  of  Soviet 
literature  are  in  extreme  danger  during  the  periodic  anti-communist  drives. 

Japan— Keen  interest  on  the  part  of  some  members  of  the  Council  exists 
but  there  is  a  lack  of  language  facilities  and  it  is  practically  impossiMe  to 
import  Soviet  literature. 

U.  S.  A.— Interest  is  present.  Language  can  be  handled.  Soviet  literature 
is  importable  and  causes  no  embarrassment  to  possessor. 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS  5125 

Such  being  the  case,  a  considerable  period  of  time  will  have  to  be  spent  in 
arousing  interest  and  waiting  for  political  obstacles  to  disappear.  Granted  such 
a  period  of  time,  it  would  be  desirable  to  have  in  each  member  country  the 
following : 

1.  Facilities  for  acquiring  the  Russian  language,  so  that  a  body  of  research 
workers  could  develop,  capable  of  handling  Soviet  and  Russian  materials. 

2.  A  coordinating  center  for  all  Soviet  Studies  and  the  institutions  and 
personnel  concerned. 

The  Pacific  Council  of  course  would  act  as  originator  of  such  plans,  with  due 
regard  for  national  autonomy,  and  would  receive  reports  as  to  progress  in  their 
achievement.  It  would  seem  logical,  moreover,  that  the  compiled  lists  of  Soviet 
studies,  interested  institutions,  and  research  personnel  should  be  sent  to  the 
Pacific  Council  which  would  then  be  in  a  position  to  keep  all  national  councils 
informed  as  to  the  state  of  Soviet  studies  in  the  membership  as  a  whole.  Care 
would  have  to  be  taken  in  setting  up  the  machinery  that  it  did  not  become  so 
cumbersome  and  the  process  so  lengthy  that  the  information  would  be  out  of 
date  before  distributed. 

C.  Under  activities  requiring  active  support  of  the  Soviet  and  other  councils 
we  can  list : 

1.  Exchange  of  books  and  publications.  The  American  Council  has  for 
some  time  been  exchanging  books  and  periodicals  with  various  institutions 
in  the  Soviet  Union.  This  can  be  continued  in  the  same  fashion  as  before 
or  through  some  central  agency  set  up  by  the  Soviet  Council.  This  central 
agency  would  of  course  carry  on  exchange  arrangements  with  the  other 
National  Councils.  The  extent  to  which  this  exchange  would  develop  would 
depend  on  how  B.  was  carried  out.  It  is  obviously  useless  for  a  library  to 
be  collected  if  it  is  unused  through  lack  of  interest  or  ability. 

2.  Exchange  of  research  workers  such  as  has  existed  between  the  Ameri- 
can Council  and  the  Japanese  and  Chinese  should  be  extended.  It  would  be 
of  great  value  if  ultimately  such  exchange  could  function  between  the 
Soviet  and  all  the  other  national  councils. 

3.  A  bibliographical  service  such  as  is  now  being  contemplated,  inevitably 
will  demand  the  cooperation  of  all  countries  concerned.  In  the  far  future 
a  similar  service  covering  Japan,  China,  the  Soviet  Union  and  the  English 
and  Dutch  speaking  countries  should  be  set  up  in  each  of  the  member 
countries  of  the  Institute. 

4.  The  Soviet  and  other  councils  could  be  of  valuable  mutual  assistance 
if  they  kept  each  other  informed  of  the  progress  of  their  various  activities 
without  waiting  for  the  inevitably  longer  procedure  of  communicating 
through  the  Pacific  Council. 

11.  Immediate  steps  necessary  in  order  to  accomplish  I.  divide  into  two  parts : 

A.  In  the  Soviet  Union. 

B.  In  other  member  countries. 
A.  In  the  Soviet  Union. 

1.  From  the  point  of  view  of  terminology,  it  might  be  as  well  to  suggest 
that  the  Pacific  Institute  of  the  U.  S.  S.  R.  should  be  known  as  the  Soviet 
Council  of  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations. 

2.  Membership  on  International  Committees.  The  necessary  documents 
should  be  presented  to  the  Soviet  Council  which  will  acquaint  them  with 
the  activities  of  the  various  committees  :  Program  ;  Research  ;  Publications  ; 
Education.  They  should  be  urged  to  appoint  a  representative  on  each 
committee.  Perhaps,  to  begin  with,  one  person  might  do  for  all,  preterably 
the  person  who  might  conceivably  come  to  the  next  conference  so  as  to 
increase  the  chance  of  the  Soviet  representative  actually  meeting  the  other 
members  of  the  committees. 

3.  An  associate  editor  for  Pacific  Affairs  should  be  appointed  and  asked 
as  his  first  job  to  check  up  on  the  articles  promised  by  Voitinsky,  Abram- 
son,  and  Radek. 

4.  Data  Papers.  The  Soviet  Council  has  already  announced  five  studies 
that  they  intend  to  publish  before  the  next  conference  as  well  as  two  collec- 
tions of  articles.  As  these  all  deal  with  subjects  pertinent  to  the  general 
subject  matter  for  data  papers  for  the  next  conference  as  determined  at 
Banff,  these  publications  may  very  well  be  counted  enough. 

5.  Standard  of  Living  Studies.  All  relevant  material  such  as  the  Inter- 
national Research  Program  19.33-35,  FVF's  report  on  the  progress  of  the 
American  Council  in  the  Standard  of  Living  Studies  and  any  other  reports 
the  Secretary  General  may  get  from  other  council  visits,  should  be  shown 


5126  INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 

to  the  Soviet  Council.  They  should  be  asked  to  draw  up  a  report  on  what 
has  been  published  and  on  what  projects  are  now  under  way  or  being 
contemplated  on  the  subject  of  Standard  of  Living  in  the  Soviet  Union. 
HM  can  be  offered  as  assistant  or  collaborator.  They  should  be  informed 
that  all  countries  are  making  such  a  report  to  the  International  liesearch 
Committee  early  next  year  and  be  asked  to  send  their  report  in  at  the  same 
time.  Suggestions  how  the  studies  in  each  country  might  further  progress,  or 
what  new  ones  might  be  originated,  in  order  best  to  coordinate  all  the  work, 
will  then  be  sent  out.  As  for  the  cultural  side  of  the  research  program.  I 
understand  that  that  is  still  under  discussion.  Concrete  suggestions  as  to 
just  what  "cultural  relations"  signifies  will  be  sent  to  the  Soviet  Council 
later. 

6.  The  question  of  translation  of  Soviet  studies  should  be  discussed  as  it 
affects  both  the  data  papers  and  the  projects  connected  with  the  Research 
program  of  the  Institute. 

7.  The  report  of  JB  made  last  spring  on  Soviet  Institutions  concerned 
with  the  problems  of  the  Far  East  is  so  confidential  in  character  that  no 
reference  should  be  made  of  it  to  the  Soviet  Council  or  to  any  of  tlie  In- 
stitutions concerned.  (N.  B.  to  IIM.)  The  Soviet  Council  should  be  told 
that  in  the  American  Council  we  are  attempting  the  coordination  of  Soviet 
and  Far  Eastern  Studies.  They  should  be  urged  to  compile  a  report  of  all 
Soviet  organisations  interested  in  Pacific  Relations  with  a  description  of  the 
type  of  work  each  carries  on.  Such  a  report,  they  would  realize  would  be 
of  value  not  only  to  themselves  but  to  all  Soviet-minded  research  workers. 
If  they  demur  owing  to  lack  of  time  or  personnel,  HM  could  be  offered  as  the 
person  to  undertake  it,  in  so  far  as  her  other  activities  permit,  with  the  Soviet 
Council  as  sponsor  and  guide. 

8.  Exchange  of  books  and  periodicals.  Some  machinery  should  be  .set  up 
within  the  Soviet  Council  which  could  arrange  for  exchange  of  books  and 
periodicals.  Obviously  this  would  be  feasible  as  far  as  the  publications  of 
the  nine  institutions  embodied  in  the  Soviet  Council  are  concerned.  Would  it 
be  equally  feasible  for  the  Soviet  Council  to  act  as  the  clearing  house  for 
arrangements  witli  other  Soviet  Institutions? 

9.  The  possibility  of  exchange  of  research  workers  should  be  broached. 
The  preliminary  trial  of  such  an  arrangement  would  seem  logically  to  take 
place  between  the  American  or  the  Pacific  Council  and  Moscow.  An  ideal 
arrangement  would  be  for  Kantorovich  to  come  over  here  in  1036,  after  he 
has  got  the  data  papers  published,  and  stay  through  the  Conference.  He 
could  be  attached  to  the  staff  of  either  the  Pacific  or  the  American  Council 
and  paid  a  salary  in  dollars  while  in  exchange  some  member  of  the  Pacific 
or  American  Council  staff  could  be  sent  to  the  Soviet  Union  and  the  Soviet 
Council  made  responsible  for  his  or  her  room,  cooperative  cards,  supply 
of  rubles  etc.  Wliether  a  foreigner  would  be  willing  to  live  in  Moscow  with- 
out an  additional  valuta  income,  of  course,  is  doubtful,  but  something  could 
be  worked  out. 

10.  What  cooperation  is  asked  from  the  Soviet  Council  in  connection  with 
the  bibliographical  service  depends  on  what  decision  is  reached  about  the 
service  itself.  This  matter  has  already  been  broached  to  several  people  in 
Moscow,  I  believe.  I  feel  that  they  would  be  keenly  interested  in  the  pros- 
pect of  a  similar  service  in  English  and  Dutch  books  being  set  up  some  time. 

11.  Attendance  at  the  next  conference  should  be  put  forward  as  being 
desirable  in  order  to  convince  the  national  councils  of  the  Soviet  Council's 
real  desire  to  cooperate.  It  should  be  stressed,  however,  even  more  highly 
for  the  value  it  would  have  in  facilitating  research  work  and  cooperation.  If 
the  suggestion  in  point  9  should  be  feasible,  the  aim  would  be  to  some  extent 
accomplished.  Any  large  representation  of  the  Soviet  Union  at  the  next 
conference  can  hardly  be  expected. 

12.  In  order  to  give  the  Soviet  Council  a  picture  of  what  other  councils 
are  doing,  national  council  reports  such  as  the  present  one  of  PVF  to  the 
Amei-ican  Council  should  be  shown  along  with  any  other  documentation 
possible,  such  as  Cross's  report  on  the  Harvard  Russian  Language  School. 
Out  of  the  latter  could  develop  a  discussion  of  what  are  the  facilities  for 
language  study  in  the  Soviet  Union. 

13.  In  connection  with  points  7,  10,  and  12,  a  suggestion  might  be  made 
to  the  Soviet  Council  that  they  publish  a  periodic  memorandum  on  work  in 
Pacific  problems  in  the  Soviet  Union  for  dissemination  among  the  member 
councils  of  the  Institute.    This  might  appeal  to  them  strongly. 


INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  5127 

14.  Finance.     On  the  question  of  the  Soviet  Council  contribution  to  the 
Institute,  I  feel  that  some  contribution  should  be  made  if  only  nominal.    In 
all  financial  matters,  it  must  be  remembered  that  the  Soviets  are  intensely 
proud.    Direct  subsidy  from  abroad,  I  believe,  would  not  be  acceptable,  nor 
would  they  wish  to  be  in  the  position  of  the  only  national  council  not  contrib- 
uting financially.    Exchange  relations,  both  for  research  workers  and  mate- 
rials, will  have  to  be  arranged  with  the  minimum  of  international  money 
payments. 
In  taking  up  the  above  points  with  the  Soviet  Council,  the  Secretary  General 
will  have  to  be  constantly  on  the  alert  to  see  how  much  load  they  seem  willing 
to  carry  and  will  have  to  stress  the  points  correspondingly.     If  necessary,  em- 
phasis could  be  merely  laid  on  Data  papers  and  Studies  of  Standards  of  Living. 
After  all,  such  research  work  as  would  be  represented  in  them  and  the  making 
of  it  available  to  the  other  countries  by  means  of  translation  is  the  main  objec- 
tive of  the  Institute.    Also  the  Secretary  General  must  observe  to  what  extent 
the  Soviet  Council  is  liable  to  be  an  integrated  unit  with  functions  of  its  own, 
and  to  what  extent  it  tends  to  leave  everything  to  the  initiative  and  activity  of 
the  institutions  out  of  which  it  is  made.    All  discussion  of  plans  with  the  Soviet 
Council  will  have  to  be  tempered  by  whichever  of  the  above  cases  is  triie. 

B.  1.  The  Secretary  General  in  his  forthcoming  tour  should  endeavour  to 
discover  the  exact  status  of  Soviet  Studies  in  ench  country  visited,  both  as 
regards  interest  and  actual  accomplishment.  My  own  impressions  of  what 
exists  I  have  stated  earlier.  If  they  are  correct,  the  only  thing  to  be  done 
seems  to  be  to  discuss  with  the  few  persons  interested  ways  and  means  of 
utilizing  the  existence  of  the  Soviet  Council. 

2.  The  Secretary  General  could  present  to  Moscow  requests  for  help  in 
Mackenzie's  Statiis  of  Aliens  coordination,  his  Communications  project  and 
the  navalism  project  of  the  American  Council.  There  also  could  be  presented 
with  a  request  for  suggestions  as  to  broadening  or  otherwise  improving, 
a  statement  of  the  exchange  relations  between  the  American  Council  and 
various  Soviet  Institutions.  Any  other  concrete  requests  for  assistance 
should  be  gathered  from  the  countries  visited  for  presentation  to  Moscow. 

3.  It  should  be  stressed  to  the  national  councils  that  the  Soviet  Council 
is  now  in  existence  and  eager  to  cooperate. 

Note. — The  activities  of  the  Pacific  and  the  American  Councils  re  the  Soviet 
Union  have  become  intermingled  in  the  past.  The  library  that  is  being  built  up 
in  the  oflBce  of  the  American  Council,  for  example,  obtains  many  of  its  periodicals 
in  exchange  for  Pacific  AlTairs.  The  fact  that  J.  Barnes  when  Secretary  of 
the  American  Council  acted  likewise  as  representative  of  the  Secretary  General 
before  the  latter's  arrival  in  Moscow,  also  added  to  the  confusion  in  Soviet 
minds.  It  has  been  unavoidable  owing  to  personnel  reasons,  and  for  the  im- 
mediate future  the  distinction  of  activities  will  be  hard  to  make  at  least  to  the 
Soviet  Council.  In  the  ideal  future,  of  course,  each  council  will  have  its  staff 
worker  able  to  handle  Soviet  materials,  and  the  intermingling  of  activities  will 
cease.  Until  then,  it  may  be  as  well  not  to  confuse  the  Soviets  by  attempting  toa 
much  to  disentangle  the  Pacific  and  American  Councils. 

OcTOBEB  22,  1934. 

Exhibit  No.  1000 

Moscow,  Noveniiber  22, 1934. 
Mr.  E.  C.  Carter. 

Chatham  House,  St.  James  Sq.,  London,  S.  W.  1. 
Dear  ]Mr.  Carter:  I  have  now  been  in  Moscow  twelve  days  and  am  more  or 
less  settled.    I  am  sorry  that  I  have  not  been  able  to  write  to  you  sooner  but  I 
have  been  separated  from  my  typewriter  for  some  days. 

As  soon  as  I  arrived  I  went  to  VOKS  and  they  arranged  for  me  to  see  Voitin?ky. 
He  was  very  nice  to  me  and  offered  to  help  me  in  every  way  possible,  but  of 
course,  he  referred  all  Institute  matters  to  Kantorovitch.  Unfortunately  it  took 
me  almost  a  week  to  make  arrangements  to  see  him.  Immediately  after  my  inter- 
view with  him  I  sent  you  the  following  cable : 

"Send  complete  list  Institute  publications.     Have  asked  me  for  specific 
answers  to  questions  sent  to  you.     Especially  interested  in  exchange  of  pub- 
lications and  afraid  you  uninterested.     General  answer  desirable  now  and 
details  when  you  arrive." 
As  soon  as  I  met  Kantorovitch,  he  got  down  to  the  business  of  the  Institute.     He 
first  wanted  to  know  if  I  was  empowered  to  give  him  specific  answers  to  the  ques- 


5128  INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 

tions  which  the  Russian  group  addressed  to  you  this  summer.  I,  of  course  was 
not  able  to  give  him  these  answers.  The  question  that  interested  him  most  was 
that  of  the  exchange  of  publications.  He  aslved  if  the  Institute  had  its  own  pub- 
lication establishment  and  I  told  him  that  we  had  books  printed  through  com- 
mercial firms.  He  asked  if  books  prepared  by  the  separate  National  Councils 
appeared  under  the  imprint  of  the  Central  Office.  I  said  that  apart  from  the 
conference  papers  this  generally  was  not  the  policy.  He  inferred  from  the  fact 
that  you  had  not  answered  him  specifically  on  the  possibility  of  exchanging  pub- 
lications that  you  were  not  interested  in  doing  so.  I  told  him  that,  as  I  under- 
stood the  situation,  you  were  very  interested  in  making  some  such  arrangement 
and  were  waiting  to  make  the  definite  arrangements  after  you  arrived  here. 

In  the  course  of  the  interview  he  asked  many  questions  about  the  organization 
and  functions  of  the  National  Groups.  I  am  keeping  a  full  record  of  these  con- 
versations for  you  to  see  on  your  arrival.  He  asked  to  see  the  Memoranda.  I 
have  given  him  a  few  of  my  copies  which  I  had  with  me.  If  it  is  possible,  I  think 
it  might  be  wise  to  send  copies  here  for  a  certain  period.  If  you  do  not  wish  to 
do  that  officially,  I  will  continue  to  give  him  mine. 

Both  Kantorovitch  and  Voitinsky  are  very  anxious  to  hear  about  new  books 
published  in  America  on  this  general  field.  Voitinsky  asked  specifically  for  one. 
He  was  not  sure  of  the  exact  title  l)ut  thought  it  was  some  Annals  on  the  United 
States  Policy  in  the  Pacific.  Perhaps  you  know  what  book  he  is  referring  to.  I 
shall  try  to  discover  the  exact  title  and  if  it  is  convenient  for  you,  you  might  bring 
it  when  you  come.  I  shall  also  write  Kathleen  Barnes  and  ask  her  to  keep  me 
posted  on  all  new  books  and  to  send  me  any  that  she  considers  particularly 
important. 

The  Institute  Office  is  in  the  office  of  the  Soviet  World  Atlas.  Kantorovitch 
is  usually  there  and  his  secretary  speaks  perfect  English,  having  lived  in  England 
for  several  years.  She  is  taking  care  of  the  arrangements  for  me.  There  is  a 
small  lil)rary  for  the  Atlas  and  they  are  able  to  get  books  for  me  from  other  lib- 
raries. They  have  also  given  me  letters  to  two  other  places  which  may  have  more 
of  the  books  which  I  need.  Kantorovitch  has  offered  to  let  me  have  a  desk  in  the 
Institute  Office  and  in  a  few  more  days  I  think  that  I  will  work  there  most  of  the 
time. 

As  you  undoubtedly  know,  the  Pacific  Ocean  Cabinet  of  the  Institute  of  World 
Economics  and  Politics  of  the  Communist  Academy  is  publishing  a  new  magazine 
of  the  Pacific  Ocean.  It  is  a  quarterly.  At  the  moment  I  am  in  the  process  of 
reading  it  and  hope  to  be  able  to  tell  you  all  about  it  when  you  arrive.  Among 
other  things,  it  has  a  long  review  of  Empire  in  the  East  and  a  short  statement 
about  the  IPR  in  Russia. 

At  present  I  am  giving  a  great  deal  of  time  to  studying  Russian,  which  you, 
of  course  realise  is  very  important  for  me.  I  am  starting  working  on  the  Na- 
tional Minorities,  because  I  have  no  idea  where  to  begin  on  the  Standards  of 
Living.  I  hope  that  you  will  be  able  to  bring  with  you  an  outline  of  Gregory's 
book  on  Standards  of  Living  and  of  any  others  that  have  been  started.  I  am 
also  very  eager  to  hear  from  Bill  Holland  in  answer  to  your  questions  about  the 
National  Minoi'ities. 

Just  before  I  left  London  I  heard  that  in  November  a  new  book  was  to  be 
Published  on  the  National  Minority  policy  in  the  U.  S.  S.  R.  This  is  number  7  of 
the  New  Soviet  Library,  published  by  Gollanz,  Ltd.  14  Henrietta  St.,  Covent 
Garden.  The  title  of  the  book  is  "tlie  Soviet  State  and  the  Solution  of  the 
Problems  of  Nationalities,"  By  Victor  Dimanstein.  He  is  a  Russian  Authority 
on  the  subject  and  it  is  very  important  for  me  to  have  this  book.  Could  you 
bring  it  when  you  come  or  have  it  sent? 

In  London  I  received  from  you  two  files  of  material  in  relation  to  Russian 
participation.  One  was  supposed  to  contain  the  Preliminary  Survey  of  Soviet 
Research  Institutions  Specializing  in  the  Siberian  and  Far  Eastern  Field,  pre- 
pared by  Joe  this  Spring.  On  the  folder  it  is  marked  that  I  already  have  this. 
Although  I  saw  the  first  draft  of  it  here  in  Moscow,  I  have  never  had  a  copy. 
If  you  think  it  is  advisable,  you  might  bring  me  a  copy. 

In  your  letter  of  October  31st,  you  asked  me  to  advise  you  where  it  would  be 
most  convenient  for  you  to  stay  when  you  are  here.  At  present,  I  would  certainly 
advise  the  National  again  or  the  Metropole.  Both  are  in  a  central  position  and 
near  the  Institutions  in  which  we  are  interested.  As  soon  as  you  know  definitely 
when  you  are  arriving  and  how  many  are  coming  with  you,  I  will  make  the 
arrangements  here  for  you. 

In  my  opinion  the  Soviet  group  of  the  Institute  is  a  very  serious  and  business- 
like group.  We  will  get  cooperation  from  them  in  proportion  to  the  cooperation 
we  are  willing  to  give  to  them.    For  this  reason  it  is  most  important  that  I  be  kept 


INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  5129 

informed  on  all  the  latest  Institute  news  and  any  changes  in  policy,  etc.  As  you 
know,  I  have  been  away  from  the  office  for  over  a  year  and  there  are  probably 
many  things  which  you  take  for  granted  but  which  are  news  to  me.  I  will  con- 
tinue to  cable  you  for  specific  information,  but  if  you  have  any  general  informa- 
tion on  the  work  being  done  by  the  various  National  Councils,  I  would  be  very 
grateful  to  be  kept  informed  about  it. 

I  think  it  will  be  best  if  you  continue  to  send  my  mail  to  Irftourist,  as  it  is 
less  likely  to  go  astray.  However  in  cases  it  is  necessary  to  reach  me  some  other 
way,  my  address  is 

Moscow 

Savelevski  Pereulok 

Dom  2,  Kv.  4 

Sincerely 

Harriet  Mooee. 


Exhibit  No.  1001 

Amstel  Hotel, 
Amsterdam,  December  15, 1934. 
Miss  Harriet  Moore, 

Hotel  Metropole,  Moscow,  U.  8.  8.  R. 

Deae,  Harriet  :  There  are  no  special  instructions  for  our  visit.  It  was  thought- 
ful of  you  to  ask  me  for  further  suggestions. 

The  principal  purpose  of  the  visit  is  twofold — First,  to  be  of  every  possible 
assistance  to  the  new  Soviet  IPR  as  it  develops  its  program.  The  second  is  to 
have  the  maximum  time  with  you  is  conferring  about  your  work  and  in  loading 
you  with  IPR  ammunition  so  that  you  can  be  of  the  greatest  consultative  value 
to  Kamtorovich  is  the  weeks  following  our  departure.  I  want,  of  course,  to 
talk  fully  with  you  regarding  your  work  when  you  have  finished  your  present 
Moscow  assignment. 

Subordinate  to  those  two  purposes  is  the  desire  to  give  my  three  colleagues  a 
favorable  opportunity  of  seeing  something  of  important  influences  in  the 
U.  S.  S.  R.  as  revealed  in  Moscow.  For  five  hours  each  day  all  of  them  will  be 
engaged  on  immediate  IPR  duties,  but  all  of  the  rest  of  the  time  can  be  given 
to  studying  and  observing  the  various  aspects  of  INIoscow  life.  All  of  this  can 
be  easily  arranged  atter  we  have  arrived.  These  purposes  can  be  in  part 
realized  in  connection  with  the  main  object  of  the  visit,  for  example  a  couple 
of  hours  spent  by  us  at  the  Institute  of  Minor  Nationalities  would  serve  many 
purposes. 

One  incidental  matter  which  I  will  want  to  discuss  with  you,  and  if  you 
and  Kamtorovich  advise  it,  is  this.  How  can  scholars  from  abroad  who  obey 
the  Soviet  law  fare  nearly  as  well  as  those  who  violate  it? 

As  a  result  of  your  letter  to  Kate  we  got  the  coffee  and  can  opener  that  yon 
requested  in  Paris. 

We  will  drive  straight  from  the  flying  field  to  the  Metroi>ole  on  our  arrival 
on  the  night  of  the  20th.  Did  I  tell  you  that  Simon  Wingfield-Digby  will,  be- 
cause of  his  luggage  come  by  train,  arriving  in  Moscow  a  little  before  noon 
on  the  21st?  I  have  ,iust  received  two  friendly  letters  from  Kantorovich  in  one  of 
which  he  indicates  that  advancing  my  visit  by  a  few  days  is  equally  convenient 
for  him.  I  hope  that  on  the  21st  we  can  have  a  long  conference  with  him  and 
then  on  the  22nd  or  23rd  a  meeting  of  the  Soviet  group,  if  that  is  regarded  by 
Kantorovich  and  yourself  as  a  possible  and  desirable  thing  to  do. 
Sincerely  yours, 

Edward  C  Carter. 

We  want  first  of  all  a  long  talk  with  you. 


Exhibit  No.  1002 
W.  L.  H  from  ECC 

Hotel  Metropole,  Moscow, 

December  25th,  19S4. 
A.  Kantorovttch, 

20,  Razin  8treet,  Moscow. 
Dear  Kantorovitch  :  In  my  conversation  vsdth  you  on  December  24th,  I  men- 
tioned two  projects  which  have  formed  part  of  the  International  Research 
program  of  the  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations  since  the  1931  conference.  These 
are,  (1)  an  international  survey  of  Communicatioits  in  the  Pacific  Area,  and  (2) 
an  international  survey  of  the  Legal  8tatus  of  Aliens  in  Pacific  Countries. 

8834&— 52— pt.  14 15 


5130  INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 

This  letter  constitutes  a  formal  request  from  the  Pacific  Council  and  the 
International  Research  Committee  to  the  U.  S.  S.  R.  Council  of  the  I.  P.  R.  to 
contribute  a  section  to  each  of  these  two  studies. 

On  December  24th  I  handed  you  the  British  paper  on  Communications,  the 
Australian  paper  on  the  Status  of  Aliens,  and  four  pamphlets  dealing  with  the 
Status  of  Aliens  in  Canada,  from  which  the  final  Canadian  paper  will  be  com- 
piled. These  papers  will  serve  to  show  you  the  general  form  which  the  Research 
Committee  would  like  yovi  to  follow,  but,  of  course,  the  details  as  to  the  method 
of  treatment  and  the  scope  of  the  study  would  be  left  entirely  to  your  discretion. 

If  the  U.  S.  S.  R.  Council  agrees  to  contribute  a  chapter  to  each  of  these 
studies,  these  should  be  in  manuscript  form  and  mailed  to  the  International 
Research  Secretary,  W.  L.  Holland,  30G  Osaka  Building,  Tokyo,  by  April  1st, 
1935.  A  copy  of  the  manuscript  should  be  sent  to  Professor  Norman  Mackenzie, 
University  of  Toronto,  Toronto,  Canada.  Professor  Mackenzie  has  been  selected 
by  the  International  Research  Committee  to  act  as  final  editor  and  complete  the 
report  on  both  these  studies  for  publication. 

As  you  will  note  from  the  sample  sections  which  I  have  given  you,  the  material 
is  almost  entii'ely  factual.  Each  study  will  be  published  as  a  small  reference 
handbook,  in  which  statistics  and  terminology  will  have  been  made  as  nearly 
uniform  and  comparable  as  possible.  Professor  Mackenzie  has  not  decided  as 
yet  whether  he  will  write  an  interpretive  analysis  of  the  material  presented.  If 
he  does  so,  he  will  circulate  it  to  all  the  National  Councils  before  the  final 
publications  of  the  two  reports. 

At  present  Professor  Mackenzie  has  on  hand  papers  on  the  Status  of  Alietis  from 
the  following  countries : 

Japan  China  Australia 

United  States  Canada  France 

Philippines  Holland 

New  Zealand  Great  Britain 

He  is  not  planning  to  edit  more  than  is  absolutely  necessary.  His  introduction 
will  emphasize  the  similarities  and  the  differences  in  treatment  of  aliens  in  the 
countries  of  the  Pacific. 

With  regard  to  the  study  of  Communications,  Professor  Mackenzie  has  received 
papers  from  every  member  country  of  the  Institute  with  the  exception  of 
Australia  and  tlie  Philippines.  He  hopes  to  receive  these  papers  in  the  near 
future. 

The  details  as  to  the  publication  of  these  two  studies  have  not  been  decided,, 
pending  the  completion  of  the  final  manuscript. 

Both  the  Pacific  Council  and  the  International  Research  Committee  feel  that 
it  is  of  the  utmost  importance  that  information  from  the  U.  S.  S.  R.  on  both 
these  questions  be  secured  if  possible.  I  hope,  therefore,  that  the  U.  S.  S.  R. 
Council  of  the  I.  P.  R.  will  be  able  to  respond  favorably  to  this  request  for  a 
Soviet  contribution  to  each  study. 
Sincerely  yours, 

Edward  C.  Carter. 


Copies  to  Holland,  Moore 


Exhibit  No.  1003 

Moscow,  December  26,  19S4, 


Frederick  V.  Field,  Esq., 

129  East  52nd  Street,  New  York  City. 

Dear  Fred  :  As  Leonard  Wu  is  coming  to  Moscow  I  would  strongly  recommend 
that  you  urge  him  seriously  to  consider  reaching  here  before  Harriet  Moore 
leaves.  The  reception  that  we  have  had  from  Motylev  and  Kantorovich  and  the 
other  members  of  the  Soviet  Council  could  not  have  been  more  cordial  or  useful. 
In  no  country  has  any  group  made  more  precise  and  more  adequate  arrangements 
for  the  fulfillment  of  the  purposes  of  our  visit  than  the  offiees  here. 

For  the  sake  of  continuity  there  would  be  very  great  advantages  in  Wu's 
arriving  l)efore  Miss  Mooi'e  leaves.  She  could  be  of  the  greatest  assistance  to 
him,  and  he  could  perpetuate  the  wonderful  tradition  that  she  is  establishing- 
here. 

Could  you  and  Kathleen  talk  this  over  with  Wu  to  discover  what'  his  plans 
are,  what  he  particularly  wants  to  study  when  he  gets  here,  what  his  dates  are. 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS  5131 

and  then  write  Harriet  very  fully.     It  w<jald  be  better  if  he  got  here  when  Har- 
riet was  in  Moscow,  rather  than  when  slie  was  in  the  Buriyat  Mongolian  Republic. 

Sincerely  yours, 

Edwabd  C.  Carter. 


Exhibit  No.  1004 

Mi-.  W.  L.  Holland  :  For  your  information. 

Chatham  House,  10,  St.  James's  Square, 

London,  8.  W.  1,  4th  January  1935. 
Galkn  M.  FiSHKR,  Esq., 
5^7  Madison  Aretiiic, 

New  York   City. 

Dear  (tAlen  :  The  enclosed  from  Lasker  would  seem  to  indicate  that  he  has 
got  a  garbled  idea  of  the  proposed  Bibliographical  Service.  I  wonder  whether 
he  has  received  one  of  your  American  or  international  letters  on  the  subject? 

I  will  be  writing  you  more  fully  about  the  attitude  of  the  four  countries  re- 
cently visited.    Briefly  it  is  as  follows  : 

In  England,  those  who  know  Russian,  Chinese,  or  Japanese  think  the  proposal 
important.  Those  who  do  not  know  any  one  of  these  three  languages  seem  to 
question  its  value. 

In  France,  Boyer,  Bonnet,  Dennery,  and  Lavey  all  thought  the  service  would 
be  of  very  great  value. 

In  Holland,  the  entire  I.  P.  R.  Council  thought  that  the  Service  would  be  very 
important,  but  it  would  have  to  be  started  and  an  exhibition  given  of  its  value 
before  any  large  number  of  people  would  recognize  its  importance  and  subscribe 
to  it. 

In  the  U.  S.  S.  R.  several  very  important  items  came  out,  regarding  which  I  will 
write  you  more  fully  later. 

1.  The  I.  P.  R.  Group  wants  immediately  from  America  and,  if  possible,  from 
London,  a  desci'iption  of  what  the  I.  P.  R.  people,  for  example  in  New  York,  feel 
are  the  i-eally  important  books  and  ai'ticles  on  the  Pacific  in  the  English  language. 
Tlio  listing  of  such  books  supported  by  good  reviews  that  may  appear  in  other 
journals  not  necessarily  prepared  for  the  I.  P.  R.  would  serve  their  purpose. 

2.  Our  friends  in  Moscow  at  the  moment  are  not  terribly  impressed  by  the 
scientific  quality  or  the  indispensability  of  much  of  the  literature  that  is  being 
published  in  China  and  Japan. 

3.  Although  they  do  not  say  so,  it  is  quite  apparent  that  we  will  have  to 
be  careful  not  to  lump  Russia,  China,  and  Japan  together  as  in  a  similar  category 
when  we  are  dealing  with  our  Rassian  colleagues.  At  that  moment  when  the 
Bibliographical  Service  includes  English  language  publications,  then  the  danger 
of  Soviet  leaders  thinking  that  the  Service  is  lumping  Soviet  Russia  with  China 
and  Japan  as  Asiatic  countries  will  disappear. 

It  is  difiicult  for  our  Soviet  colleagues  to  envisage  a  Service  conducted  from 
London  or  Washington  by  a  staff  that  will  be  predominantly  capitalistic,  describ- 
ing either  Soviet  or  other  books  in  a  manner  that  would  be  regarded  as  objec- 
tive by  Communist  and  capitalist  readers. 

Here  is  one  of  the  central  difficulties  facing  us,  not  only  in  the  Bibliographical 
proposal,  but  from  now  on  in  "Pacific  Affairs"  and  any  other  I.  P.  R.  publications. 
We  have  worshipped  at  the  shrine  of  objectivity,  but  nearly  all  of  the  wor- 
shippers heretofore  have  been  non-Communist.  The  coming  of  the  Soviet  I.  P.  R. 
into  not  only  formal  but  active,  wholehearted,  and  generous  co-operation  with 
the  I.  P.  R.  involves  a  complete  rethinking  of  our  entire  programme  of  research;, 
conference,  and  publication.  Each  one  of  us  who  is  working  for  the  Pacific 
Council  is  now  a  servant  of  an  organisation  in  which  the  Communist  outlook 
on  politics  and  economics  must  organisationally  be  regarded  as  deserving  the 
same  consideration  as  the  capitalists. 

Translating  this  into  terms  of  the  Bibliographical  problems  facing  us.  suggests 
among  others  three  possible  plans:  (1)  a  note  of  each  book  and  articles  in  the 
Bibliographical  Service  from  both  a  Communist  and  non-Communist ;  (2)  an 
attempt  at  a  description  that  would  be  regarded  as  equally  objective  by  Com- 
munists and  capitalists;  (3)  capitalist  reviews  of  Communist  books  and  articles 
and  Comnmnist  reviews  of  capitalist  books  and  articles. 

As  I  say,  I  hope  to  write  you  a  little  more  fully  on  this  matter  later,  but  I 
wanted  to  send  you  immediately  this  advance  report  on  my  discussions  in  four 
European  countries. 


5132  INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 

You  have  doubtless  already  appraised  the  value  of  the  International  Bibliog- 
raphy of  Historical  Sciences.  I  would  like  to  have  you  write  me  fully  as  to 
vi^hat  extent  you  feel  that  this  meets  the  need  that  we  have  all  had  in  mind.  The 
fact  that  it  does  not  come  out  until  about  IS  or  20  months  after  the  year  under 
review  militates  against  it  slightly,  though  I  suppose  we  might  find  ourselves 
from  six  to  nine  months  behind  the  wishes  of  our  constituency.  Do  you  know 
whether  the  fact  that  a  book  or  article  is  listed  in  this  Bibliography  persuades 
people  that  books  and  articles  in  their  field  are  indispensable  to  them?  The 
intrinsic  importance  of  each  book  and  article  seems  to  be  the  principal  criterion 
of  selection.  How  widely  does  the  scientific  world  accept  the  judgment  of  those 
who  make  the  selection  as  final? 

The  letter  from  Hughes,  the  Chinese  expert  at  Oxford,  is  significant  as  an 
example  of  the  reaction  of  one  who  knows  Chinese.  The  letter  from  Webster 
is  significant  as  coming  from  one  who  does  not  know  any  of  the  three  languages, 
so  also  is  the  formal  letter  from  Arnold  here  at  Chatham  House. 

Duyveudak,  the  great  sinologist  at  Leiden,  is  very  keen  on  the  Bibliographical 
Service,  and  believes  that  both  he  and  several  of  the  Netherland  institutions  can 
-cooperate.  Rade,  the  Japanologist  at  Leiden,  is  also  ready  and  eager  to  help. 
Duyvendak  goes  to  Columbia  very  shortly.  It  is  of  the  utmost  importance  that 
you  see  him  on  arrival.  You  should  talk  with  him  as  to  the  desirability  of 
considering  once  a  year  the  review  of  the  very  important  Dutch  publications  on 
the  Pacific. 

I  am  sending  copies  of  this  letter  to  Lattimore,  Lasker,  and  Holland,  with 
the  request  that  they  should  not  distribute  it  to  others,  as  it  is  only  a  hurried 
interim  report.  I  would  ask  that  you  share  it  immediately  vdth  Field  and 
Kathleen  Barnes,  and  that  you  three  send  me  individually  or  collectively  your 
Ibest  reaction  to  the  problem  raised  by  Soviet  cooperation  with  the  I.  P.  R. 

At  this  point  I  perhaps  ought  to  add  that  I  believe  that  the  Soviet  Group  is 
going  to  make  a  very  substantial  contribution  both  to  scholarship  and  realism 
in  the  I.  P.  R. 

I  am  enclosing  a  copy  of  Miss  Harriet  Moore's  private  memorandum  on  the 
Bibliographical  Service.  This  was  written  after  she  had  listened  in  on  the 
preliminary  discussions  which  Miss  Mitchell  and  I  had  with  the  Praesidium  of 
the  Soviet  I.  P.  R. 

Apiiended  is  a  list  of  those  who  were  present  at  the  Luncheon  discussion  and 
the  Afternoon  Conference  at  Oxford.  At  both  of  these  meetings  the  Bibiliogra- 
phy  was  discussed.  The  attitude  of  those  who  knew  Chinese  and  Russian  was 
such  as  to  convince  nearly  all  those  present  as  to  the  importance  of  the  I.  P.  R. 
proposal.  Zimmern,  for  example,  does  not  know  Russian,  Chinese  or  Japanese, 
yet  he  felt  that  the  project  was  of  the  utmost  importance. 

I  ought  to  add  that  our  colleagues  in  the  Soviet  Union  will  cooperate  superbly 
in  whatever  plan  we  finally  decide  to  inaugurate.  The  resources  of  the  Soviet 
I.  P.  R.  Group  are  very  gi-eat  indeed.  They  will  be  able  to  command  the  active 
collaboration  of  the  principal  Russian  scholars  throughout  the  Soviet  Union 
on  any  plan  which  we  finally  work  out  which  thoroughly  commends  itself  to  us 
and  to  them. 

Sincerely  yours, 

Edwabd  C.  Cabter. 


Exhibit  No.  1005 
Draft 


20,  Razxn  Street, 
Moscow,  3rd  January,  1935. 

Meeting  of  the  Peiaesidium  of  the  U.  S.  S.  R.  I.  P.  R. 

Present. — V.  E.  Motylev 

A.  Kantorovitch 
G.  Voitinsky 
Edward  C.  Carter 
Harriet  Moore 
Kate  Mitchell 

Mr.  Carter  had  prepared  an  Agenda  for  the  Meeting,  a  copy  of  which  is  at- 
tached to  this  Report.  It  was  agreed  that  the  points  listed  should  be  taken  up 
in  order. 


mSTITUTE   OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  5133 

1.  Organisation  of  I.  P.  R.  Conferences. — Mr.  Carter  explained  that  the  various 
international  committees  of  the  I.  P.  C.  listed  under  item  7  on  the  Agenda,  held 
their  Meetings  for  two  or  three  days  before  and  after  the  Conference.  The 
Conference  itself  is  devoted  entirely  to  education  and  research  work.  Mr.  Carter 
then  described  the  "Round  Table"  technique.  He  explained  that  at  I.  P.  R.  Con- 
ferences, papers  are  read  by  the  members  in  advance  of  the  Confrence  and  that 
the  discussion  begins  as  soon  as  the  Conference  opens.  The  Conference  is  divided 
into  four  or  five  Round  Table  groups,  with  from  35  to  40  members  at  each. 
Discussions  begin  at  9  o'clock  in  the  morning  and  ordinarily  last  until  12  p.  m. 
The  afternoons  are  given  up  to  informal  discussion  amongst  small  groups  of 
Conference  members.  The  Conference  meets  as  a  whole,  every  two  or  three  days, 
and  at  this  time  Reports  are  read  by  either  the  Chairman  or  the  Secretary  of 
each  Round  Table,  thus  enabling  the  Members  to  follow  the  course  of  discussions 
at  Round  Tables  other  than  their  own. 

Mr.  Motylev  asked  whether  discussion  at  the  Round  Tables  was  organised. 

Mr.  Carter  explained  that  each  Round  Table  had  a  Chairman  and  a  Secretary 
who  were  responsible  for  guiding  a  discussion  in  such  a  way  that  all  points  of 
view  were  presented.  The  object  of  the  Round  Table  technique  is  to  ensure  both 
a  free  and  informal  discussion  and  at  the  same  time  to  make  sure  that  each 
member  of  a  Round  Table  is  given  an  opportunity  to  make  his  special  contribu- 
tion. In  dividing  the  Members  of  the  Conference  among  the  Round  Tables,  the 
Programme  Committee  consults  with  the  National  Secretaries  and  attempts: — 

(a)  To  see  that  national  groups  are  divided  equally  amongst  the  Round 
Tables,  and 

(b)  To  see  that  the  division  brings  together  men  and  women  of  similar 
interests  or  fields  of  knowledge. 

Every  effort  is  made  to  avoid  the  formation  of  national  blocs  on  any  question 
under  discussion.  Mr.  Carter  explained  that  this  description  was,  of  course,  a 
"Council  of  perfection,"  but  that  he  hoped  that  in  the  next  Conference  the  Round 
Tables  would  be  organised  better  than  they  had  ever  been  before,  and  that  this 
standard  of  perfection  would  be  more  nearly  attained  than  in  former  years. 

Mr.  Motylev  asked  how  the  Round  Table  topics  were  divided  amongst  the 
different  groups. 

Mr.  Carter  explained  that  all  the  Round  Tables  discussed  the  same  topics  at 
the  same  time.  The  equal  di^^sion  of  time  amongst  the  five  Round  Tables  topics 
had  not  yet  been  decided.  Presumably  the  first  two  days  would  be  spent  on 
topic  (a)  "Japanese  Economic  Expansion  in  World  Markets."  The  next  two 
days  on  "The  United  States  Recovery  Programme;"  three  days  on  the  "Soviet 
Union" ;  two  days  on  "China" ;  and  three  days  on  the  final  topic,  "The  Changing 
Balance  of  Political  Forces  in  the  Pacific." 

Mr.  Motylev  expressed  satisfaction  with  this  plan  of  organisation.  He  ex- 
plained that  it  would  be  something  new  in  Russian  experience  but  that  he  felt 
that  it  had  a  distinct  advantage  in  that  it  created  a  chance  for  every  member 
of  the  Conference  to  express  his  opinion  on  the  subjects  under  disciission. 

Mr.  Motylev  then  discussed  the  points  raised  in  the  letter  sent  by  the  Secretary 
General  to  the  members  of  the  Institute  from  Amsterdam,  December  18th,  1934. 
In  general  he  was  in  full  agreement  with  the  provisions  contained  therein.  With 
regard  to  the  specific  points,  he  felt  that  the  American  Consul's  proposal  for 
changing  topic  (e)  was  not  sound.  The  Soviet  Union  has  no  special  interest  in 
Manchuria  and,  therefore  he  did  not  see  that  the  question  of  Manchuria's  status 
could  properly  be  discussed  in  connection  with  the  topic  concerning  the  Soviet 
policy  in  the  Far  East.  It  might,  of  course,  be  considered  in  connection  with  the 
topic  dealing  with  China,  but  he  felt  that  it  would  be  better  to  leave  it  under 
topic  (e). 

Mr.  Carter  said  that  he  was  very  glad  to  have  this  expression  of  Soviet  opinion. 

Mr.  Voitinsky  said  that  he  felt  topic  (e)  was  very  well  formulated  and  should 
prove  valuable  in  summarising  the  problems  brought  out  during  the  discussion 
of  the  first  four  topics. 

With  regard  to  the  daily  papers  which  the  Union  intends  to  contribute  to  the 
Conference,  Mr.  Motylev  explained  that  the  Council  had  decided  to  combine  Nos. 
4  and  5. 

This  paper  will  deal  not  only  with  the  economies,  but  also  with  the  political 
struggle  in  the  Pacific  and  will  therefore  furnish  the  Soviet  data  for  the  final 
Round  Table.  Mr.  Motylev  raised  the  question  as  to  whether  the  National  Coun- 
cils were  still  to  be  allowed  to  prepare  an  official  paper  as  stated  in  the  Secretary 
General's  Memorandum  of  June  21st.  Mr.  Carter  said  that  this  provision  still 
held  good  and  that  his  December  18th  Memorandum  in  no  way  superceded  the 


5134  INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 

provisions  of  the  former  Memorandum.  Mr.  Motylev  explained  tliat  the  Soviet 
g^roup  had  not  decided  on  any  additional  paper,  but  wished  to  be  free  to  con- 
tribute one  if  international  conditions  should  make  it  necessary. 

Mr.  Kantorovitch  added  that  the  Soviet  Council  would  see  that  a  definitive  list 
of  papers  were  sent  to  the  Secretariat  by  April  1st,  1935,  and  a  partial  list  of 
probable  Soviet  members  by  December  1st,  1935. 

2,  Interim  Research  Conferences. — Mr.  Motylev  explained  that  before  he  could 
give  Mr.  Carter  a  definite  answer  with  regard  to  Soviet  attendance  at  the  pro- 
posed Conference  in  Tokyo  in  April,  the  Soviet  Council  would  have  to  discuss 
the  question  of  standards  of  living  studies  with  various  specialists  in  that  field. 
This  would  be  done  during  the  next  few  weeks  and  he  would  then  send  to  Mr. 
Carter  and  to  Mr.  Holland,  the  Soviet  Council's  views  on  the  question  of  possible 
research  projects  in  this  field  within  the  Soviet  Union;  With  regard  to  Mr. 
Carter's  invitation  to  him  to  attend  the  Conference  in  person,  Mr.  Motylev  ex- 
j)lained  that  his  teaching  duties  would  ordinarily  occupy  him  until  June  and  that 
it  might  be  difficult  for  him  to  leave  Moscow  by  April  1st.  He  asked  whether  the 
Conference  was  to  be  a  general  one  confined  to  Members  from  the  Far  Eastern 
countries. 

Mr.  Carter  explained  that  the  original  plan  had  been  for  a  Regional  Confer- 
ence, but  that  information  which  he  had  received  while  in  America  and  Moscow 
had  led  him  to  feel  that  it  was  of  the  utmost  importance  that  the  Soviet  Union, 
Great  Britain  and  the  United  States  should  be  represented  there.  The  principal 
task  of  the  Conference  will  be  to  try  and  work  out  a  common  methodology  for 
all  future  work  in  the  field  of  standards  of  living  and  for  this  reason  it  ia 
desirable  that  it  should  be  as  international  in  character  as  is  possible  at  this 
short  notice. 

Mr.  Motylev  said  that  although  Soviet  representation  might  not  be  ix>ssible, 
the  Council  would  send  a  Memorandum  setting  forth  their  views  on  this  ques- 
tion. 

The  Meeting  then  took  up  items  3  and  4  on  the  Agenda. 

With  regard  to  the  exchange  of  staff,  Mr.  Motylev  said  that  he  was  thoroughly 
in  agreement  with  the  principle  involved.  In  this  connection  he  might  say  that 
the  financial  aspect  need  not  prove  the  handicap  which  Mr.  Carter  evidently 
feared.  The  Soviet  Council  could,  if  it  desired,  send  students  at  its  own  ex- 
pense as  it  had  been  given  a  certain  endowment  in  valuta.  The  working  out  of 
principle  might,  however,  take  time  as  the  Soviet  Council  would  first  have  to 
attract  research  workers  and  students  interested  in  the  idea  of  such  an  exchange. 

Mr.  Kantorovitch  expressed  his  gratitude  at  the  invitation  of  the  American 
Council  for  him  to  spend  a  period  of  months  in  the  New  York  Office.  It  was,  of 
course,  impossible  for  him  to  accept  at  present,  but  it  might  be  arranged  at  a 
later  date. 

Mr.  Carter  said  that  he  understood  that  ^Ir.  Kantorovitch  would  be  very'  oc- 
cupied in  Moscow  for  the  next  few  months,  but  that  the  invitation  was  a  stand- 
ing one  which  he  hoped  could  be  accepted  later  on. 

Mr.  Motylev  expressed  regret  that  Miss  Moore  had  not  asked  for  more  help 
from  the  Soviet  Council.  He  exijlained  that  his  Institute  had  a  special  depart- 
ment for  securing  all  necessities  in  the  way  of  materials  for  his  staff,  and  he 
hoped  that  Miss  Moore  will  make  full  use  of  it.  He  also  hoped  to  arrange  any 
special  consultations  with  experts  in  various  fields  which  would  be  useful  for 
Miss  Moore  in  carrying  out  her  proposed  study.  With  regard  to  the  possibility 
of  Miss  Moore  visiting  F.uriat,  Mongolia,  he  was  a  little  doubtful,  but  promised 
to  do  everything  he  could  to  help  her  in  arranging  this,  should  she  wish  to  do  so. 
Miss  Moore  expressed  her  appreciation  of  this  offer  and  explained  that  the 
reason  she  had  not  hitherto  asked  for  more  assistance  was  because  she  had 
been  concentrating  upon  her  study  of  the  lan,guage  and  had  not  as  yet  begun 
much  actual  work  on  her  research  project. 

5.  An  English  Edition  of  the  Great  Xoviet  World  Atlas. — Mr.  Carter  felt  that 
it  would  be  a  very  valuable  contribution  to  the  work  of  the  I.  I*.  R.  if  such  an 
edition  could  be  arranged,  as  English  was  the  first  or  second  language  for  the 
majority  of  the  member  countries. 

Mr.  Motylev  promised  to  inform  the  Editorial  Council  of  Mr.  Carter's  proposal 
and  expressed  the  hope  that  a  favourable  decision  would  be  possible. 

6.  Langiiaffe  Problem. — Mr.  Carter  explained  that  one  of  the  most  difficult 
problems  now  facing  the  I.  P.  R.  was  that  of  the  language  barrier  amongst  its 
different  members.  As  one  step  in  attacking  this  problem  the  American  Coun- 
cil of  the  I.  P.  R.,  in  collaboration  with  Harvard  University,  had  put  on  'a. 
Summer  School  during  1934,  for  an  intensive  study  of  the  Russian  language. 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS  5135 

This  experiment  had  iiroved  so  .successful  that  it  is  to  be  repeated  at  Cohimbia 
University  in  the  summer  of  1935.  Mr.  Carter  also  mentioned  that  Mrs.  Barnes 
had  consulted  with  Tolokonoky.  the  Soviet  Consul-General  in  New  York,  con- 
cerning the  possibility  of  securing  a  Russian  instructor  for  the  school.  Toloko- 
noky had  suggested  writing  direct  to  Arosev  for  his  suggestions.  Prince  Mlr- 
sky's  name  had  been  mentioned  as  a  possibility  and  Mr.  Carter  wished  to  find 
out  from  the  Praesidium  their  reaction  to  this  proposal.  Mr.  Motylev  asked 
what  the  terms  would  be.  Mr.  Carter  explained  that  Professor  Patrick  at  the 
University  of  California  had  been  secured  for  the  first  part  of  the  school  and 
that  Mirsky  would  be  requested  to  take  the  second  half,  from  approximately 
July  22d  to  August  30th.  His  travelling  expenses  wovild  be  paid  and  he  would 
receive  $800  in  addition.  The  Praesidium  appeared  to  feel  that  there  was  no 
reason  why  Mirsky  should  not  be  approached  if  it  seemed  advisable. 

Mr.  Carter  next  mentioned  the  question  of  Basic  English,  explaining  that 
the  I.  P.  R.'s  interest  in  Basic  was  entirely  as  a  method  of  learning  English  in 
a  much  shorter  length  of  time.  He  told  of  his  conversations  with  Litvinova 
and  showed  Mr.  Motilev  the  clippings  from  Pravda  which  dealt  with  the  matter 
of  language  teaching  in  the  U.  S.  S.  R.  Mr.  Motilev  expressed  great  interest 
and  promised  to  get  into  touch  with  Litvinova  at  once.  He  agreed  that  the 
present  teaching  of  English  in  the  Soviet  Union  was  far  from  satisfactory  and 
was  eager  to  learn  more  about  Basic  as  a  simpler  and  more  effective  method. 

7.  International  Committees. — Mr.  Carter  explained  that  the  Soviet  group 
was  entitled  to  representation  upon  all  the  International  Committees  of  the  I. 
P.  R.  The  Praesidium  agreed  to  take  up  this  question  with  the  Council  and  to 
inform  Mr.  Carter  as  to  their  nominations  for  the  varioiis  positions. 

8.  Studies  in  Standards  of  Living  and  Culture. — Under  this  topic  the  hope  was 
merely  left  that,  if  possible,  Mr.  Motilov  himself  should  attend  the  Research 
Conference  in  Tokyo,  at  which  time  he  could  convey  the  views  of  the  Soviet 
group  with  regard  to  possible  studies  in  this  field,  and  that  if  his  attendance 
was  impossible,  a  memorandum  embodying  these  views  should  be  sent. 

9.  Exchange  of  Books. — This  had  ali'eady  been  worked  out  with  Kantorovich 
and  no  further  discussion  appeared  necessary  at  this  time. 

10.  Catalogue  in  Russian  of  all  books  on  the  Far  East. — Mr.  Carter  asked 
whether  the  catalogue  of  all  books  in  Russian  dealing  with  Far  Eastern  questions 
which  the  Soviet  Council  was  planning  was  to  be  made  available  in  England  as 
well.  Mr.  Kantorovich  explained  that  this  would  be  a  very  expensive  proposi- 
tion but  that  the  catalogue  would  be  available  in  the  Soviet  Council  office  and  that 
Miss  Moore  could  select  such  items  from  it  as  she  considered  important  for 
translation  into  English. 

11.  Finance. — Mr.  Carter  stated  that  contributions  to  the  Pacific  Council  were 
not  obligatory,  but  there  were  two  factors  to  be  considered.  First,  that  the  Pa- 
cific Council  always  needed  money,  and  second,  that  if  the  Soviet  Union  made 
no  financial  contribution,  some  countries  might  feel  that  the  Soviet  Union  was 
not  fully  taking  part  in  the  Institute's  work.  Mr.  Carter  himself,  of  course,  did 
not  share  this  feeling,  but  he  knew  that  the  Soviet  Council  would  understand 
that  such  an  attitude  might  be  held. 

At  Mr.  Motilov's  request,  Mr.  Carter  quoted  the  contributions  which  each  of 
the  National  groups  had  given  over  the  last  few  years.  He  also  explained  the 
financial  situation  of  the  International  Research  Committee  and  the  method  by 
which  grants  from  the  International  Research  field  were  used  to  stimulate  local 
financial  support  for  research  work. 

Mr.  Motilev  said  that  so  far  the  I.  P.  R.  had  not  proved  itself  in  the  Soviet 
Union  sufficiently  for  him  to  be  able  to  guarantee  a  definite  financial  contribu- 
tion. He  said,  however,  that  it  was  only  a  question  of  time  and  not  of  principle ; 
that  the  Soviet  Council  wants  and  can  participate  fully  in  the  work  of  the  I.  P.  R. 
and  that  the  question  of  financial  contribution  will  be  discussed  with  all  the 
institutions  represented  in  the  U.  S.  S.  R.  Council. 

12.  Publicity. — As  an  example  of  the  type  of  publicity  which  the  I.  P.  R.  sought 
for  its  publications,  Mr  Carter  displayed  a  copy  of  a  review  of  the  economic 
liandbook  of  the  Pacific  area  which  had  appeared  in  the  New  York  Times.  He 
explained  that  the  Institute  preferred  to  have  its  work  speak  for  itself  rather 
than  go  in  for  more  direct  methods  of  publicity  and  propaganda. 

13  &  14.  Chatham  Rouse  Report  and  Report  of  Federation  of  British  Industries 
Mission  to  Manchuria. — At  the  request  of  Mr.  Carter  six  copies  of  the  Chatham 
House  Annual  Report  had  already  been  received  by  Mr.  Kantorovich.  A  copy  of 
the  report  of  the  F.  B.  I.  Mission  to  Manchuria  will  be  sent  at  once. 


5136  INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 

15.  PtiUication  of  Somet  I.  P.  R.  studies  in  English. — Mr.  Kantorovich  ex- 
plained that  the  first  instalment  prepared  by  the  Soviet  Council  should  be  ready 
for  publication  by  June  1935,  and  Mr.  Carter  promised  to  take  up  the  question 
of  its  publication  with  a  publisher  either  in  London  or  New  York. 

16  &  17.  Soviet  Report,  etc.,  and  contribution  to  Pacific  Affairs. — Mr.  Kan-* 
torovich  promised  to  send  a  regular  contribution  for  I.  P.  R.  Notes,  and  also  to 
get  into  touch  directly  with  Mr.  Lattimore  on  the  matter  of  Soviet  articles  and. 
reviews  for  Pacific  Affairs.  He  also  requested  Mr.  Carter  to  supply  the  Soviet 
office  with  a  full  set  of  all  back  numbers  of  Pacific  Affairs. 

18.  A  possible  bibliographical  seri;(ce.— With  regard  to  the  possible  biblio- 
graphical service  already  described  by  Mr.  Carter,  Mr.  Kantorovich  again  ex- 
pressed the  opinion  that  what  the  Soviet  Council  would  value  most  would  be  a 
list  sent  at  regular  intervals  from  America,  and,  if  possible,  from  London,  of 
what  the  I.  P.  R.  groups  in  both  countries  feel  are  the  really  important  books 
and  articles  on  the  Pacific  appearing  in  the  English  language.  A  list  of  such 
books  together  with  a  brief  descriptive  comment  as  to  which  might  be  the  most 
important  and  also  such  reviews  as  might  appear  in  other  journals,  would 
serve  their  purpose  adequately.  It  was  obvious  that  the  Praesidium  felt  that  in  a 
bibliographical  service  conducted  from  London  or  Washington  by  a  staff  that 
would  presumably  be  predominantly  capitalistic,  it  would  be  diflicult  to  describe 
either  Soviet  or  other  books  in  a  manner  which  could  be  regarded  as  objective  by 
both  communistic  and  capitalistic  readers.  It  was  also  obvious  that  the  Soviet 
Council  did  not  welcome  the  idea  of  being  grouped  with  China  and  Japan  as 
Asiatic  countries.  Unless  the  bibliographical  service  included  English  language 
publications,  it  would  not  be  greeted  with  any  very  enthusiastic  support.  It 
also  appeared  that  they  are  not  particularly  impressed  with  the  scientific  quality 
or  the  indispensability  of  much  of  the  literature  now  being  published  in  China 
and  Japan. 

19.  Status  of  Aliens  and  Communications. — Mr.  Kantorovich  reported  that  the 
Soviet  Council  would  undertake  to  prepare  a  section  for  the  International  studies 
on  the  status  of  aliens  and  on  communications  in  the  Pacific,  as  requested  by  Mr. 
Carter  and  by  the  International  Research  Committee. 

Decembeb  30,  1934. 

AGENDA 

1.  Organisation  of  I.  P.  R.  Conferences. 

2.  Attendance  at  Tokyo  Research  Conference. 

3.  Exchange  of  staff  and  research  workers. 

(a)  Invitation  to  Kantorovich  to  visit  New  York. 

(b)  Exchange  of  research  workers  (e.  g.,  Miss  Moore). 

4.  Miss  Moore's  research  plans. 

5.  A  request  that  an  English  edition  of  the  new  great  Soviet  World  Atlas  b» 

considered. 

6.  Language  problems  in  the  I.  P.  R. 

(a)  Advisability  of  securing  D.  S.  Mirsky  for  the  L  P.  R.-Columbia  Bn»> 

sian  Language  School. 

(b)  Experiments  with  Basic  English. 

7.  International  Appointments; 

(a)  Pacific  Council. 

(b)  National  Secretary. 

(c)  Research  Committee. 

(d)  Publications  Committee. 

(e)  Finance  Committee. 

(f)  Pacific  Affairs  Correspondent. 

(g)  Program  Committee. 

8.  Studies  in  Standards  of  Living  and  Culture. 

9.  Exchange  of  books. 

10.  Catalogue  in  Russian  of  all  books  on  the  Far  East. 

11.  Finance. 

12.  Publicity. 

13.  Chatham  House  Report. 

14.  Report  of  Federation  of  British  Industries  Mission  to  Manchuria. 

15.  Publication  in  English,  in  England  or  America,  of  Soviet  I.  P.  R.  studies. 

16.  Soviet  report,  quarterly,  to  I.  P.  R.  Notes. 

17.  Regular  Soviet  contribution  to  Pacific  Affaies. 
38.  A  possible  bibliographical  service. 

19.  Status  of  aliens  and  Communications. 


INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  5137 

Exhibit  1006 
On  Board  SS.  "Chitral,"  January  18,  19S5. 

Miss  M.  E.  Oleve, 

10  St.  James  Square,  London,  England. 

Dear  Madge  :  In  looking  over  our  notes  on  the  Moscow  visit,  I  have  discovered, 
that  I  have  failed  to  pass  on  one  question  raised  by  Kantorovich.  I  do  not  know 
whether  you  have  heard  from  him  at  all  and,  if  so,  whether  he  mentioned  to  you 
this  matter. 

It  is  this.  He  would  like  to  have  the  Chatham  House  publications  on  the 
Far  East  and  on  the  Pacific  on  an  exchange  basis.  In  addition  he  wanted  me  to 
inquire  whether  you  could  consider  an  exchange  arrangement  by  which  you 
would  send  him  the  more  important  English  books  on  the  Far  East  in  the  eco- 
nomic and  political  field  in  return  for  Soviet  publications  on  the  Soviet  Far  East 
and  Pacific. 

Mr.  Field  has  arranged  to  send  to  Moscow  not  only  everyone  of  the  I.  P.  R. 
publications  from  the  very  beginning  but  in  addition  a  substantial  number  of 
American  and  Canadian  publications  on  the  Far  East  and  the  Pacific.  In  return 
for  these  Kantorovich  has  already  dispatched  to  New  York  a  big  shipment  of 
Soviet  publications.     Enclosed  is  the  list  of  those  that  have  already  gone. 

I  fully  appreciate  the  nature  of  the  difficulties  which  Sir  Hageburg  Wright 
has  raised  in  connection  with  exchanges  of  English  and  Soviet  publications. 
While  I  have  not  met  him  personally,  I  am  acquainted  with  friends  of  his  iu 
liondon  and  Paris.  I  am  told  that  he  feels  that  English  books  of  high  quality 
are  sent  to  Moscow  and  Soviet  books  of  inferior  quality  are  sent  to  London  in 
return.  Part  of  the  diflSculty  is  due  to  two  different  sets  of  values.  One  in 
Moscow,  another  in  London.  It  would  not  be  surprising  to  discover  that  some 
Russian  scholars  do  not  regard  as  final  some  English  writing. 

If  you  and  your  colleagues  share  Sir  Hageburg's  skepticism  with  reference 
to  the  importance  of  contemporary  Soviet  Publication,  I  would  not  advise  your 
attempting  at  this  stage  any  substantial  exchange  arrangement. 

If,  however,  there  is  at  Chatham  House  any  considerable  group  of  people  like 
E.  H.  Carr  and  Miss  Makower  who  feel  that  it  is  of  the  highest  importance  that 
English  students  acquaint  themselves  fully  with  what  Soviet  leaders  themselves 
regard  as  important,  I  should  advise  you  to  explore  the  possibilities  of  a  substan- 
tial measure  of  interchange.  It  may  be  that  you  will  find  that  it  will  not  be 
worth  while  to  do  this  until  you  have  on  the  Chatham  House  staff  some  member 
-who  not  only  has  a  mastery  of  the  Russian  language  but  also  a  mastery,  through 
living  and  studying  in  the  Soviet  Union,  of  some  one  aspect  of  contemporary 
Soviet  life. 

I  would  be  grateful  if  you  would  share  this  letter  with  Arnold. 
Very  sincerely  yours, 

E.  C.  Carter. 

Enclosure. 

Copies  to  W.  Holland,  Miss  Moore,  and  Mrs.  Barnes. 


•office  of  the  secret aey  general 

Exhibit  No.  1007 
The  Instittjte  of  Pacific  Relations 

honoltjlit,  hawaii 

SS.  "Cabthage,"  Feb.  23,  1935. 
WnxiAM  Holland, 

123  Boulevard  de  Montigny,  Shanghai. 

Dear  Brrx :  You  have  very  kindly  sent  me  a  copy  of  your  letter  of  Feb.  5th  to 
Kantorovich  in  which  you  rebuked  the  Soviet  Group  for  proposing  the  Paper  by 
Dimantshtein. 

In  view  of  the  fact  that  we  were  to  meet  within  a  fortnight.  I  wish  to  record 
my  regret  that  you  did  not  see  fit  to  delay  your  rebuke  until  we  could  meet.  With 
my  colleagues  of  the  Soviet  Group  I  went  over  the  proposed  list  of  Papers  for 
the  next  Conference.  Without  consulting  me  and  within  precisely  five  weeks  of 
the  Secretary  General's  Moscow  visit  you  take  a  line  that  in  Moscow  might  be 


5138  INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS 

regarded  as  evidence  of  a  breach  between  the  Secretary  General  and  his  Research 
Secretary.  No  such  breach  exists.  It  is  a  pity  to  give  Moscow  such  a  false 
impression. 

Sincerely  yours, 

[s]     Ned. 
(Handwritten:)   Please  don't  take  this  letter  too  seriously.     Please  hand  me 
as  soon  as  possible  a  copy  of  Kantorovich  letter  to  you  of  Jan.  13. 


Exhibit  No.  1010 
Extracts  From  Letter  From  Harriet  Moore  to  E.  C.  Carter  of  March  20,  1935 

I  was  glad  to  receive  a  copy  of  your  letter  to  Bill  Holland  about  the  Dimansh- 
tien  paper.  I  understand  unofficially  from  Harondar  that  the  group  here  was 
rather  taken  aback  by  the  letter.  This  matter,  of  course,  arose  over  a  misuuder- 
standing  in  terminology,  a  thing  for  which  we  are  really  to  blame,  since  corre- 
spondence has  to  be  carried  on  in  English,  due  to  our  ignorance  of  other  languages. 
Here  "National  Policy"  always  means  policy  in  regard  to  (minor)  nationalities. 

As  a  matter  of  fact,  I  don't  understand  why  there  is  any  objection  to  this 
paper,  since  the  original  list  of  proposed  papers  for  the  USSR  group,  as  it  ap- 
peared in  the  IPR  Notes  of  October,  listed  a.  Economic  and  Social  development  in 
Siberia  and  the  Soviet  Far  East.  The  list  that  the  USSR  group  proposed  divided 
this  group  into  two  papers  :  The  first  and  second  Five-Year  plans  in  the  Soviet  Far 
East,  for  the  economic  development;  The  National  Policy  in  the  Soviet  Far  East 
for  the  social  development.  It  is  true  that  they  do  not  provide  a  paper  on  their 
foreign  relations  in  the  Far  East,  as  was  proposed  in  the  original  outline.  That, 
however,  could  be  an  additional  paper  and  need  not  exclude  Dimanshtien's. 

You  did  not  ask  me  for  any  comments  on  this  matter,  but  I  am  giving  them  for 
two  reasons ;  first,  because  Dimanshtien,  as  you  know,  is  the  authority  on  this 
sub.1ect  and  his  paper  ought  to  be  good ;  and,  secondly,  because  I  feel  that  this 
question  has  a  bearing  on  the  agenda  and  even  more  on  the  research  problem  of 
cultural  relations  (Incidently,  if  it  has  no  bearing,  my  Buriats  also  are  a  bit 
extraneous). 

The  next  question  is  the  "Suggestions  for  Round  Table  Agenda."  As  I  under- 
stand it,  the  six  points  listed  here  would  all  be  taken  up  in  each  of  the  first  four 
major  round  tables,  as  announced  in  your  letter  of  December  18th.  For  the  fifth 
round  table  on  "Changing  balance  of  political  forces  in  the  Pacific"  a  different 
agenda  would  be  worked  out  later. 

I  would  suggest  adding  one  or  two  topics  under  several  of  the  headings.  Under 
3,  Social  Policy,  I  would  add  Social  Insurance,  in  general.  Under  4,  Foreign 
Trade  and  Tariff  Policy,  I  would  add  "INIanipulation  of  value  of  currency." 
Perhaps  this  is  covered  by  "Foreign  Exchange  Policy,"  but  it  should  be  clearly 
stated.  Under  6,  National  Defence  Policy,  it  would  be  interesting  to  get  an  idea 
of  the  meaning  of  "Defense,"  as  the  term  is  used  in  each  country :  e.  g.,  how  far 
U.  S.  defense  extends  to  defending  the  Monroe  Doctrine ;  offense  as  defence;  etc. 

Another  question  I  would  raise  is  in  regard  to  the  inclusion  of  "Class  con- 
Bciousness"  under  Social  Policy.  I  think  it  is  fair  to  say  the  USSR  is  the  only 
country  that  has  the  development  of  class  consciousness  as  part  of  its  social  policy. 
Other  countries  tend  to  foster  patriotism,  nationalism,  or  racial  consciousness.  I 
think  this  question  is  very  interesting,  but  that  some  other  term  should  be  found 
to  cover  class  consciousness  and  all  the  others,  something  that  would  mean  "THE 
policy  in  regard  to  fostering  some  type  of  social  psychology  or  maSs  attitude." 
Perhaps  "Mass  attitudes"  would  serve  though  it  would  need  a  certain  amount  of 
explanation. 

The  first  three  jwints  in  the  agenda  could  be  considered  matters  of  primarily 
domestic  importance,  while  the  last  three  are  directly  international  in  their 
effects.  In  view  of  the  fact  that  the  topics  for  the  round  tables  in  your  letter 
of  December  18  emphasises  the  International  effects  of  the  respective  national 
policies.  I  think  it  might  be  advisable  to  stress  this  in  the  agenda  by  putting 
under  each  of  the  last  three  points.  4,  5,  6.  a  defiaite  topic  on  "International 
repercussions  of,  or  reactions  to,  "The  Foreign  trade  policy.  Monetary  policy, 
and  Defence  Policy,     *     *     *. 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS  5139 

Exhibit  No.  1011 

Copy  for  W.  L.  Holland. 

Imperial  Hotel, 
Tokyo,  May  4,  1935. 
Dr.  V.  E.  MoTYLEV, 

20  Razin  Street,  Moscow. 
Dear  Dr.  Mottlev  :    This  is  to  confirm  our  recent  interchange  of  cables  as 

follows : 

"Tokyo,  April  22nd. 

"Cable  whether  coming  Orient  if  so  dates  arriving  China,  Japan." 

"Moscow,  April  23rd. 

"Trip  Soviet  Far  East  definitely  scheduled  June.  Possibility  visiting 
China,  Japan,  Korea  decided  late  May.  In  case  positive  decision  arriving 
July." 

The  object  of  this  letter  is  to  inquire  whether,  in  the  event  of  your  visiting 
China,  Japan,  and  Korea,  you  would  like  me  to  arrange  for  Mr.  W.  L.  Holland 
to  meet  you  on  or  about  the  1st  of  July,  either  in  Peiping,  Dairen,  or  Changchun 
(Hsinking).  Mr.  Holland  is  writing  to  Kanterovitch  at  this  time  very  fully  with 
reference  to  the  recommendations  which  we  are  passing  on  to  the  National 
Councils  in  the  light  of  the  discussions  at  the  Tokyo  conference.  They  involve 
a  substantial  change  in  the  program  as  adopted  at  Banff.  In  addition  to  the 
correspondence  between  Holland  and  Kantorovitch  it  would  facilitate  coopera- 
tion between  the  Pacific  Council  and  the  Soviet  Council  if  it  were  possible  for 
Mr.  Holland  to  meet  you  personally.  Among  others  there  would  be  three  advan- 
tages in  such  a  meeting;  1)  mutual  acquaintance  between  yourself  and  Holland, 
and  discussion  of  the  I.  P.  R.  research  program,  2)  you  could  tell  Mr.  Holland 
of  the  latest  developments  in  the  U.  S.  S.  R.  I.  P.  R.,  3)  Mr.  Holland  could 
assist  in  putting  you  in  touch  with  I.  P.  R.  and  other  leaders  in  China  and 
Japan  so  as  to  make  your  visits  as  fruitful  as  possible  from  the  point  of  view  both 
of  the  I.  P.  R.  and  of  the  other  purposes  you  have  in  mind  in  coming  to  the 
Far  East. 

If  you  are  not  able  to  visit  China  and  Japan  but  would  like  to  have  Mr. 
Holland  spend  a  couple  of  days  with  you,  he  could  meet  you  either  at  Manchouli 
or  Vladivostok  on  or  about  the  fifth  of  July. 

If  you  desire  it  Mr.  Holland  would  be  glad  to  spend  a  week  with  you  in  the 
first  half  of  July  either  in  China,  Manchuria,  the  Soviet  Far  East,  or  Japan. 
It  would  be  a  tremendous  education  for  Holland  to  have  the  privilege  of  meeting 
you.  I  realize,  however,  that  your  engagements  in  the  Soviet  Far  East  may 
make  such  a  meeting  impossible. 

As  you  know,  I  shall  be  in  Honolulu  from  May  22nd  to  June  3rd.  Would  you 
please  cable  me.  CARTER,  INPAREL,  HONOLULU,  as  soon  as  possible  after  my 
arrival  in  Honolulu  as  to  whether  you  would  like  to  have  Holland  meet  you, 
and,  if  so,  when  and  where. 

Holland  himself  has  to  leave  Yokohama  for  Honolulu  on  either  July  9th  or 
July  19th.  He  can  easily  stay  in  the  Far  East  until  July  19th  if  this  permits  of 
meeting  you.  He  is  transferring  his  Far  Eastern  headquarters  from  Tokyo  to 
Shanghai  at  the  end  of  this  month.  His  forwarding  address  throughout  June 
will  be  %  The  China  Institute  of  Pacific  Relations,  123  Boulevard  de  Montigny, 
Shanghai;  cables;  Holland,  Inparel,  Shanghai. 
Sincerely  yours, 

Edward  C.  Carteii. 


Exhibit  No.  1012 
Copy  for  Miss  Austern. 

Sunset  Farm, 
Lee,  Mass.,  10th  September,  1935. 
Dr.  V.  E.  Motilev, 

20,  Razin  Street,  Moscow,  U.  8.  S.  R. 

De:ar  Db.  Motilev  :  You  will  be  receiving  a  formal  acknowledgment  from  Mr. 
F.  C.  Atherton,  the  Treasurer  in  Honolulu,  of  the  Soviet  Council's  very  generous 
contribution  of  $2,000  (American)  to  the  budget  of  the  Pacific  Council.  I  want, 


5140  INSTITUTE    OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS 

however,  to  add  my  own  personal  and  official  thanks,  through  you,  to  the  Soviet 
Council,  for  this  substantial  aid  in  financing  the  international  work  of  the  I.  P.  R. 
It  means  a  great  deal,  that  the  newest  of  the  national  member  groups  should 
make  so  generous  a  contribution  within  a  year  of  its  formation. 
With  kindest  personal  regards, 
I  am,  sincerely  yours, 

Edward  C.  Caeteb. 


Exhibit  No.  1013 
Moscow — Meeting  in  Mottlev's  Office,  12-2 :  30 

March  31,  1936. 

Present :  Motylev,  Harondar,  Carter,  Lattimore,  Moore,  Tyler,  Donaldson. 

To  be  discussed  at  a  future  conference:  The  Administrative  problems  of  the 
I.  P.  R.,  and  the  problems  of  the  Pacific  Area. 

Motylev  said  that  he  would  arrange  conversations  with  individuals  who  were 
primarily  interested  in  Mongolia,  for  Mr.  Lattimore  in  particular ;  and  the  Far 
East  in  general,  for  Mr.  Carter. 

Lattimore  wanted  to  see  all  the  reports  and  books  on  Mongolia  available. 
Motylev  stated  that  these  were  almost  entirely  in  Russian,  but  if  some  could  be 
found  in  Mongolian  these  would  be  produced  for  Lattimore,  otherwise  Moore  could 
help  L.  with  the  Russian  texts. 

Motylev  said  that  his  report  was  ready  for  the  Yosemite  conference,  and  that  he 
had  collected  immense  wealth  of  material.    All  reports  Harondar  would  translate. 

Exchanfje  of  Literature. — Carter  requested  that  more  literature  be  sent  to 
New  York  dealing  with  the  internal  development  of  the  Soviet  Union. 

Pacific  Affairs  to  be  discussed  at  a  future  conference. 

Organisational  questions. — Questions  v^^ere  to  be  formulated  to  be  answered 
at  a  future  conference,  in  conversation  not  in  writing. 

Motylev  said  that  he  was  ready  to  discuss  contradictions  and  interrelations 
in  the  Pacific,  Britain's  role  in  the  Pacific,  etc. 

Carter  desired  that  his  staff  should  have  the  Atlas  shown  and  explained  to  them. 

German-Japanese  alliance. — Motylev  stated  that  a  German-Japanese  alliance 
was  only  feasible  from  a  military  point  of  view.  Japan  could  not  possibly  hope 
to  wage  a  war  against  the  Soviet  Union  single-handed.  Germany  is  strong  in 
the  air,  Japan  is  not.  From  an  economic  standpoint  the  alliance  is  ridiculous. 
Neither  party  can  expect  to  gain  anything.  Both  are  deficient  in  raw  materials, 
both  export  finished  goods.     In  fact,  they  are  economic  rivals. 

Soviet  Far  East  industrialization  was  predetermined  and  inevitable  without 
Japanese  aggression.  Naturally  since  1931  it  has  been  influenced  by  military 
considerations.  The  direction  remains  the  same,  but  the  tempo  has  changed. 
Japanese  action  has  necessitated  acceleration. 


Exhibit  No.  1014 

May  18, 1936. 

ECC  from  FVF : 

In  reply  to  your  letter  of  May  12th  regarding  the  allocation  of  Harriet  Moore's 
services  to  the  Pacific  Council  for  the  next  year  or  two,  the  matter  rests  of 
course  almost  entirely  with  her.  The  work  which  the  American  Council  would 
like  her  to  do  would,  I  think,  fit  easily  into  your  own  plan  for  using  her. 
Specifically,  she  is  now  at  work  on  the  translation  of  Kantorovich's  book  on 
American  policy  in  China,  in  collaboration  with  Kathleen  Barnes.  We  would 
like  to  have  this  job  finished  as  soon  as  possible.  She  is  also  engaged  in  the 
preparation  of  an  article  for  the  Fab  Eastern  Survey  scheduled  for  publication 
at  the  end  of  June  or  early  in  July.  We  would  of  course  also  like  to  have  this 
job  completed.  We  would  further  like  to  have  her  contribute  occasionally  to 
the  Far  Eastern  Survey  during  the  next  year  or  two,  and  we  would  like  to 
feel  somewhat  free  in  asking  her  cooperation  on  the  various  things  in  which  she 
is  a  specialist. 

But  all  these  projects,  as  I  have  mentioned,  fit  as  well  into  your  scheme  of  things 
as  into  ours,  so  that  I  cannot  see  that  it  makes  a  great  deal  of  difference  to  us 
whether  she  carries  on  under  your  banner  or  under  ours.     One  additional  fact 


INSTITUTE   OF   PACIFIC   RELATIONS  5141 

should  be  mentioned,  namely  that  the  American  Council  probably  cannot  afford 
the  luxury  of  two  Russian  experts,  and  we  would  welcome  having  the  Pacific 
Council  take  over  the  services  of  one  of  them. 


Exhibit  No.  1015 

Council  of  the  USSR, 
Institute  of  Pacific  Relations, 
20,  Razin  Street,  Moscow,  June  11, 1936. 
Mr.  E.  C.  Carter, 

12i)  East  52n(L  Street,  New  York. 

Dear  Carter  :  I  take  this  opportunity  to  express  once  more  my  regret  that 
I  was  not  able,  as  promised,  to  send  you  our  recommendations  for  the  modification 
of  the  Yosemite  agenda  to  London.  This  delay  was  caused  by  the  absence  from 
Moscow  of  several  members  of  our  Council  which  prevented  us  from  arranging  a 
general  meeting  of  the  Council  for  the  discussion  and  approval  of  these  amend- 
ments. 

Bearing  in  mind  that  because  of  the  short  time  left  at  your  disposal  you  would 
not  be  able  to  communicate  our  comments  to  other  member  countries,  we  decided 
to  confine  them  exclusively  to  Round  Table  programme  No.  3  ( Economic  Develop- 
ment and  Nationality  Policy  of  the  Soviet  Union). 

We  would  offer  the  following  suggestions  : 

(1)  We  proposed  to  omit  entirely  from  Round  Table  No.  3  agenda  item  29,  or; 
at  least,  to  reformulate  it  radically.  The  original  wording  ("privations  suffered 
by  the  entire  population  under  the  First  5  Year  Plan")  reminds  one  of  the  unfair 
anti-soviet  statements  one  can  still  find  in  some  foreign  papers.  We  are  confident 
that  you  would  prefer  to  avoid  the  unfavourable  impression  which  would  inevita- 
bly be  produced  here  should  such  a  statement  appear  in  a  questionnaire  published. 
by  a  serious  scientific  organization. 

(2)  Item  30  should  read  :  "the  peasants  as  compared  to  the  proletariat ;  collec- 
tive farmers  as  compared  to  individual  farmers"'  instead  of  "opposed."  The  use 
of  the  word  "opposed"  could  result  in  an  absolutely  wrong  conception  of  the 
situation  which  in  no  way  corresponds  to  the  actual  relations  between  the  peas- 
antry and  the  proletariat  in  the  U.  S.  S.  R. 

(3)  In  item  40  (page  21  IPR  Notes)  the  question  "If  so,  would  she  be  willing 
to  and  would  the  other  powers  allow  her  to?"  should  be  omitted.  Reply  to  such 
a  question  could  naturally  not  be  given  by  the  Soviet  delegation  and  it  is  up  to 
the  delegates  of  corresponding  countries  to  answer  it. 

(4)  W^e  consider  unnecessary  the  inclusion  of  item  44  as  all  questions  treated 
therein  are  covered  fully  by  the  two  preceding  items. 

(5)  In  items^  40  and  45  the  relations  between  the  USSR  and  Sinkiang  are 
presented  as  a  special  separate  problem.  These  relations  should  really  be  dis- 
cussed simultaneously  with  Sino- Soviet  relations  as  a  whole. 

(6)  Referring  to  item  40,  we  were  surprized  to  see  that  the  Soviet  nationality 
policy  could  be  characterized  as  "offensive."  The  application  of  this  term  seems 
so  irrelevant  that  we  would  prefer  not  to  see  it  in  the  agenda. 

(7)  It  would  seem  more  feasible  to  transfer  discussion  of  item  47  to  Round' 
Table  No.  1  (USA).  The  same  refers  to  item  49.  The  problems  covered  should, 
be  discussed  in  Round  Table  No.  5. 

These  are  the  essential  minimum  changes  which,  we  believe,  should  be  intro- 
duced into  the  agenda. 

At  the  same  time  I  would  like  to  point  out  that  in  our  estimation  the  programme 
of  discussion  in  Round  Table  No.  5  does  not  give  adequate  consideration  to  the 
problem  of  determining  the  aggressor  in  the  Pacific.  On  the  contrary,  some  of 
the  questions  are  evidently  intended  to  present  this  problem  in  a  form  as  vague 
and  indefinite  as  possible.    As  an  example,  question  No.  4  could  be  indicated. 

Once  more  I  repeat  that  to  my  regret  I  am  not  in  the  position  to  offer  our:' 
criticism  of  other  Round  Table  topics  as  I  perfectly  realize  that  before  intro- 
ducing any  change  you  would  have  to  communicate  with  the  respective  counti-iea 
which  is  impossible  in  view  of  the  short  time  left. 
Sincerely  yours, 

Motylev, 

V.  E.  MOTYTEVt. 

EH 


5142  INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC   RELATIONS 

Exhibit  No.  1016 

Depabtment  of  State, 
Washington,  July  18,   19S6. 
Unofficial  and  Confidential. 
Deab  Carter  :  Referring  to  your  letter  of  July  8. 

It  was  a  pleasure  to  me  to  see  you  and  to  make  the  appointments  which 
you  requested  in  connection  with  your  I'ecent  visit  to  Washinston. 

With  regard  to  the  question  which  you  ask  in  relation  to  the  text  of  a  mimeo- 
graphed memorandum  on  Far  Eastern  policy  a  copy  of  which  you  enclose : 

First  of  all  a  bit  of  narrative.  Early  in  April  I  attended,  by  invitation,  a 
luncheon  where  foreign  policy  was  to  be  under  discussion.  I  was  seated  beside 
a  very  intelligent  woman  whom  I  met  for  the  first  time  who  is  active  in  the 
work  of  women's  clubs.  In  the  course  of  our  conversation  this  woman  asked 
whether  I  had  seen  a  memorandum  which  was  being  circulated  by  the  "Cause 
and  Cure  of  War",  on  American  Far  Eastern  policy.  I  said  that  I  had  not. 
She  produced  from  her  pocketbook  a  copy  of  the  memorandum  to  which  she 
referred,  with  which  the  copy  you  give  me  now  is  identical.  I  glanced  through 
that  copy  and  remarked  on  the  fact  and  that  she  considered  it  outrageous  that 
«uch  materials  were  circulated  thus  anonymously ;  she  went  on  to  say  that 
she  had  received  this  paper  along  with  a  number  of  other  papers  in  an  envelope 
of  materials  sent  her  from  the  office  of  the  Cause  and  Cure  of  War  in  New  York, 
and  that  she  thought  that  all  the  other  papers  had  some  indication  of  source 
or  authorship  or  both.  She  inquired  whether  I  considered  the  presentation  given 
in  this  memorandum  of  our  Far  Eastern  policy  in  its  actuality  a  fair  presenta- 
tion;  also  whether  I  would  care  to  express  myself  (to  her)  with  regard  to  the 
suggestions  offered  in  the  latter  part  of  the  text. 

In  the  light  of  the  above,  you  will  realize  that  it  is  very  Interesting  to  me 
to  have  the  account  which  you  give  of  the  origin  of  this  document.  You  do  not 
ask  the  same  questions  which  were  asked  of  me  on  the  occasion  to  which  I  refer ; 
and  I  shall  not  now  make  the  same  comments  that  I  made  (to  her)  at  that 
time.  You  state,  however,  that  now  you  and  Mr.  Field  would  like  to  have 
from  me  "a  full  personal  criticism  of  this  statement" ;  and  you  expressly  ask, 
"To  what  extent  does  the  .  .  .  .  statement  represent  various  schools  of  thought 
now  curi-ent  in  the  United  States? 

Before  addressing  myself  to  this  request  and  enquiry,  may  I  take  the  liberty 
of  making  the  observation  that  any  attempt  which  I  might  make  to  respond 
to  the  request  of  criticism  of  the  statement  under  reference  would  in  my  opinion 
be  of  far  greater  value  to  all  concerned  had  the  enquiry  and  the  response  been 
made  before  the  memorandum  was  circulated — in  January  1936.  I  believe 
that  it  is  regarded  as  axiomatic  that  when  statements  have  been  made  and 
there  are  later  made  statements  in  criticism  or  correction  thereof,  the  latter 
never  catch  up  with  the  former. 

I  am  sure  that  both  you  and  Mr.  Field  must  realize  that  it  is  not  possible  for 
me  to  discuss  Far  Eastern  policy  or  statements  made  with  regard  thereto  on  a 
purely  "personal"  basis.  I  am  in  an  official  position;  I  am  an  official;  I  have 
as  an  official  some  knowledge  of  and  constant  connection  with  the  question  of 
American  Far  Eastern  policy ;  and  I  cannot  separate  wliat  I  learn,  what  I  know 
and  what  I  think  as  an  official  (and  in  relation  to  public  matters)  from  what 
I  know  and  what  I  think  as  a  private  person.  It  does  not  seem  to  me  that  any 
very  useful  purpose  would  be  served  by  my  attempting- — especially  at  this  time — 
to  set  down  in  writing  something  purporting  to  be  a  "personal"  criticism  of  the 
statement  of  policy  under  reference.  IMoreover,  I  have  reached  that  point  (age?) 
where  the  exercise  of  criticism  gives  no  pleasure  and  little  if  any  gratification ; 
and,  in  addition,  "life  is  .short"  and  there  is  paucity  of  time,  I  shall,  nevertheless, 
take  time  and  make  an  effort  to  make  some  comments— because  you  ask  it  and 
because  I  hope  that  it  may  be  helpful. 

To  begin  with,  let's  forget  the  authorship  and  the  circumstances  of  origin  of 
the  memorandum.  Let  me  treat  the  matter  wholly  impersonally  and  on  the 
basis  solely  of  what  appears  in  the  memorandum. 

To  the  express  question  asked  in  the  last  sentence  of  your  letter,  quoted  abovB, 
I  can  answer  readily  that  the  statement  seems  to  me  clearly  to  set  forth  what 
are  the  concepts  and  views  of  some  "schools"  of  thought  now  current  in  the 
United  States.  Going  further,  I  may  say  that  it  does  not,  in  my  opinion,  ac- 
curately portray  or  adequately  take  account  of  the  reasoning,  the  conclusiv->ns  and 
the  courses  of  action  of  the  American  Oovcrnment  (whether  in  the  past  or  now). 
The  author  sets  out  to  state,  "First,  what  our  Far  Eastern  policy  actually  is." 


INSTITUTE    OF    PACIFIC    RELATIONS  5143 

In  that  connection,  in  the  first  paia?:raph  he  makes  it  appear  that  the  building 
up  of  our  Navy  is  intended  "to  make  enforcement"  of  our  policy  "possible  in 
the  future."  He  makes  it  appear  that  it  is  a  part  of  our  policy  to  "maintain" 
equal  trading  opportunities  for  all  foreigners  in  China  and  to  "maintain"  China's 
territorial  and  adminis